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A 


TOPOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY 

OF 

IRELAND, 

COMPRISING THE 

SEVERAL COUNTIES, CITIES, BOROUGHS, CORPORATE, MARKET, AND POST TOWNS, 

PARISHES, AND VILLAGES, 


WITH 

HISTORICAL AND STATISTICAL DESCRIPTIONS; 


EMBELLISHED WITH 


ENGRAVINGS OF THE ARMS OF THE CITIES, BISHOPRICKS, CORPORATE TOWNS, AND BOROUGHS; 
AND OF THE SEALS OF THE SEVERAL MUNICIPAL CORPORATIONS. 


SECOND EDITION. 


WITH AN 

APPENDIX, 

DESCRIBING THE ELECTORAL BOUNDARIES OF THE SEVERAL BOROUGHS, AS DEFINED 
BY THE ACT OF THE 2d & 3d OF WILLIAM IV. 


BY SAMUEL LEWIS. 


IN TWO VOLUMES. 

VOL. I. 


LONDON: 

PUBLISHED BY S. LEWIS & Co. 87 , ALDERSGATE STREET. 


MDCCCXL. 


LONDON 

GILBERT AND RIVINGTON, PRINTERS, 
ST. JOHN’S SQUARE. 


h,3 TO«I041. 

M80IQ4L 


PREFACE 


The publication of similar works on England and Wales, forming portions of a 
great national undertaking, intended to embrace Topographical Dictionaries of 
England, Wales, Ireland, and Scotland, bad in some measure prepared the 
proprietors for the difficulties which they have encountered in their recent survey 
of Ireland. The numerous county histories, and local descriptions of cities, towns, 
and districts of England and Wales, rendered the publication of their former 
works, in comparison with the present, an easy task. The extreme paucity of 
such works, in relation to Ireland, imposed the necessity of greater assiduity in 
the personal survey, and proportionately increased the expense. But if the labour 
was thus augmented, the generous encouragement which the proprietors received 
animated them to a continuance of those exertions which have at length brought 
this portion of their undertaking to a close. To distinguish all to whom they 
are indebted for assistance in affording local information and facilitating their 
researches, would present a record of the names of nearly all the most intelligent 
resident gentlemen in Ireland : this fact, therefore, must be admitted as an apology 
for expressing, in a general acknowledgment, their gratitude for such disinterested 
services. They can with confidence assure their numerous subscribers, that, in the 
discharge of their arduous duties, they have unremittingly endeavoured to present 
every fact of importance tending to illustrate the local history, or convey useful 

a 2 


iv 


PREFACE. 


information respecting the past or present state, of Ireland : fabulous tales and 
improbable traditions have generally been intentionally omitted ; the chief aim 
being to give, in a condensed form, a faithful and impartial description of each 
place. 

To render the account of every town and place of importance as correct as 
possible, prior to its being finally put to press, proof sheets were forwarded to those 
resident gentlemen who had previously furnished local information, in order that, in 
their revisal of them, they might introduce any changes which had subsequently 
taken place, or improvements that might be at that time in progress : these 
were, with very few exceptions, promptly examined and returned, but in 
some instances inevitable delay was occasioned by the absence of the parties to 
whom they were addressed. Though this essential precaution may have retarded 
the publication, it has conduced materially to the accuracy of the work. For a 
similar reason, the time employed in the survey has been longer than was at first 
anticipated ; it having been thought advisable that the persons engaged in that 
arduous and important service should protract the period originally prescribed for 
their researches, rather than compromise the interests of the work by omitting 
to avail themselves of every possible source of intelligence. 

The unsettled orthography of names rendered it somewhat difficult to select 
a standard of arrangement calculated to afford facility of reference. That mode 
of spelling was therefore adopted which, after careful examination and inquiry, 
appeared to be sanctioned by general usage ; and where a name was found to 
be spelt in two or more ways, a reference has been given from one to the other. 
On this head, two points may require explanation, as a guide to reference : — 
The final l in the prefix Kill has been dropped when followed by a consonant, 
and retained when followed by a vowel. The ultimate of the prefix Bally (a 
corruption of Baile ) is written variously, the letter i being sometimes substituted 
for y, but the latter is by far the more general ; in respect to names compounded 
of this and other simple terms, the non-discovery of a place under the head 
Bally will lead to the inference that it is given as Balli. 

It is necessary to state that all distances are given in Irish miles ; glebes, and 
every other extent of lands, except when otherwise expressed, in Irish plantation 
acres ; grants and sums of money, unless the standard be specified, may be 
generally regulated, as regards their amount, by the period to which they refer, 
in its relation to the year 1826 , when the assimilation of the currency took place. 
Numerous Reports to Parliament, of recent date, have been made available for 
supplying much useful statistical information. The Ordnance survey, so far as it 
has extended, has been adopted as the best authority for stating the number of acres 


PREFACE. 


v 


which each parish comprises. As regards other parishes, the number of acres given 
is that applotted under the tithe composition act, which in some cases embraces the 
entire superficies of the parish, in others excludes an unproductive tract of mountain 
waste, of which the estimated value is too small to admit of its being brought under 
composition. The amount of parochial tithes was derived from parliamentary returns 
of the sums for which they have been compounded. In case of a union of parishes 
forming one benefice, and of which the incumbent only receives a portion of the 
tithes, the parishes constituting the benefice are enumerated under the head of 
that which gives name to it ; the tithes of the latter of which, and their application, 
are first stated ; then, the gross tithes of the benefice payable to the incumbent, 
the appropriation of the remaining portions of the tithes of the other parishes 
being detailed under their respective heads. 

The Presbyterian congregations are divided into classes corresponding with the 
sum which each receives from the annual parliamentary grant called the Regium 
Donum. Those in connection with the Synod of Ulster, Presbytery of Antrim, and 
Remonstrant Synod, consist each of three classes ; each congregation of the first 
class has an annual grant of <£92. 6. 2. (British currency) ; of the second, £69. 4. 8. ; 
and of the third, £46. 3. 1. The Presbyterian Synod of Ireland, generally styled 
the Seceding Synod, is also divided into congregations of the first, second, and third 
classes, respectively receiving £64. 12, 4., £46. 3. 1., and £36. 18. 6. each per annum. 
Each congregation is designated in the work as being of one of these three classes, 
thus indicating the amount which it receives. Those in connection with the 
Synod of Munster, few in number, not being classed, the sum which each receives 
is stated. 

The census of 1831 has been adopted with reference to the population and 
number of houses ; and the Reports of the Commissioners on Ecclesiastical Revenue 
and Patronage, of Ecclesiastical Inquiry, and of Public Instruction, have furnished 
much valuable matter relative to the Church. The number of children educated in 
the several schools in connection with the Board of National Education is given 
from the Report of the Commissioners. With respect to other schools, the numbers 
are generally those reported by the Commissioners of Public Instruction, which, 
being the numbers entered upon the books of the different schools, must be regarded 
as exceeding those in actual attendance. In cases where the information obtained 
on the spot materially differed from that contained in the Reports, the former 
has been adopted; but the introduction of the National system has caused such 
numerous alterations, as to render it extremely difficult to state with any degree 
of precision the exact number of children at present receiving instruction in 
each parish. 


VI 


PREFACE. 


The Arms and Seals of the several cities, boroughs, corporate towns, bishop* 
ricks, &c., are engraved from drawings made from impressions in wax, furnished 
by the respective corporate bodies ; and, notwithstanding they have generally been 
either enlarged or reduced to one scale, for the sake of uniformity, great care has 
been taken to preserve, in every instance, an exact facsimile of the original. 

The Proprietors cannot indulge the hope that, in a work of such magnitude, 
containing notices so numerous and diversified, some errors may not be found : 
indeed, the information collected upon the spot, even from the most intelligent 
persons, has frequently been so contradictory, as to require much labour and 
perseverance to reconcile and verify it. They take this opportunity of grate- 
fully acknowledging the numerous communications which they have received from 
gentlemen who have kindly favoured them with additional information since the 
publication of the former Edition. 


A 


TOPOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY 

OF 

IRELAND. 


ABB 


ABB 


A.BBEY, a parish and village, in the barony of Bur- 
ren, county of Clare, and province of Munster ; con- 
taining, with the post-town of Burren, 2493 inhabitants, 
of which number, 128 are in the village. This place, 
which is situated on the shores of the harbour of Bur- 
ren in the bay of Galway, and on the road from Galway 
to Ennistymon, derives its name from an ancient Cis- 
tertian abbey founded here, either by Donald O’Brien, 
King of Limerick, in 1194, or by his son Donough Car- 
brae O’Brien, in the year 1200. This establishment, 
designated the abbey of Corcomroe, Corcomruadh, or 
De Petra fertili, and called also Gounamonagh, or “ the 
Glen of the Monks,” is said to have been a sumptuous 
edifice, dedicated to the Blessed Virgin, and dependent 
on or connected with the abbey of Suire, or Innislau- 
naght, in the county of Tipperary : it was afterwards 
made subject to the celebrated abbey of Furness, in 
Lancashire, and had a cell annexed to it in Kilshanny, 
in the adjoining barony of Corcomroe. The remains 
are extensive, forming an interesting object as seen from 
the road, and presenting evident traces of its former 
splendour : a fine pointed arch is still tolerably perfect, 
and is particularly admired for the beauty of its pro- 
portions ; and there are some remains of the stately 
tomb of the King of Thomond, who was killed in a bat- 
tle fought near this place, in 1267. The parish extends 
along the southern shore of the bay, on the confines of 
the county of Galway, and comprises 5545 statute 
acres, as applotted under the tithe act. The greater 
portion is under tillage ; the land along the coast pro- 
duces good crops of wheat, but that in the interior is 
hilly and unproductive, adapted only for grazing ; the 
system of agriculture has been greatly improved through 
the exertions of Burton Bindon, Esq., and Messrs. 
Hynes and Moran. There are some limestone quarries 
of excellent quality, and sea manure is found in abun- 
dance on the shore. The principal seats are Finvarra 
House, the residence of — Skerret, Esq. ; and Curranroe, 
of Burton Bindon, Esq. The small port of New Quay 
is situated about a quarter of a mile to the north of the 
village of Burren ; a constant intercourse is kept up 
with Galway, on the opposite side of the bay, and a con- 
Vol. I.— 1 


siderable trade in corn and fish is carried on; the boats 
employed in the Galway bay fishery rendezvous here, 
and more than 100 of them have at one time taken 
shelter in stormy weather. The port affords great fa- 
cilities for commerce, as vessels of considerable burden 
can approach at any time of the tide : the coast is well 
adapted for sea bathing. The great oyster bed, called 
the Red Bank, to the east of Burren, and said to be one 
of the most extensive on the Irish coast, was established 
some years since by Mr. Bindon, and is now in great 
celebrity : it is stocked with young oysters, chiefly from 
Connemara, aud more than 150 persons, chiefly women 
and children, are regularly employed. A considerable 
trade is also carried on in sea-weed with the farmers of 
the interior, which has been greatly increased since the 
construction of a new line of road from this place lead- 
ing through the parishes of Kinvarra and Killeny, in the 
county of Galway, and of Kilkeady and Incbicronan, in 
the county of Clare. The harbour of New Quay, or 
Burren, called also Curranroe, is one of the several in- 
lets of the bay of Galway : it lies to the south of Augh- 
nish Point, and extends four miles up to Curranroe 
Bridge. The late Fishery Board built a small quay in 
the narrow part of the channel, at the village of New 
Quay (so called from the construction of this quay, 
about eight years since), a little to the east of an older 
one, of which there are still some remains : vessels of 
100 tons’ burden can come close up to it and deliver 
their cargoes. A court is held at Burren by the senes- 
chal of the manor, about once in six weeks, for the re- 
covery of small debts. The parish is in the diocese of 
Kilfenora, and is a rectory, partly without provision 
for the cure of souls : the tithes, with the exception of 
those of the townlands of Aughnish, Finvarra, Behagh, 
and Kilmacrane, which are annexed to the parish of 
Kilcorney, are impropriate in Pierse Creagh, Esq., and 
amount to £120. In the R.C. divisions it is the head of 
a union or district, comprising also the parish of Ought- 
manna ; the chapel is situated in the village of Behagh, 
and it is intended to establish a school connected with 
it. There is a pay school, in which are about 30 boys 
and 15 girls. On the summit of Rosraly mountain is 

B 


ABB 


ABB 


a well springing from the solid rock ; it is dedicated to 
St. Patrick, and produces water of the purest quality, 
which is conveyed by pipes to the road side at the foot 
of the mountain. — See Burren. 

ABBEYDORNEY, a village, in the parish of O’Dor- 
ney, barony of Clanmaurice, county of Kerry, and 
province of Munster, 7^ miles (N. N. E.) from Tralee ; 
containing 338 inhabitants. This place, which is situated 
at the intersection of the old and new roads from Tralee 
to Listowel, takes its name from the ancient abbey of 
Kirie Eleyson, or O’Dorney, founded here in 1154 by 
some person unknown, for Cistertian monks, who were 
brought from the abbey of Magio, in the county of Lime- 
rick; the abbot was a lord in parliament. The remains are 
situated a little to the north of the village, but retain few 
vestiges of its original character. The village, which con- 
sists mostly of thatched houses, is a constabulary police 
station ; a penny post from Tralee has been established, 
and a manorial court is held occasionally. The 
R. C. parochial chapel, built here in 1826, at an expense 
of £600, is a spacious and handsome edifice fronted with 
stone, in the later English style, and embellished with a 
fine altar-piece and painting. Near the village is a flour- 
mill. — See O'Dorney. 

ABBEYFEALE, a parish, in the Glenquin Division 
of the barony of Upper Connello, county of Lime- 
rick, and province of Munster, 10 miles (W. by S.) 
from Newcastle, on the mail coach road from Lime- 
rick to Tralee ; containing 4242 inhabitants, of which 
number, 607 are in the village. This place obviously 
derives its name from a Cistertian abbey founded here, 
in 1188, by Brien O’Brien, and from its situation on 
the river Feale : the abbey, in 1209, became a cell to 
that of Monasternanagh, or Nenay, in the barony of 
Pubblebrien. The village, situated in a wild mountain- 
ous district, was almost inaccessible, but since the con- 
struction of the new lines of road, great alterations 
have taken place ; great improvement in the condition 
of the people has resulted from the facilities thus afford- 
ed of taking their little produce to market ; and the in- 
habitants are now industriously and profitably employ- 
ed. Here is a large and commodious hotel, and some 
respectable houses, but the greater number are thatched 
cabins. The village has a penny post dependent on 
Newcastle, and is a constabulary police station. Fairs 
are held on the 29th of June and Sept. 24th, chiefly 
for cattle, sheep, and pigs. The parish comprises 17*659 
statute acres, as applotted under the tithe act, of which 
1620 acres are arable, 12,800 pasture, and about 3500 
waste land and bog : a considerable portion of the 
waste land is gradually being brought into cultiva- 
tion, and the system of agriculture is steadily im- 
proving. From long previous neglect, the lands in many 
parts have become marshy and cold, and in some places 
are covered to the depth of several feet with a loose 
turbary, which, in the total absence of timber, affords 
excellent fuel, of which great quantities are sent to 
Newcastle, whence limestone is brought in return and 
is burnt with coal of indifferent quality procured here 
for that purpose only. The farms have generally large 
dairies, and a considerable quantity of butter is sent to 
Cork and Limerick. On the great line of road from 
Limerick to Tralee is Wellesley bridge, a handsome 
structure, about a mile and a half to the west of the 
village ; and at the same distance to the east is Goulburn 


bridge. The new line of road leading through the heart 
of the mountains from Abbeyfeale to Glin, a distance 
of 12 miles, was opened after the spring assizes of 1836, 
previously to which there was scarcely any possibility 
of access to this secluded district, which for that reason 
was, in the year 1822, selected as their head-quarters 
by the Rockites, who dated their proclamations “ From 
our camp at Abbeyfeale.” The living is a vicarage, in 
the diocese of Limerick, and in the patronage of Lord 
Southwell, during whose legal incapacity the Crown 
presents ; the rectory is impropriate in Richard Ellis 
and Thomas G. Bateman, Esqrs. The tithes amount 
to £320, payable to the impropriators ; the clerical 
duties of the parish are performed by the curate of an 
adjoining parish, who is paid by Lord Southwell. The 
church, a small edifice in the early English style, with 
a lofty square tower, was erected near the village in 
1812, for which the late Board of First Fruits gave 
£800. There is neither glebe-house nor glebe. The 
R. C. parish is co-extensive with that of the Established 
Church ; the chapel, situated in the village, was erected 
on the site of the ancient monastery, a small portion of 
which is incorporated with it. There are four pay 
schools, in which are about 100 boys and 50 girls. On 
the bank of the river, one mile from the village, are the 
ruins of Purt Castle, built by a branch of the Geraldine 
family, to command the pass of the Feale ; it is strongly 
built, and occupies a bold situation. 

ABBEYGORMAGAN, a parish, partly in the barony 
of Leitrim, but chiefly in that of Longford, county of 
Galway, and province of Connaught, 85 miles (w. 
by N.) from Eyrecourt, on the road from Banagher to 
Tralee ; containing 2858 inhabitants. This place, called 
also " Monaster O’Gormagan,” or “ de Via Nova,” de- 
rives its name from a monastery founded here for 
canons regular of the order of St. Augustine, and dedi- 
cated to the Blessed Virgin, by O’Gormagan, head of 
that sept, which at the dissolution was granted by 
Hen. VIII. to Ulick, first Earl of Clanricarde. The 
parish comprises 8865 statute acres, as applotted under 
the tithe act : about one-third is arable. Brooklawn 
is the seat of T. Blake, Esq. It is in the diocese 
of Clonfert ; the rectory is partly appropriate to the set, 
the deanery, and the archdeaconry, and to the prebends 
of Fenore, Kilquaine and Kilteskill, in the cathedral 
church of St. Brandon, Clonfert, and partly united 
with the vicarage, which forms a portion of the union 
of Kiltormer. The tithes amount to £218. 15. 4^., of 
which £23. 1. 6f. is payable to the bishop, £4. 12. 3f. 
to the dean, £13. 16. 11. to the archdeacon, £50. 15. 4^. 
to the prebendary of Fenore, £8. 6. if. to the preben- 
dary of Kilquaine, £10. 3. 1. to the prebendary of Kil- 
teskill, and £ LOS to the incumbent. In the R. C. divi- 
sions it is the head of a union or district, comprising 
also the parish of Killoran, in each of which there is a 
chapel : that for this parish is situated at Mullagh. 
There are two private pay schools, in which are about 
100 boys and 46 girls. 

ABBEY-JERPOINT, a parish (anciently a corporate 
town), in the barony of Knocktopher, county of Kil- 
kenny, and province of Leinster, 1^ mile (W. S. W.) 
from Thomastown ; containing 367 inhabitants. This 
place is situated on the river Nore, and derives its name 
from an abbey founded here, in 11 SO, byDonogh O’Do- 
noghoe, King of Ossory, for monks of the Cistertian 


ABB 


ABB 


order, whom he removed from a distant part of Ossory. 
It was dedicated to the Blessed Virgin, and was amply 
endowed by the royal founder, who was interred here in 
1185 ; and its possessions were subsequently confirmed 
by John, Lord of Ireland. In 1202, Felix O’Dullany, 
Bishop of Ossory, was interred here, at whose tomb 
many miracles are said to have been wrought ; and the 
abbey became a favourite place of sepulture with all the 
great families in the surrounding country. The abbot 
was a lord in parliament, but in 1395 obtained exemp- 
tion from his attendance, on the plea that his house 
was subject to the abbey of Baltinglass, the abbot of 
which performed the parliamentary duties. The abbey 
continued to flourish till its dissolution in the 31st of 
Hen. VIII., when it was surrendered into the king’s 
hands by Oliver Grace, the last abbot ; and its posses- 
sions were subsequently granted by Philip and Mary 
to James, Earl of Ormonde, and his heirs male, to be 
held in capite at an annual rent of £49. 3. 9. The pre- 
sent ruins are very extensive, and display some fine 
specimens of the later Norman passing into the early 
English style of architecture, but are rapidly falling to 
decay through neglect and wanton injury : the most 
perfect portion is a well-proportioned, square, embat- 
tled tower. The parish is in the diocese of Ossory, and 
is a vicarage and one of the eighteen denominations, or 
reputed parishes, that constitute the union of Burn- 
church : the tithes amount to £70. In the R. C. divi- 
sions it is part of the union or district of Thomas- 
town. 

ABBEYKNOCKMOY, a parish, in the barony of 
Tyaquin, county of Galway, and province of Con- 
naught, 7 miles (S. E.) from Tuam, on the road from 
Newtownbellew to Galway; containing 2866 inhabit- 
ants. This place derives its name from the abbey of 
Knockmoy, called by some writers Cnoc Mugha, sig- 
nifying in the Irish language “the Hill of Slaughter,” 
and by others Monasterium de Colle Victoria. It was 
founded here, in 1189, by Cathol O’Connor, surnamed 
Croove-Dearg, or “ the Red Hand,” King of Connaught, 
in fulfilment of a vow made by him previously to a bat- 
tle with the English forces under Almeric de St. Law- 
rence, in which he obtained the victory ; and was oc- 
cupied by Cistertian monks from the abbey of Boyle. 
In 1620, its site and extensive possessions were granted 
by Jas. I. to Valentine Blake, Esq., and are now the 
property of Francis Blake Forster, Esq., of Ashfield. 
Near the summit of Knockroe hill is a subterraneous 
river, or stream, which, by an opening being made, 
now supplies the neighbourhood with water : near the 
top of this hill are several limestone caverns. There are 
about 500 acres of bog ; also large flour and oatmeal 
mills, called the Moyne mills, the property of Mr. Fras. 
Wade. The gentlemen’s seats are Moyne, the residence 
of M. J. Browne, Esq., a handsome mansion pleasantly 
situated in a fine demesne ; Newtown, of Jas. Kelly, 
Esq. ; and the Abbey, belonging to F. B. Forster, 
Esq. The intended railway from Dublin to the western 
coast is proposed to terminate here, with branches to 
Galway, Tuam, and the county of Mayo. Fairs are 
held on June 24th, Aug. 21st, and Nov. 1st. There 
is a constabulary police station at Moyne ; and petty 
sessions are also held there. The parish is in the dio- 
cese of Tuam, and is a rectory and vicarage, forming 
part of the union of Killereran : the tithes amount to 
3 


£220. In the R. C. divisions it is the head of a union 
or district, comprising also the parish of Monivae, and 
containing a chapel in each, situated at Abbey and Rye 
Hill ; the former is a neat edifice with a steeple, recently 
erected on an eminence. At Briarsfield is a school, in 
which 70 boys and 43 girls are instructed. There are 
some very interesting remains of the ancient abbey, 
which show it to have been extensive in its dimensions 
and elegant in its design : several capitals of pillars 
beautifully sculptured lie scattered about the church- 
yard ; the chancel is vaulted with stone, and on the 
north wall is the tomb of the founder, ornamented with 
some rude paintings in fresco, which, from some inscrip- 
tions on the walls, still legible, appear to be the work of 
the 13th century ; they are partly defaced, and are 
rapidly going to decay. 

ABBEYLARAGH, a parish, in the barony of Gra- 
nard, county of Longford, and province of Leinster, 
6| miles (N. W. by W.) from Castlepollard, on the road 
from Granard to Dublin ; containing 3112 inhabitants, 
of which number, 316 are in the village. The monastery 
of Lerha, at this place, is said to have been founded by 
St. Patrick, who appointed St. Guasacht its first abbot: 
it was refounded for monks of the Cistertian order, and 
dedicated to the Blessed Virgin, in 1205, by Lord 
Richard Tuit, who settled here soon after the first inva- 
sion of Ireland by the English, and being killed by the 
fall of a tower at Athlone, was interred here in 1211. 
The parish is divided into two nearly equal parts by that 
of Granard, which intersects it from north to south; 
the eastern division is situated on Lough Keinaile, and 
the western on Lough Gownagh; both together comprise 
5715 statute acres, as applotted under the tithe act. 
The lands are chiefly under tillage ; the principal crops 
are wheat and oats ; and there are large tracts of bog 
and abundance of limestone. The gentlemen’s seats are 
Newgrove, the residence of R. J. Hinds, Esq. ; Ferns- 
boro’, of A. Burrowes, Esq., situated in a finely planted 
demesne ; and Kilrea, of H. Dopping, Esq., pleasantly 
seated on Lough Gownagh. The village, in 1831, con- 
tained 66 houses : a market and fairs are about to be 
established here by Capt. Ball, to whom the fee simple 
partly belongs, and who is making great improvements. 
Here is a station of the constabulary police. The living 
is a vicarage, in the diocese of Ardagh, and in the 
patronage of the Bishop ; the rectory is impropriate in 
the Marquess of Westmeath and Messrs. Armstrong. 
The tithes amount to £260, of which £110 is payable 
to the Marquess of Westmeath, £45 to Messrs. Arm- 
strong, and £105 to the vicar. The church, a neat 
plain edifice, was erected about thirty years since ; and 
divine service is performed twice in the week in two 
school-houses, respectively situated at the extremities of 
the parish. There is a glebe-house, with four acres of 
glebe. In the R. C. divisions the western portion of the 
parish is included in the union or district of Columbkill ; 
and to the eastern is united the northern part of the 
parish of Granard ; the chapel in the village is a large 
and well-built edifice. There are two schools, in which 
37 boys and 40 girls receive gratuitous education ; and 
three pay schools, in which are 9B boys and 65 girls. 
Of the ancient monastery, a fine arch supporting one 
side of the conventual church, several smaller arches (all 
of which, except one, are blocked up), and a winding 
staircase still entire, are the only remaining portions. 

B 2 


ABB 


ABB 


ABBEYLEIX, a market and post-town, and a parish, 
partly in the barony of Fassadining, county of Kil- 
kenny, and partlyinthe baronyof Maryborough-West, 
but chiefly in that of Cullinagh, Queen’s county, and 
province of Leinster, 7 miles (S. S. E.) from Marybo- 
rough, and 47§ miles (S. W.) from Dublin ; containing 
5990 inhabitants, of which number 1009 are in the town. 
This place, called also Clonkyne Leix, or De Lege Dei, 
was the site of a monastery founded about the year 600, 
and refounded and dedicated to the Blessed Virgin, in 
1 183, by Conogher or Corcheger O’More, who placed in 
it monks of the Cistertian order from Baltinglass, in 
the county of Wicklow, and was himself interred within 
its precincts. The town adjoining it, which took its name 
from the abbey, gradually rose to be the principal place 
in the territory of Leix, now Queen’s county. In the 
5tli of Elizabeth, the abbey and some of its possessions 
were granted to Thomas, Earl of Ormonde, and now 
form part of the estate of Viscount De Vesci. The town 
is situated on the mail road from Dublin, through Athy, 
to Cashel, and contains about 140 houses : the late Lord 
De Vesci caused the old town to be entirely rased, and 
laid out the present on a more eligible site. There are 
two woollen manufactories ; a large worsted mill and 
factory has been recently established near the town, 
which affords employment to about 500 persons in 
combing, weaving, and spinning yarn ; and on the river 
Nore, which passes near the town, is a boulting-mill. 
The market is on Saturday ; and fairs are held on Jan. 
26th, March 17th, May 5th, July 20th, Sept. 20th, and 
Nov. 4th. The market-house is a good building, erected 
by Lord De Vesci in 1836. The quarter sessions are 
held in the town in June and December ; petty sessions 
are held every Saturday ; a court is also held by the 
seneschal of the manor ; and here is a chief constabulary 
police station. The sessions-house is a commodious 
building, and a new bridewell has been erected. 

The parish comprises 11,974 statute acres, as ap plot- 
ted under the tithe act : there are about 400 acres of bog 
and 300 of woodland ; the soil is in general light and 
sandy, and the system of agriculture is improving. 
Limestone of very good quality abounds, and is quarried 
for building and for burning into lime ; there is also a 
white freestone quarry, and excellent potters’ clay is 
found here. The principal seats are Abbey Leix, the re- 
sidence of Viscount De Vesci, a spacious and handsome 
mansion, pleasantly situated in a demesne of about 1135 
statute acres, embellished with thriving plantations and 
with timber of stately growth ; Knapton, of the Hon. 
Mrs. Vesey; Farmley, of G. Roe, Esq.; Thornberry, of 
R. White, Esq. ; the Vicarage, of the Hon. and Rev. W. 
Wingfield; Rathmoyle House, of J. Butler, Esq.; Fruit 
Lawn, of Messrs. Leech ; Capponellan, of A. L. Swan, 
Esq. ; Spring-Mount House, of the Rev. — Nixon ; 
Nore Ville, of F. Woodcock, Esq. ; Killenney, of I. 
Maher, Esq. ; Bell View, of W. Bell, Esq. ; and Oat- 
lands, of I. Ferguson, Esq. The living is a vicarage, in 
the diocese of Leighlin, and in the patronage of Viscount 
De Vesci, who is impropriator of the rectory. The 
tithes amount to £507. 13. 10^., of which £338. 9. 2f. 
is payable to the impropriator, and the remainder to the 
vicar. The parish church, recently erected, is a very 
handsome building, with a vaulted roof and an elegant 
spire : the old church, close to Lord De Vesci’s man- 
sion, is used only during summer evenings. The glebe- 
4 


house was built in 1810, for which the Board of First 
Fruits gave £400 ; the glebe comprises 5 acres. In the 
R. C. divisions this parish is partly in the diocese of 
Ossory, but chiefly in that of Leighlin ; the former in 
the union or district of Ballyragget, and the latter the 
head of a district, comprising also the parish of Bally- 
roan, and containing a chapel in each : that in Abbey- 
leix is a spacious structure, with a good school-house 
attached. There is a place of worship for Wesleyan Me- 
thodists. There are a parochial and an infants’ school, 
a work school for girls, and another school at Knapton ; 
they are chiefly supported by Lord and Lady De Vesci, 
and a school-house was erected for the parochial school by 
Lord De Vesci, at an expense of £250 : there are also 
two pay schools. An almshouse for poor widows is 
maintained by Lady De Vesci ; and there are a dispen- 
sary, an infirmary, a savings’ bank, and loan and clothing 
funds. The tomb of Malachi O’More, with an inscrip- 
tion, is in the gardens of Lord De Vesci, near the site of 
the old abbey. At Clonking are the remains of the old 
parish church ; near the town are vestiges of an extensive 
Danish fort, and in the parish are several raths. 

ABBEYMAHON, a parish, in the barony of Ibane 
and Barryroe, county of Cork, and province of Mun- 
ster, l-§ mile (E. S. E.) from Timoleague ; containing 
3563 inhabitants. This parish is situated on the north- 
west side of Courtmacsherry bay, on the south coast : 
it formerly constituted part of the parish of Lislee, from 
which it was separated on the erection of an abbey by 
some Cistertian monks, which stood close to the shore, 
and was endowed by Lord Barry with 18 ploughlands, 
but was not entirely completed at the general suppression 
of monasteries, when its possessions were granted to the 
Boyle family, and are still the property of the Earl of 
Shannon. The parish comprises 3475 statute acres : 
there is a considerable extent of bog, which supplies 
plenty of fuel. The ordinary manures are sand and sea 
wrack afforded by the shore of the bay, in collecting 
which, during the season, numerous persons find em- 
ployment. The living is an impropriate cure, in the 
diocese of Ross, and in the patronage of the Earl of 
Shannon, in whom the rectory is wholly impropriate, 
and who allows the curate a voluntary stipend; the 
tithes having merged into the rent, the parish is now 
considered tithe-free. Divine service is performed in a 
private house licensed by the bishop. In the R. C. divi- 
sions this parish is the head of a district, comprising 
also Lislee, Kilsillagh, and Donoghmore, and containing 
two chapels at Abbeymahon and Lislee. The parochial 
schools are principally supported by the Cork Diocesan 
Association ; the school-house was given by C. Leslie, 
Esq. The ruins of the abbey consist of the walls of the 
church and a square tower mantled with ivy. 

ABBEYSHRULE, or ABBEYSHRUEL, a parish, 
in the barony of Abbeyshrule, county of Longford, 
and province of Leinster, mile (S. W.) from Colehill, 
on the road from Longford to Moyvore ; containing 
1233 inhabitants. It is situated on the river Inney, 
which divides it into two parts, connected by a stone 
bridge of ten arches ; and derives its name from the 
monastery of Shrowl, or Shruel, founded here prior to 
the tenth century, and refounded for monks of the 
Cistertian order and dedicated to the Blessed Virgin by 
O’Ferrall, according to Sir James Ware’s conjecture, 
about the year 1150 or 1152. The monastery subsisted 


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till the dissolution, when it was granted to James, Earl 
of Roscommon ; and, in 1569, it was granted by Queen 
Elizabeth to Sir Robert Dillon, Chief Justice of the 
Common Pleas. In the village is a large flour-mill, also 
a station of the constabulary police, and a fair is 
held on the first Wednesday after Trinity. The 
Royal Canal passes through it, and at a short dis- 
tance is carried over the river Inney by a handsome 
aqueduct. The parish comprises 1390 statute acres, a 
small portion of which is bog, but scarcely sufficient to 
supply the inhabitants with fuel : on the confines of the 
county there is a quarry of black stone. It is in the 
diocese of Ardagh, and is a rectory and vicarage, form- 
ing part of the union of Tashinny : the tithes amount 
to £87. 13. 10§. In the R. C. divisions it is part of 
the union or district of Carrickedmond, or Teiglishinod; 
the chapel is situated in the village. There are two 
schools aided by grants from the Countess of Rosse, the 
rector, and the Ardagh Association, which afford in- 
struction to 45 boys and 45 girls ; and a pay school of 
20 boys and 20 girls. Some remains of the ancient 
abbey yet exist ; and there is a large square tower, to 
which is attached an extensive cemetery. 

ABBEYSIDE, a village and suburb of the borough 
of Dungarvan, in the barony of DECiES-without-DRUM, 
county of Waterford, and province of Munster, con- 
taining 1859 inhabitants. This place derives its name 
from the remains of an ancient abbey, which is des- 
cribed in the article on Dungarvan ; it is situated on 
an inlet of the bay, and is included within the electoral 
boundary of the borough of Dungarvan. The R. C. 
chapel for the district of East Dungarvan is situated 
here. 

ABBEYSLUNAGH.— See INNISLONNAGH. 

ABBEYSTROWRY,a parish, in the Eastern Division 
of the barony of West Carbery, county of Cork, and 
province of Munster ; containing, with part of the 
market and post-town of Skibbereen, 5570 inhabitants. 
This parish is situated near the southern coast, on the 
road from Cork to Baltimore, and is intersected by the 
river lien. It contains 9362 statute acres, as applotted 
under the tithe act ; and is said to derive its name from 
a religious house, the ruins of which are situated close 
to the northern bank of the lien, one mile west from 
Skibbereen, but of the origin of which no particulars 
are on record. About one-third is waste land or bog, 
the former consisting of rocky elevations which in some 
parts afford tolerable pasturage ; the bog is only of 
small extent, and peat is becoming somewhat scarce. 
Generally the system of agriculture is not much im- 
proved : the heavy old wooden plough is still used. 
The substratum is entirely of the schistus formation : 
there are quarries of excellent slate at Derrygoole, 
but not much worked ; and throughout the parish is 
found clay-slate for building and repairing the roads. 
There are numerous large and handsome residences : 
the principal are Hollybrook, the seat of R. Becher, 
Esq. ; Lakelands, of T. J. Hungerford, Esq. ; Coronea, 
of Mrs. Marmion ; Gortnamucalla, of H. Newman, 
Esq. $ Carriganare, of Mrs. Evans ; Laghartydawley, 
of A. M'Carthy, Esq. ; Mill House, of J. Clark, Esq. ; 
Clover Hill, of J. ^weetnam, Esq. ; Weston, of D. H. 
Clarke, Esq. ; the glebe-house, the residence of the 
Rev. R. B. Townsend j Abbey ville, the seat of G. 
Brenham, Esq. ; and Rossfort, of J. Ross, Esq. ; 

5 


The living is a vicarage, in the diocese of Ross, and 
in the patronage of J. S. Townsend, Esq., the im- 
propriator of the rectory : the tithes amount to £647, 
of which £200 is payable to the impropriator, £20 to 
the vicar (under an appropriation grant of the late Earl 
of Shannon), and the remainder to the lessees of Col. 
Townsend. The church, situated in the town of Skib- 
bereen, is a large edifice, in the early English style of 
architecture, with a lofty square tower at the east end : 
it was built on a new site in 1827, at an expense of 
£1200, of which £900 was given by the late Board of 
First Fruits ; and the Ecclesiastical Commissioners have 
recently granted £180 for its repair. The glebe-house, 
near the town, was built in 1824, by aid of a gift of 
£450 and a loan of £50 from the same Board, on a 
glebe of fifteen acres purchased by the Board and sub- 
ject to a rent of £13. 7. per annum. In the R. C. 
divisions this parish is united to those of Creagh and 
Tullagh, under the denomination of the union of Skib- 
bereen : the chapel in that town is a spacious and hand- 
some structure, in the Grecian style, with an elegant 
altar ; there is also a chapel in the parish of Tullagh. 
The male and female parochial schools are situated near 
the church, and were built in 1825, at the expense of 
the vicar. An infants' school was built in 1835, and is 
supported by subscription ; and there is a Sunday 
school for both sexes, under the superintendence of the 
vicar. — See Skibbereen. 

ABINGTON, a parish, partly in the barony of 
Owney-Arra, county of Tipperary, partly in the 
county of the city of Limerick, and partly in the 
barony of Clanwilliam, but chiefly in that of Owney- 
Beg, county of Limerick, and province of Munster, 
7 miles (E. by S.) from Limerick ; containing 7564 in- 
habitants. This place, anciently called Wotheney or 
Woney, attained considerable importance at a very early 
period, and was celebrated for a Cistertian abbey found- 
ed, according to some, in 1189, and to others, in 1205, 
and provided with monks from the abbey of Savignac, in 
France, by Theobald Fitz- Walter, Lord of Carrick, and 
ancestor of the Butlers, Earls of Ormonde, who was 
interred here in 1206. To this abbey King John made 
extensive grants of land in the kingdom of Limerick, 
with the advowsons of several parishes ; and the abbot 
sat as a spiritual peer in the Irish House of Lords. 
The abbey, with all its possessions, was granted by 
Elizabeth, in the 5th year of her reign, to Capt. Walshe, 
who erected a handsome modern house near the ancient 
buildings ; but in the war of 1641 these estates were 
forfeited to the Crown. There are only some small frag- 
ments remaining, situated near the present church, and 
also a portion of the mansion of the Walshe family; but 
neither are adequate to afford any idea of their original 
character. The parish comprises about 32,200 statute 
acres, of which 12,920 are in the county of Tipperary, 
70S are in the liberties of the city of Limerick, and the 
remainder are in the county of Limerick : of its entire 
extent, 10,317 statute acres are applotted under the 
tithe act. Towards its north-eastern boundary it in- 
cludes a large portion of the Sliebh Phelim mountains, 
which rise to a considerable height, in many parts afford- 
ing good pasturage for numerous herds of young cattle 
and flocks of sheep. The fields are generally well fenced, 
and the lands are in a good state of cultivation. There 
are some excellent meadows, mostly attached to the 


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dairy farms ; and the farm-houses are comfortable and 
of neat appearance. The seats are the Glebe-House, the 
residence of the Very Rev. Thos. P. Le Fanu, Dean of 
Emly 3 Borroe Ville, of Dr, Wilkins ; Maddebuoy House, 
of Capt. Wickham ; Balovarane, of T. Holland, Esq. 5 
Ash Row, of T. Evans, Esq. 3 Farnane, of Mrs. Costello 5 
Lillypot, of Mrs. Bradshaw ; Castle Comfort, of the Rev. 
T. O’Brien Costello ; and the Deer-Park, the property of 
Lord Carbery. Fairs are held on May 29th and Aug. 
31st ; besides which there are fairs at Murroe on April 
29th and Oct. 27t.h. Petty sessions are held every alter- 
nate Tuesday ; and here is a station of the constabulary 
police. The living is a rectory, in the diocese of Emly, 
with the rectory and vicarage of Tuough united, by act of 
council in 1776, together forming the union of Abington, 
in the patronage of the Archbishop of Cashel : the tithes 
amount to £650, and of the Entire benefice, to £900. 
The church is a neat small edifice, without tower or spire. 
The glebe-house is situated on a glebe of 20 acres. In 
the R. C. divisions this parish is the head of a district, 
comprising also Clonkeen and a small portion of Doone. 
The chapel at Murroe is a large and handsome edifice, 
built in 1811, and enlarged in 1836: there is another 
old chapel at Borroe. The parochial schools are chiefly 
supported by the rector ; there is another school of 
about 60 boys and 60 girls, also three pay schools. 
Two handsome school-houses have been erected at 
Kisikerk. 

ACHILL, a parish, in the barony of Burrishoole, 
county of Mayo, and province of Connaught, 14 miles 
(W.) from Newport-Pratt 5 containing 5277 inhabitants. 
This district comprehends the islands of Achill and 
Acliillbeg, and the peninsula of Coraan Achill. The 
island of Achill, which is the largest off the Irish coast, 
is situated in the Atlantic Ocean, and is separated from 
the mainland by a narrow sound, of which the southern 
part, at a place called Pollyranney, is fordable at low 
water. It is bounded on the north by Blacksod and on 
the south by Clew bays, and is 16 miles in length and 
about 7 miles in breadth, forming a line of coast about 
80 miles in circuit, and comprising 46,401 statute acres, 
chiefly the property of Sir Richard A. O’Donnell, Bart., 
and partly belonging to the Marquess of Sligo. The 
western side is mostly a precipitous range of cliffs, but 
the eastern is in every part well sheltered. Achill 
Head, a bold promontory, is situated on the south- 
western extremity of the island, in lat. 53° 5S' 30" (N.), 
and Ion. 10° 12' 20" (W.) 3 and at the northern extremity 
is Saddle Head, at the entrance of Blacksod bay. 
Between this and the smaller island of Achillbeg, which 
is described under its own head, is a channel called 
Achill Hole, where vessels drawing ten or twelve feet 
of water may ride in safety in all states of the weather. 
The peninsula of Coraan Achill, also called the Hook of 
Achill, lies to the east of the island, and is connected 
with the mainland by the narrow isthmus of Pollyran- 
ney 3 a powerful tide runs in the sound at the narrows 
called the Bull’s Mouth. The surface is very elevated, 
rising into lofty eminences, of which the highest is the 
hill of Coraan, 2254 feet above the level of the sea. 
There is but little arable land, which is chiefly in the 
valleys and near the shore. In addition to the mountains 
of Coraan and Slievemore is Menal Hill, on which is a 
precipice rising abruptly from the sea to the height of 
700 feet. Till within the last fifteen years there were 
6 


no roads in this retired district ; the Sound is about a 
mile across, and a house has been built and a ferry boat 
established for the accommodation of travellers. There 
are several good and safe harbours ; and the Fishery 
Board built a landing pier at this place. Keel is a coast- 
guard station, and is one of the six that constitute the 
district of Newport ; and at Dugarth there is another, 
which is one of the six included in the district of 
Belmullet. The living is a rectory, in the diocese of 
Tuam, and in the patronage of the Archbishop : the 
tithes amount to £100. There is neither church, glebe- 
house, nor glebe : divine service is performed at the 
house of the Achill mission, at Dugarth, twice every 
Sunday, in the English and Irish languages. In the 
R. C. divisions this forms a separate and distinct parish : 
there are two places of worship, one at Kildavenet and 
the other at Dookenella, but no regular chapel has been 
built. There are schools at Dugarth, Slievemore, Keel, 
and Cashel, in which about 380 children receive instruc- 
tion 5 also two pay schools, in which are 80 boys and 6 
girls. There are remains of old churches, with burial- 
grounds attached, at Kildurnet and Slievemore ; and at 
the former place are also the remains of an ancient 
castle, which originally belonged to Grace O'Malley. 

ACHILLBEG, an island, in the parish of Achill, 
barony of Burrishoole, county of Mayo, and province 
of Connaught, 22 miles (W.) from Newport-Pratt : the 
population is returned with the parish. This island is 
situated on the western coast, and on the north side of 
the entrance of Clew bay 3 it is separated from the larger 
island of Achill by a narrow sound, which in some parts 
is fordable and almost dry at low water. The western 
shore is very wild, and, in consequence of the swells 
running to a great height, is unapproachable even in the 
calmest weather. It comprises about 200 statute acres, 
the property of Sir Richard A. O’Donnell, Bart. ; a 
small portion of the land is arable, and the remainder is 
rocky pasture. A coast-guard station has been esta- 
blished here, and is one of the six stations constituting 
the district of Westport. 

ACHONRY, a parish and the head of a diocese, in 
the barony of Leney, county of Sligo, and province 
of Connaught, 6 miles (W. S. W.) from Ballymote ; 
containing 15,481 inhabitants. This place, anciently 
called Achad, Achad-Conair, and Achad-Chaoin, was 
granted about 530, by the chief of the territory of 
Luigny, to St. Finian, Bishop of Clonard, who founded 
an abbey here and placed over it his disciple St. Nathy, 
who was afterwards made Bishop of Achonry. In 1798, 
the French invaders marched from Castlebar through 
Tubbercurry, where a slight skirmish took place. The 
parish is situated on the river Moy, and on the roads 
from Boyle to Ballina and from Sligo to Swinford j 
and comprises 40,500 statute acres, of which, 19,827 
are applotted under the tithe act : about 24,300 acres 
are arable and pasture land, and 16,200 are mountain 
and bog, much of which the peasantry are reclaiming. 
The land is generally good, and the system of husbandry 
is improving : there are quarries of excellent limestone 
and granite. The principal seats are Chaffpool, the 
property of J. Armstrong, Esq. 5 Muckalta, of Jones 
Irwin, Esq. 5 Achonry, of T. Rice, Esq. ; Roadstown, of 
D. O’Connor, Esq. ; Corsalla, of D. O’Connor, Esq. 3 
Doornon, of H. Gray, Esq. 5 and Carrounaleck, ot 
J. Gray, Esq. Petty sessions are held at Tubbercurry 


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every Thursday. There are also weekly markets at 
that place and Bellaghy ; and several fairs are held 
there and at Bellaghy and Curry, which see. 

The diocese is one of the six constituting the ecclesi- 
astical province of Tuam: it comprehends a large portion 
of the county of Sligo and part of that of Mayo, and 
extends about 35 miles in length and 27 in breadth, 
comprising by estimation a superficial area of 207,650 
plantation acres, of which 113,950 are in Sligo, and 
93,700 in Mayo. From about the commencement of the 
17th century it was held with the see pf Killala, as one 
bishoprick, till 1S33, when they were both annexed, 
under the provisions of the Church Temporalities’ Act 
(3rd of Wm. IV.), to the archiepiscopal see of Tuam. 
The chapter consists of a dean, precentor, archdeacon, 
and the three prebendaries of Ballysodere, Killaraght, 
and Kilmovee : there are neither minor canons nor 
vicars choral. The cathedral, dedicated to St. Nathy, 
and called the cathedral church of St. Crumnathy, 
Achonry, is parochial : it is kept in good repair by an 
assessment on the parishioners, but in future the ex- 
penses will be defrayed by the Ecclesiastical Commis- 
sioners ; there is no economy fund. The diocese com- 
prehends 25 parishes, of which three are consolidated 
rectories and vicarages, two appropriate rectories, and 
the remainder are vicarages of which the rectories are 
impropriate : the number of benefices is thirteen, all of 
which, with the dignities and prebends, are in the pa- 
tronage of the Archbishop of Tuam, except the deanery, 
which is in the gift of the Crown ; there is one perpetual 
cure dependent on the deanery and in the patronage of 
the Dean ; the number of churches is eleven, and of 
glebe -houses, six. The see lands comprise 11,784 acres, 
of which 8391 are profitable land ; and the glebe lands 
of the benefices consist of 187^ Irish acres. The gross 
annual revenue of the diocese payable to the bishop is, 
on an average, £1481. 6. 9|. ; and the entire tithes 
amountto£7354.0. 5. per annum, of which £4549. 9- 11§. 
is payable to the clergy, and the remainder to lay im- 
propriators. In the R. C. divisions this diocese includes 
also the parishes of Kilgarvan and Attymass (which in 
the Protestant church form part of the adjoining diocese 
of Killala), and, as originally founded, continues a distinct 
bishoprick, suffragan to that of Tuam, and comprising 
19 parochial unions or parishes, containing 35 chapels, 
which are served by 19 parish priests and 18 curates or 
coadjutors. 

The living is a rectory and vicarage, in the diocese 
of Achonry, with the rectory and vicarage of Cloonoghill 
and the rectories of Killoran and Kilvarnet united, 
together constituting the corps of the deanery of 
Achonry, which is in the patronage of the Crown. The 
tithes amount to £646. 3. 1. ; and the gross revenue of 
the deanery, or union, is £ 920 per annum, out of which 
the dean allows an annual stipend of £75 to the perpe- 
tual curate of Tubbercurry. The church is a plain edifice 
with a tower and spire, for rebuilding which the late 
Board of First Fruits, in 1822, granted a loan of £1066. 
The glebe house was built by a gift of £100 and a loan of 
£1500 from the same Board : the glebe comprises 20 
acres. In the R. C. divisions this parish forms the be- 
nefice of the dean, and is divided into three portions, 
called the Upper, Middle, and Lower Divisions ; the first 
is Curry, in which there are two chapels, one at that 
place and the other at Moylough ; the second is Cloon- 


acool, in which also are two chapels, one there and the 
other at Tubbercurry ; and the third is Mullinabriny, 
which has one chapel. There are schools for both sexes 
at Cliaffpool, Tubbercurry, Achonry, and Carrowmore : 
the first is partly supported by J. Armstrong, Esq., who 
also gave the school-house. The ruins of the old church 
are situated near the present edifice : there are also ruins 
of the abbey of Court, founded by O’Hara for Franciscan 
friars of the third order ; of an old church and burial- 
place at Kileummen 5 and of an ancient fortified resi- 
dence at Castlelough. There is a mineral spring at 
Ballineurry. 

ACTON, a parish, in the barony of Lower Orior, 
county of Armagh, and province of Ulster, 3 miles 
(S. S. E.) from Tanderagee, on the old road from Newry 
to that place ; containing 3843 inhabitants, of which 
number, 257 are in the village. The village was origi- 
nally founded by Sir Toby Pointz, who, for his military 
services, obtained a grant of 500 acres of land, part of 
the forfeited estates of the O’Hanlons, and erected a 
bawn 100 feet square, a house of brick and lime for his 
own residence, and 24 cottages for so many English 
settlers, and called the place Acton, after his own native 
village in England. It consists of one main street, and 
at present contains about 50 houses indifferently built. 
Under the authority of an order of council, in 1789, 
nineteen townlands were severed from the parish of 
Ballymore, and erected into the parish of Acton, which 
comprises 4395 statute acres, and is intersected by the 
Newry canal. The improved system of agriculture has 
been extensively introduced, the lands are well drained 
and fenced, and the bogs have been all drained and 
brought into cultivation by the proprietor, Col. Close. 
The weaving of linen cloth, diapers, checks, and calicoes 
is extensively carried on by the small farmers and cottiers 
in the parish. The principal gentlemen’s seats are Acton 
House, the residence of R. Conway Dobbs, Esq. ; and Dro- 
minargoole, of D. Lucas, Esq. The living is a perpetual 
curacy, in the diocese of Armagh, and in the patronage 
of the Prebendary of Ballymore in the cathedral church 
of St. Patrick, Armagh : the income arises from a fixed 
stipend of £ 50 per annum, payable by the rector or pre- 
bendary of Ballymore, and an augmentation of £25 per 
annum from Primate Boulter’s fund. The church, 
erected at Pointz Pass in 1789, is a neat edifice, in the 
early English style. The glebe-house, situated about 
half a mile from the church, is a handsome residence ; 
and the glebe comprises 21 acres of good land. In the 
R. C. divisions this parish is in the union or district of 
Ballymore : the chapel is a small building, situated at 
Pointz Pass. There are two places of worship for Presby- 
terians in connection with the Seceding Synod, situated 
respectively at Tanniokee and Carrickbrack, or Tyrone’s 
Ditches, the latter of the first class. There are four 
schools, of which two are aided by annual donations 
from Col. Close and the Rev. Mr. Darby, and in which 
are about 220 boys and 1 60 girls ; also a private pay 
school of about 30 boys and 30 girls. The remains of a 
church built by Sir Toby Pointz, in 1684, under the 
chancel of which he lies interred, are situated in the 
midst of a wood, and have a very interesting appear- 
ance a tablet is still preserved, with an inscription to 
his memory. 

ADAM’S ISLE, an islet in the parish of Castle- 
haven, Eastern Division of the barony of West Car- 


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bery, county of Cork, and province of Munster. It 
is situated in the harbour of Castlehaven, off Shillen- 
ragga Head. 

ADAMSTOWN, or MURNEVAN, a parish, in the 
barony of Bantry, county of Wexford, and province 
of Leinster, 6 miles (E. N. E.) from New Ross, on the 
road from that place, by way of Old Ross, to Enniscor- 
thy ; containing 1857 inhabitants. It comprises 7941 
statute acres : the surface is diversified with gentle 
elevations, contrasting strikingly with the rocky hill of 
Carrigburn in the vicinity ; the land is chiefly under an 
improving system of tillage ; limestone for manure is 
brought from New Ross. Merton, the seat of T. An- 
nesley Whitney, Esq., is in this parish. The living is a 
rectory, in the diocese of Ferns, to which part of Inch, 
called Newbawn, has been united time immemorially, 
together constituting the corps of the archdeaconry of 
Ferns, in the patronage of the Bishop : the tithes of 
the parish amount to £410. 13. 1., and of the benefice, 
to £ 770 . 17. 9- The church, towards the erection of 
which the late Board of First Fruits gave £500, in 1S05, 
is a neat edifice, in the later English style, with a square 
embattled tower ; the Ecclesiastical Commissioners have 
lately granted £259 for its repair. There are two glebes, 
containing 13 acres, of which 10 acres are held under 
the Earl of Rathdown, at a rental of £6, which is paid 
to the master of the parochial school ; and on this por- 
tion are situated the church, glebe-house, and school 
premises. The glebe-house was built by Archdeacon 
Barton, in 1803, by aid of a gift of £100 from the same 
Board. The parish is within the R. C. union or district 
of Newbawn : the chapel is a spacious and handsome 
edifice, with a tower 56 feet high, built by local sub- 
scription, and is one of the largest in the diocese. A 
parochial school-house, in which about 60 boys and 20 
girls are taught, with apartments for the master, was 
lately built at the expense of the Earl of Rathdown and 
Archdeacon Barton. There are also two private pay 
schools, in which are about 70 children ; and a Sunday 
school, under the superintendence of the Protestant 
clergyman. Here are the remains of a castle, built in 
1556 by Nicholas Devereux and his wife Katherine, as 
appears by a Latin inscription on a shield over the 
gateway, which is also charged with the armorial bear- 
ings of that family : they consist of a square tower in 
the centre of a quadrangle surrounded by a high wall 
flanked with turrets at the angles. In the ancient burial- 
ground is a Roman cross, supposed to be of consider- 
able antiquity. 

ADARE, a post-town and parish (anciently a cor- 
porate town), partly in the barony ofKENRY, and part- 
ly in the Eastern Division of Upper Connello, but 
chiefly in the barony of Coshma, county of Limerick, 
and province of Munster, 8 miles (S. W.) from Lime- 
rick, and 102 miles (S. W. by W.) from Dublin; contain- 
ing 4913 inhabitants, of which number, 776 are in the 
town. The early history of this place, of which the name 
signifies “the ford of the oaks,” is involved in great 
obscurity. On the arrival of the English, in the reign 
of Hen. II., it appears to have been distinguished as 
having a castle and a church. In the following century 
it became the property of the Fitzgeralds, of whom John, 
first Earl of Kildare, founded a monastery here in 1279, 
which he dedicated to the Holy Trinity and amply 
endowed, for the redemption of Christian captives. This 
8 


establishment, which is now called the Black Abbey, 
and is situated in the town, continued to flourish till 
the dissolution, when, with the other religious houses 
subsequently founded here, it was granted by Elizabeth, 
in the 37th of her reign, to Sir Henry Wallop, Knt., to 
be held for ever in fealty, in free and common socage, 
at a yearly rent of £26. 17 - 8., on condition of his main- 
taining two able horsemen on the premises. The remains 
consist of the tower, nave, and part of the choir of the 
church, which were fitted up in 1811 for a R. C. chapel 
by the present Earl of Dunraven ; the tower, which is 
embattled, is in a very perfect state, and is one of the 
most massive in the South of Ireland ; the prevailing 
style of architecture is the early English, which has been 
tolerably well preserved in its restoration. There are 
several extensive ruins on the north side, probably the 
remains of the domestic buildings. Another abbey was 
founded here, the remains of which, situated within the 
demesne of Adare Castle, on the bank of the river, are 
very extensive and highly interesting : they consist of 
the nave, choir, and south transept of the church, which, 
with the exception of the roof, are tolerably entire. From 
the intersection rises a beautiful slender square tower ; 
in the choir are several stalls, niches, fonts and stoups 
of elegant design ; and on the east side of the transept, 
in which also are niches and fonts, are two chantry cha- 
pels, or oratories, and also one on the west side. The 
cloisters are nearly in a perfect state, and round them 
are arranged the principal offices, the refectory, and va- 
rious other domestic buildings ; in the centre of the 
enclosure is a stately and venerable yew tree, but infe- 
rior in growth to that at Muckross. The prevailing style 
of architecture is the later English, of which these re- 
mains display some very elegant details. A Franciscan 
abbey was also founded on the south side of the river, 
by Thomas, seventh Earl of Kildare, who married Joan, 
daughter of the Earl of Desmond. The remains, situated 
close to the bridge, consist of the lofty and slender 
square tower, the nave, and part of the choir of the con- 
ventual church, fitted up by the Earl of Dunraven as 
the parochial church ; the cloisters on the north side, 
which are perfect, having been restored by the earl (who 
has erected adjoining them a splendid mausoleum for 
his family), and in which, and over the doorway, are 
several shields with the arms of Kildare and Desmond 
alternately ; the refectory, and part of the domestic 
buildings, which have been recently restored andappropri- 
ated as a school-house by the Countess of Dunraven : 
the prevailing style is the later English, which has been 
carefully preserved throughout. 

Some time prior to the year 1310 the town appears, 
from ancient records, to have been incorporated, as in 
that year a grant of murage and customs was made by 
Edw. II. to “ the bailiffs and good men of the town of 
Adare and in 1376 Edw. III. issued a writ to the 
sheriff of the county and all officers connected with the 
subsidies, &c., prohibiting them under heavy penalties 
from demanding from the provost or commonalty of 
Adare any services or customs, until the town, which 
had been then recently burned and destroyed by the 
“ Irish enemy,” should be fully rebuilt and inhabited. 
The castle was originally erected by the O’Dono- 
vans, rebuilt by the second Earl of Kildare in 
1326, and enlarged and fortified by several of his suc- 
cessors. When Turlough O’Brien was ravaging this 


ADA 


ADA 


part of the country, he burned the castle, which was 
soon afterwards repaired by Thomas, Earl of Kildare. 
Gerald, a subsequent earl, having countenanced the 
second attempt of Perkin Warbeck, was accused of 
treasonable practices, and the castle and all his posses- 
sions were forfeited to the Crown ; but he was restored 
to his estate by favour of Henry, Prince of Wales, who 
made him his deputy-governor of Ireland. In 1519, 
the earl set out from this castle on his route to London, 
to meet the accusations of Cardinal Wolsey ; and hav- 
ing vindicated his innocence was, on his return to 
Ireland, appointed lord-deputy, and ordered to secure 
the person of his nephew, the Earl of Desmond, who 
had departed from his allegiance and joined Francis I. 
of France, and was taking refuge in the castle of Askea- 
ton. The lord-deputy, on his arrival at the castle of 
this place, finding that the earl had retired to his strong 
holds, returned to Dublin and for this neglect, in con- 
nection with other charges, he was sent to the Tower of 
London, where he died in confinement ; and on the re- 
bellion of his son, better known by the appellation of 
Silken Thomas, this castle and the family estates again 
escheated to the crown. During the wars in the reign 
of Elizabeth the castle was frequently attacked by the 
English forces without success ; but in the summer of 
1578 it was taken, after a siege of eleven days, and in 
the following year was garrisoned by a powerful body 
of English troops, under the command of Captain Carew. 
Sir John Desmond soon after assaulted it, but was re- 
pulsed with great loss by the garrison, and compelled 
to seek protection from his friend and kinsman, the 
Knight of Glin. In 1581 the castle was again besieged 
by the Earls of Desmond and Kerry, with a numerous 
and powerful army, who succeeded in reducing the gar- 
rison, and put every man to the sword. Upon this oc- 
casion the English forces, under Col. Zouch, marched 
from Cork to the relief of the garrison, but arriving 
too late, they attacked the confederate earls, whom they 
defeated with great slaughter, and retook the castle. It 
was again besieged in 1600, when the garrison suffered 
greatly, being without food for many days, and obtain- 
ing a supply of water only by excavating a subterra- 
neous passage to the bed of the river. In 1641 the 
castle was seized by the insurgents and held for some 
time, till they were at last driven out by the Earl of 
Castlehaven j in 1657 it was dismantled by Cromwell’s 
orders. The remains are of considerable extent, and 
the walls of great strength, but notwithstanding the 
efforts of its noble proprietor to preserve this interest- 
ing relic of antiquity, it is rapidly falling into decay. 
This was the scene of much confusion and many atro- 
cities during the prevalence of Whiteboyism in 1786, and 
of Defenderism in 1793 ■, and also under the system ofthe 
Rockites many persons were destroyed near the place, on 
the chapel of which were posted notices, signed, “John 
Rock, R. C. B., Commander-in-chief of the army in 
Ireland.” 

The ancient town of Adare was situated on the 
eastern bank of the river Mague, near the castle and 
the ancient parish church, which are now within the 
demesne of the Earl of Dunraven, and about half a mile 
distant from the present town, which is situated on the 
western bank of the river, over which is a fine bridge 
of fourteen arches. The bridge is quite level, and, though 
narrow, is generally admired ■, it was built by the fifth 
Vol. I.— 9 


Earl of Kildare, and is still in a good state of preserva- 
tion. The river is here broad, and from several arti- 
ficial weirs appears like a succession of lakes, but beyond 
the bridge it becomes very shallow. The present town 
has the appearance of an old village whose growth has 
been gradual : it contains 114 houses, many of which 
are old and badly built ; several houses have been taken 
down already, and others will be also removed as the 
leases fall in, under the improvements intended by the 
proprietor. Lord Dunraven, which have been already 
commenced by the erection of an hotel, post-office, and 
several other substantial houses. The mail coach from 
Limerick to Tralee passes daily through it. A consta- 
bulary police force has been established here ■, petty 
sessions are held fortnightly ; and fairs are held on Jan. 
20th, Feb. 21st, March 27th, April 27th, May 27th, Sept. 
15th, Oct. 14th, and Dec. 15th, for the sale of farming 
stock and implements, which are well attended. 

The parish comprises 10,202 statute acres, as ap- 
plotted under the tithe act. The land is every where 
fertile, and is under an improved system of cultivation : 
about two-fifths are in tillage, and the remainder is rich 
meadow and pasture land ■, there is neither bog nor 
waste land. Black, grey, and porphyritic limestone of 
good quality abounds ; the black is most esteemed for 
building, and the grey for agricultural purposes. The 
Maigue is navigable up to the town by means of a short 
canal, and there are two quays, one at the* termination 
of the canal in the town, the other about a mile down the 
river, both constructed at the expense of Lord Dunraven . 
The surrounding scenery is finely diversified and em- 
bellished with handsome seats and highly ornamented 
demesnes. The principal seat is Adare Castle, the 
property and residence of the Earl of Dunraven : of 
this noble edifice, the centre and north wing only are 
completed ; the style of architecture is that of the 
more enriched period of the later English, and when 
finished it will be one of the most splendid mansions 
in the country. It is built of hewn limestone found 
upon the estate, and is situated on the western bank 
of the river, in a very extensive and finely wooded 
demesne, commanding a beautiful view of the interest- 
ing remains of the ancient castle and of the several 
abbeys ; and near the house still stands the venerable 
ash tree under which the family papers, with other 
things of value, were hastily hidden by Lord Dunraven’s 
ancestor, on the approach of a party of marauders during 
the Revolution of 1688. Not far distant is Currah, the 
elegant residence of Sir Aubrey de Yere, Bart., in the 
centre of a wide, fertile, and undulating demesne, enriched 
with luxuriant woods and plantations, and embellished 
with a picturesque lake : the mansion is of hewn lime- 
stone, with a front of beautiful design commanding the 
lake ; there are three entrances to the park, of which 
the lodge at that from Adare is the most handsome. 
Sir Aubrey is author of “Julian the Apostate” and other 
minor poems. Near Currah is Currah Bridge, the neat 
residence of G. Fosbery, Esq. ; and within the parish 
is Tuagh House, the residence o>f the Rev. S. B. Leo- 
nard. The farm-houses, generally small, have gardens 
and orchards attached, and are mostly occupied by 
Palatines, originally German Protestants, who settled 
here about the year 1740, since which time they have 
greatly increased in numbers, but continue a distinct 
body. The living is a vicarage, in the diocese of Lime- 

C 


A D N 


A F F 


rick, and in the patronage of John Croker, Esq. ; the 
rectory is impropriate in the Earl of Dunraven. The 
tithes amount to £808. 5. 5., of which £506. 8. 6. is 
payable to the impropriator, and the remainder to the 
vicar. The church, part of the Franciscan abbey, has 
been already noticed : there is neither glebe nor glebe - 
house. In the R. C. divisions the parish is the head 
of a union or district, comprising also Drehidtarsna 
and Clounshire, and parts of two other parishes ; the 
chapel is part of the ancient abbey of the Holy Trinity, 
previously noticed. The refectory of the Franciscan 
abbey, adjoining the church, was restored and fitted up 
for a school by the Countess of Dunraven, in 1815 ; it 
is a spacious apartment lighted by fifteen windows, each 
of which is of a design different from the rest ; and, in 
1825, the countess built a good residence for the master 
and mistress, in the same style as the refectory, with a 
garden attached. There are 300 children in the school, 
which is wholly supported by the countess. The paro- 
chial school, in which are about 80 boys and 50 girls, is 
supported by Lord Dunraven ; and there is a private 
pay school of about 30 boys and 6 girls. A fever hos- 
pital and dispensary, with a house adjoining for a 
resident physician, has been recently erected by his 
lordship, and is supported in the customary manner. 
Adare gives the titles of Baron and Viscount to the 
ancient Irish family of Quin, Earls of Dunraven 
and Mountearl; the present Earl constantly resides 
here. 

ADDERGOOLE, a parish, in the barony of Tyraw- 
ley, county of Mayo, and province of Connaught, 5 
miles (S. by E.) from Crossmolina ; containing 6725 
inhabitants. This parish is situated on Lough Conn, 
by which it is bounded on the north, and on the road 
from Crossmolina to Castlebar : it contains within its 
limits the greater portion of the stupendous mountain 
of Nephin, which rises to a height of 2640 feet above 
the level of the sea. The land generally is under an im- 
proved system of tillage ; there are large tracts of bog 
and mountain, which have been reclaimed to a great 
extent; and limestone abounds in the parish. Castle 
Hill is the seat of Major Cormick ; Woodpark, beauti- 
fully situated on Lough Conn, of J. Anderson, Esq. ; 
and Carrowkeel, of W. Bourke, Esq. A fair is held 
at Laherdane on the 29th of June, and at Ballagheen on 
the 24th of June. The parish is in the diocese of Kil- 
lala ; the rectory is partly appropriate to the precentor- 
ship, and partly to the vicars choral, of the cathedral of 
Christchurch, Dublin ; the vicarage forms part of the 
union of Crossmolina. The tithes amount to £250, of 
which £13. 10. is payable to the precentor, £111. 10. to 
the vicars choral, and £125 to the vicar. The R. C. pa- 
rish is co-extensive with that of the Established Church ; 
the chapel is at Laherdane. There are two public 
schools, in which are about 130 boys and 30 girls ; and 
six hedge schools, in which are about 160 boys and 70 
girls. There are some remains of an old abbey at 
Addergoole, and also at Bofinau ; and near Castle 
Hill are vestiges of an ancient castle. 

ADNITH, or ATHNETT, a parish, in the barony 
of Eliogarty, county of Tipperary, and province of 
Munster, 4j miles (S. by E.) from Templemore, on the 
river Suir, and on the road from Thurles to Templemore 
and Rathdowney ; containing 253 inhabitants. It com- 
prises 826 statute acres, and in the Down survey and 
10 


county books is not noticed as a parish, but as forming 
a part of the parish of Rahelty, which was part of the 
possessions of the abbey of Woney. It is a vicarage, in 
the diocese of Cashel, and forms part of the union of 
Thurles ; the rectory is impropriate in Edward Taylor, 
Esq. The tithes amount to £72, of which £39 is pay- 
able to the impropriator, and the remainder to the vicar. 
In the R. C. divisions also it is part of the union or district 
of Thurles. 

ADREGOOLE, or ADDERGOOLE, a parish, in the 
barony of Dunmore, county of Galway, and province 
of Connaught, 4 miles (W.) from Dunmore, on the 
river Clare, and on the road from Dunmore to Castlebar; 
containing 2842 inhabitants. A constabulary police 
force has been stationed here; and petty sessions are 
held every alternate week. It is a vicarage, in the 
diocese of Tuam, and forms part of the union of Tuam ; 
the rectory is appropriate partly to the deanery and 
partly to the archdeaconry of Tuam. The tithes amount 
to £137- 8. 2|., of which £103. 1. 1^. is payable to the 
dean and archdeacon, and £34. 7- L to the incumbent. 
At Kilconly there is a chapel of ease. In the R. C. 
divisions the parish is the head of a union or district, 
comprising also that of Liskeevy ; the chapel, a large 
slated building recently erected, is situated at Milltown. 
There are three pay schools, in which are about 170 boys 
and 60 girls. 

AEFANE, a parish, in the barony of DECiES-without- 
Drum, county of Waterford, and province of Mun- 
ster, 4 miles (E. by S.) from Lismore, on the mail road 
from Waterford, through Youghal, to Cork ; containing 
1879 inhabitants. This place, called anciently Arthmean, 
or Aghmean, was, in 1564, the scene of a battle between 
the Earls of Desmond and Ormonde, in which the Earl 
of Ormonde was defeated with the loss of 2S0 of his 
men. It is chiefly distinguished as containing Dromana, 
which was for a long time the chief seat of the Fitz- 
geralds of the Decies, who were descendants of James, 
the seventh Earl of Desmond, and one of whom, in 
1569, was created “Baron of Dromany and Viscount 
Desses,” which titles became extinct at his decease. 
His nephew and second successor in the estate enter- 
tained at this place the celebrated Sir Walter Raleigh, 
who introduced here a fine species of cherry, which has 
continued to flourish in the neighbourhood to the pre- 
sent day, and is still in high estimation. The old castle 
having been burnt down in a period of hostility, the 
present mansion was erected on its site, and is now the 
property of H. Villiers Stuart, Esq., a descendant of the 
original possessors. The parish is bounded on the 
south-west by the river Blackwater, which is here navi- 
gable ; it comprises 7-530 statute acres, as applotted 
under the tithe act ; the land is in general fertile. The 
mansion of Mr. Stuart overhangs the Blackwater, which 
winds round the base of a precipitous ascent clothed with 
thriving plantations, and with its hanging gardens pre- 
sents a picturesque and interesting feature. The other 
seats are Belleville Park, the residence of S. Poer, Esq., 
pleasantly situated amidst thriving plantations ; Rich- 
mond, of Major Alcock ; Mountrivers, of the Rev. G. 
Gumbleton, the vicar ; Affane, of S. Power, Esq. ; and 
Derriheen, of C. Maunsell, Esq. Fairs are held on May 
14th, Aug. 12th, and Nov. 22nd. The living is a vicarage, 
in the diocese of Lismore, to which the vicarage of 
Aglish was episeopally united in 1817, forming the 


A G H 


A G H 


union of Affane, in the patronage of the Duke of Devon- 
shire, in whom the rectory is impropriate. The tithes 
amount to £369- 4. 7 ■, payable in moieties to the impro- 
priator and the vicar ; and the gross amount of tithe for 
the whole benefice is £344. 12. 3§. The church is a 
neat building, for the erection of which the late Board of 
First Fruits granted a loan of £500, in 1819- There 
is no glebe-house ; the glebe contains only 2 roods and 
20 perches. In the R. C. divisions this parish is one of 
the two which form the union of Modeligo ; the chapel 
is at Boharavaughera. A school of 250 boys and 80 
girls, at Carrageen, is aided by a legacy of £20 per 
annum from the late Mr. Magner. 

AGHA, or AUGHA, a parish, in the barony of 
Idrone East, county of Carlow, and province of 
Leinster, comprising part of the market and post- 
town of Leighlin-bridge, and containing 1739 inha- 
bitants. This parish is situated on the east side of the 
river Barrow, which is navigable to Waterford, and on 
the road from Carlow to Kilkenny. An abbey, called 
Achad-finglass, was founded here at a very early period 
by St. Fintan, and in 864, in which year it was plun- 
dered by the Danes, had risen into some note ; its site 
is now unknown. The parish contains 4028 statute 
acres, as applotted under the tithe act, and is wholly 
under cultivation ; the system of agriculture is improving. 
Limestone for burning is procured within its limits. 
The principal seats are Rathwade, the residence of B.B. 
Newton, Esq., and Steuart Lodge, of W. R. Steuart, 
Esq. Fairs for the sale of live stock are held on Easter- 
Monday, May 14th, Sept. 23rd, and Dec. 27th ; and 
there are two at Orchard on Whit-Tuesday and Oct. 2nd. 
It is a vicarage, in the diocese of Leighlin, and forms 
part of the union of Dunleckney ; the rectory is im- 
propriate in A. Weldon, Esq. The tithes amount to 
£415. 7- 8j., of which £276. 18. 5|. is payable to the 
impropriator, and £138. 9- 2f. to the vicar. The church 
is in ruins. In the R. C. divisions it is partly in the 
union or district of Dunleckney, and partly in that of 
Old Leighlin : the chapel, situated at Newtown, is a 
handsome edifice lately erected. There are two schools 
for boys and girls ; one situated at Leighlin-bridge, 
and the other, a large and handsome edifice lately built, 
near the R. C. chapel ; they afford instruction to 120 
boys and 230 girls. There is also a private pay school, 
in which are about 20 children ; and a dispensary. — 
See Leighlin-bridge. 

AGHABOE, or AUGHAYOE, a parish, in the barony 
of Upper Ossory, Queen’s county, and province of 
Leinster, on the road from Dublin to Roscrea ; con- 
taining, with the post-town of Burros-in-Ossory, 6196 
inhabitants. This place, originally called Achadh-Blio, 
and signifying in the Irish language “the field of an 
ox,” derived that name from the fertility of its soil and 
the luxuriance of its pastures. It was celebrated at a 
very early period as the residence of St. Canice, who, 
in the 6th century, founded a monastery here for the 
cultivation of literature and religious discipline ; and so 
great was his reputation for learning and sanctity, that 
a town was soon formed around it for the reception of 
his numerous disciples. The town soon afterwards 
became the seat of a diocese, comprehending the district 
of Ossory, and the church of the monastery was made 
the cathedral of the see of Aghaboe. This see con- 
tinued, under a succession of bishops, to retain its epis- 
11 


copal distinction till near the close of the 12th century' 
when Felix O’Dullany, the last bishop, was compelled 
by the submission of Donchad, Prince of Ossory, to 
Hen. II., to remove the seat of his diocese to Kilkenny. 
The parish comprises 17,311 statute acres, as applotted 
under the tithe act. The rich and extensive vale in 
which it is seated lies between the mountains of Culla- 
hill, on the south-east, and the Slieve Bloom range on 
the north-west, which separates the Queen’s from the 
King’s county. The soil is generally fertile, and in a 
tract of about 40 acres behind the church, said to have 
been the site of the ancient town, and afterwards of the 
abbey gardens, it is remarkably rich : the system of 
agriculture is improving, and there is a considerable 
tract ofbog, but not sufficient to provide fuel for the 
use of the inhabitants. The substratum is limestone, of 
which there are several quarries ; at Knockaroe is found 
a brown slate ; and at Carrig and Carrigeen are some 
rocks of granite. The gentlemen’s seats are Cuffs- 
borough, the residence of J. Palmer, Esq. ; Ballybrophy, 
of T. White, Esq. ; Old Park, of R. White, Esq. ; Mid- 
dlemount, of R. Roe, Esq, ; Lismore, of W. White, Esq . ; 
Knockfinne, of Capt, Mosse; Kilmaseene, of W. Pil- 
kington. Esq. ; the Glebe-house, of the Rev. T. Thacker ; 
Aghaboe House, of J. Banks, Esq. ; Gortnaclea, of P. 
Roe, Esq. ; and Ballicolla Cottage, of W. Calbeck, 
Esq. Fairs are held at Burros eight times in the year j 
and petty sessions are held every alternate week there 
and at Cuffsborough. The living is a vicarage, in the 
diocese of Ossory, and in the patronage of the Rev. 
Thomas Carr ; the rectory constitutes part of the corps 
of the deanery of St. Canice, Kilkenny, in the patronage 
of the Crown. The tithes amount to £789- 4. 7|-, of 
which £526. 3. 1. is payable to the dean, and the re- 
mainder to the vicar. The parish church was erected in 
1818, on part of the site of the old cathedral, for which 
purpose the late Board of First Fruits granted a loan of 
£500. Divine service is also performed in the court- 
house of Burros. The glebe-house was built by aid 
of a gift of £100 and a loan of £1350 from the same 
Board, in 1820 ; there are two glebes in the parish, 
comprising together 185 acres, which belong to the 
vicarage. In the R. C. divisions the parish is the head 
of a union or district, which comprises also the parishes 
of Killemagh and Boardwell, and parts of those of 
Kildellig and Coolkerry, and contains four chapels, situ- 
ated at Fox Rock, Knockaroe, Ballincolla, and Burros- 
m-Ossory. There are a parochial school at Aghaboe, 
national schools at Fox Rock and Cuffsborough, and 
other schools at Burros-in-Ossory and Old Park ; 
and there are also eight private schools, in which are 
about 230 boys and 160 girls ■, and a Sunday school. 
At the distance of a few yards from the parish church 
are the remains of the Dominican abbey church ; at 
Lismore are the remains of an ancient church and burial- 
ground ; and at Farran-Eglish and Knockgera are also 
the remains of churches. To the north of the church is 
a large artificial mount, surrounded by a fosse and en- 
circled with a wall near the summit ■, and at Middle- 
mount is an ancient fortification, called the “ rath of 
Lara,” or the “ moat of Monacoghlan” ; besides several 
raths or moats in various parts of the parish. At Gurtna- 
clea is an ancient square castle ; and at Ballygeehin are the 
remains of an ancient fortress, of which there were for- 
merly many others in the parish. — See BuRROsin Ossory 

C 2 


AGH 


AGII 


AGHABOG, a pai’ish, in the barony of Dartry, 
county of Monaghan, and province of Ulster, 1 mile 
(W.) from Newbliss, on the road from Clones to Bally- 
bay ; containing 7442 inhabitants. It comprises, ac- 
cording to the Ordnance survey, 11,543§ statute acres, 
of which 222§ are covered with water, and 10,484 are 
arable and pasture land, applotted under the tithe act ; 
there are also from 16 to 20 acres of woodland, and 
about 243 of bog. The soil is a rich but shallow loam 
on a deep, stiff, and retentive clay, which renders it wet 
unless drained and manured with lime and marl, but it 
produces naturally an abundant herbage : the inhabi- 
tants are nearly all engaged in the linen manufacture. 
Within the limits of the parish are five lakes, of which 
that near Leysborough demesne is the largest. Drum- 
brain is the neat residence of T. Phillips, Esq. The living 
is a rectory and vicarage, in the diocese of Clogher, and 
in the patronage of the Bishop : the tithes amount to 
£331. 3. 3. The church is a plain edifice, built in 1775, 
for which purpose the late Board of First Fruits gave 
£390. There is a glebe-house, with a glebe of 40 acres. 
In the R. C. divisions this parish forms part of the 
union of Killeevan : the chapel is a neat modern build- 
ing, situated on the townland of Lathnamard. At 
Drumkeen there is a Presbyterian meeting-house, in 
connection with the Seceding Synod, and of the second 
class. There are seven public and two private schools 
in the parish. James Woodwright, Esq., of Gola, be- 
queathed £10 per ann. for the poor. 

AGHABOLOGUE, a parish, in the barony of East 
Muskerry, county of Cork, and province of Munster, 
5 miles (E. N. E.) from Macroom ; containing 5054 
inhabitants. It comprises 18,130 statute acres, as ap- 
plotted under the tithe act, and valued at £6712 per 
annum. Its surface is very uneven and soil various : in 
the western and northern parts are several lofty hills, 
of which Knockgaun and Knockroer are the highest. 
On part of its eastern boundary, near the Dripsey, the 
soil is very productive ; and the lands around Ahavrin 
are in a high state of cultivation. The state of agricul- 
ture has been much improved by the exertions of Capt. 
Croolce, Mr. Colthurst, and other proprietors, who have 
introduced a practical system of irrigation and draining, 
and the culture of green crops. The glen of Mulli- 
nassig abounds with beautiful and romantic scenery ; 
both its sides are richly adorned with wood, and at its 
head, deeply seated amid towering rocks, is a little mill, 
below which the river forms a fine cascade, and a little 
lower falls into a beautiful lake. Numerous large and 
elegant houses are scattered over the parish : the prin- 
cipal are Clonmoyle, the seat of C. Colthurst, Esq •; 
Ahavrin House, of Capt. T. E. Crooke ; Leeds, of F. 
Woodley, Esq. ; Cooper’s Ville, of W. Warsop Cooper, 
Esq. ; Deelis, of R. Fuller Harnett, Esq. ; Mountrivers, of 
N. Whiting, Esq. ; Kilberehert, of R. B. Crooke, Esq. ; 
the Cottage, of J. Pyne, Esq. ; Rock Ville, of T. Radley, 
Esq. ; Ahavrin Cottage, of the Rev. I. Smith ; and Car- 
rigadrohid, of the Rev. Pierce Green, P.P. The small de- 
mesne of Ahavrin is well planted ; and on an isolated rock 
at its southern extremity stands a picturesque castellated 
tower, surmounted by a light and graceful turret. The 
living is a rectory and vicarage, in the diocese of Cloyne, 
and in the patronage of the Bishop : the tithes amount to 
£750. 0. 5j|. The church is a small dilapidated struc- 
ture, and is about to be rebuilt by the Ecclesiastical 
12 


Commissioners. There is no glebe-house ; but adjoin- 
ing the churchyard is a glebe of five acres, and another 
glebe of thirty acres was purchased at Ahavrin by the 
late Board of First Fruits, subject to an annual rental, 
which being too high, the rector never took possession 
of it. In the R. C. divisions this parish is the head of 
a union or district, which comprises also the parish of 
Magourney and a moiety of Aghinagh, and contains two 
chapels, situated at Aghabologue and Magourney : the 
former is a large and handsome edifice, in the pointed 
style of architecture, with a broad, flat, castellated bell 
turret. The parochial school for boys and girls is built 
on the glebe adjoining the church, and is endowed by 
the rector with the entire plot of glebe : there are also 
two hedge schools in the parish. Near the church is 
a celebrated well, dedicated to St. Olan. In the church- 
yard is St. Olan’s Cap, a square stone, six feet high, 
inscribed with a number of Ogham characters, perfect 
and legible, with several others on the base covered by 
the soil ; and close to the doorway leading into the 
church is a large ancient square font of grey marble, 
curiously moulded at the corners. 

AGHACREW, or AUGHACREW, a parish, in the 
barony of Kilnemanagh, county of Tipperary, and 
province of Munster, 7 miles (N. N. E.) from Tipperary, 
on the new line of road from that place to Nenagh ; con- 
taining 390 inhabitants. It comprises only 364 statute 
acres, as applotted under the tithe act ; and contains 
High Park, the residence of the Rev. John Hunt. It is 
in the diocese of Cashel, and the rectory is wholly ap- 
propriate to the Archbishop’s mensal : the tithes amount 
to £40. 10. 4. There is no church : the Protestant in- 
habitants attend divine service at Toam, about three 
miles distant. 

AGHACROSS.— See AHACROSS. 

AGHADA,or AHADA, a parish, partly in the barony 
of Barrymore, but chiefly in that of Imokilly, county 
of Cork, and province of Munster, 4 miles (S. W. by 
W.) from Cloyne ; containing 2512 inhabitants. This 
parish, which includes the small fishing village of 
Whitegate, is situated on the south side of Cork har- 
bour, and on the road from Cloyne to Carlisle Fort. 
The village of Aghada occupies an elevated site, and con- 
tains the parish church and R. C. chapel. The village 
of Whitegate is a small fishing port, where several boats 
are employed in raising sand from the harbour, which 
is used for manure. On the north side of the parish a 
neat small pier has been constructed by subscription, 
where a steam-boat from Cork or Cove calls every 
Tuesday during the summer, and where coal and sand 
are occasionally landed. About 50 females are em- 
ployed in platting Tuscan straw for exportation, and a 
few in platting the crested dog’s tail, or “ traneen,” grass 
found here. The parish comprises 233 1 statute acres, 
as applotted under the tithe act : the greater part is 
under tillage, and nearly the whole of the remainder is 
pasture ; there is very little waste land or bog. At 
Whitegate are two quarries of stone used for building. 
There are several handsome houses within its limits : 
the principal are Aghada House, the residence of J. 
Roche, Esq. ; Whitegate House, of Mrs. Blakeney Fitz- 
gerald ; Carey stown, of Mrs. Atkin ; Had well Lodge, 
of J. Penrose, Esq.; Hadwell, of the Rev. Dr. Austen; 
Maryland House, of J. Haynes, Esq.; Rathcourcy, of 
J. Smith, Esq. ; and the glebe-house, of the Rev. J. 


AGH 


A G H 


Gore. There is a coast-guard station at East Ferry. 
Ihe living is a rectory and vicarage, in the diocese 
of Cloyne ; it was united in the reign of Chas. II. 
to the rectories and vicarages of Corkbeg, Rostellan, 
Inch, and Kilteskin or Titeskin, which, from the time 
of Bishop Crow, in the reign of Anne, were held in 
commendam by the Bishop of Cloyne, till the death of 
Dr. Brinkley in 1835, when they were disunited by the 
Ecclesiastical Commissioners, and made separate bene- 
fices, in the patronage of the Crown : the tithes amount 
to £292. 15. 6. The church, a neat structure, situated 
on an eminence above the harbour of Cove, was erected 
in 1812. The glebe-house adjoins it, and for its erection 
the late Board of First Fruits, in 1814, granted a loan 
of £1000 and a gift of £100 : the glebe comprises 20 
acres of profitable land. In the R. C. divisions the 
parish forms the head of a union or district, also called 
Saleen, which comprises the parishes of Aghada, Ros- 
tellan, Corkbeg, Inch, and Garranekenefeck, and con- 
tains three chapels, situated respectively in Aghada, 
Rostellan, and Inch ; the first is a small plain edifice, 
built by the late John Roche, Esq., who, in 1818, founded 
a school. The parochial school at Farcet was founded 
by the late Bishop Brinkley, who endowed it with two 
acres of land from the glebe, and is further supported by 
the Marchioness of Thomond. A school at Whitegate 
Hill was founded in 1827, for 50 boys, by the late R. U. 
Fitzgerald, Esq., who endowed it with £500 ; and 
female and infants’ schools have been built and are 
supported by his widow, Mrs. Blakeney Fitzgerald. 
In these schools about 100 boys and 50 girls re- 
ceive instruction : there are also two private schools, 
in which are about 50 boys and 40 girls. In the 
village of Aghada are the picturesque ruins of the old 
church. 

AGHADE, a parish, in the barony of Forth, county 
of Carlow, and province of Leinster, 2f miles (S.) 
from Tullow, on the river Slaney, and on the road from 
Tullow to Newtownbarry ; containing 368 inhabitants. 
It comprises 1614 statute acres, as applotted under the 
tithe act : the land is partly arable and partly pasture ; 
a great portion of the latter is marshy, but might be 
improved by draining ; the state of agriculture is very 
good. There are quarries of limestone and of a fine 
species of granite for building. Ballykealy is the resi- 
dence of J. J. Lecky, Esq. The living is an impro- 
priate curacy, endowed with two-thirds of the entire 
tithes, to which the vicarage of Ballon was recently 
united, and in the diocese of Leighlin and patronage of 
the Bishop ; the remainder of the tithes are impropriate 
in Lord Downes. It was episcopally united, in 1710, 
to the rectory of Gilbertstown and the vicarages of 
Ardristin and Ballon, which union was dissolved in 
1830, and divided into three distinct benefices. The 
tithes amount to £135, of which £45 is payable to the 
impropriator and £90 to the incumbent ; and the entire 
tithes of the benefice amount to £170. The church, 
which is pleasantly situated on rising ground above a 
small stream, is a plain old building in indifferent repair, 
and is about to be newly roofed, for which the Ecclesias- 
tical Commissioners have lately granted £591. There 
is neither glebe-house nor glebe. In the R. C. divisions 
the parish forms part of the union of Ballon and Ratoe, 
or district of Gilbertstown. There is a school, in which 
57 boys are taught. 

13 


AGHADERG, or AGHADERRICK, a parish, partly 
in the barony of Lower but chiefly in that of Upper 
Iveagh, county of Down, and province of Ulster, on 
the road from Newry to Belfast ; containing, with the 
towns of Loughbrickland and Scarvagh, 8981 inhabit- 
ants. This place formed part of the grant made by 
Queen Elizabeth, in 1585, to Sir Marmaduke Whit- 
church, who built a castle on the shore of Loughbrick- 
land, which was dismantled by Cromwell’s army, and 
remained in ruins till 1812, when it was taken down 
and a dwelling-house erected on its site. In 1690 
William III. encamped here with his army from the 
14th to the 25th of June, on his march to the Boyne : 
vestiges of the camp may still be traced, and Dutch 
coins are frequently found in the neighbourhood. The 
parish, according to the Ordnance survey, comprises 
13,919 statute acres, of which 119^ are covered with 
water, and 1 1,772 are applotted under the tithe act ; of 
waste and bog there is one acre to every twenty of 
arable land, and the pasture land is in the proportion of 
one to every five acres in tillage. The land is extremely 
fertile, and under a highly improved system of tillage : 
the bog is very valuable, being estimated at 32 guineas 
per acre. Great quantities of clay-slate are raised here 
for mending the roads and for building purposes ; and 
slate quarries have been formerly worked, but are now 
discontinued. The Newry Canal, in its progress to 
Lough Neagh, forms the western boundary of the parish 
and the county. There are two lakes ; Loughbrickland, 
which feeds the summit level of the canal, is skirted on 
its western shore by the road from Dublin to Belfast ; 
Loughshark, near the western boundary of the parish, 
is rendered highly picturesque by the beautiful grounds 
and rich plantations of Union Lodge, the seat of W. 
Fivey, Esq. Among the other gentlemen’s seats are 
Scarvagh House, the handsome residence of J. Lush- 
ington Reilly, Esq. ; Loughbricldand-House, of N. C. 
Whyte, Esq. ; Lisnagrade, of E. H. Trevor, Esq. ; and 
Woodville House, of R. Boardman, Esq. The manufac- 
ture of linen is carried on to a considerable extent, 
many persons being employed at their own houses in 
weaving damask, diapers, drills, shirtings, and sheetings, 
for the Banbridge manufacturers. The living is a vicar- 
age, in the diocese of Dromore, and in the patronage of 
the bishop ; the rectory is united, by charter of the 7th 
of Jas. I., to the rectories of Seapatrick, Drumballyroney, 
and Tullylish, and part of those of Drumgooland and 
Magherally, together constituting the corps of the deanery 
of Dromore, in the patronage of the Crown. The tithes 
amount to £746. 14.3., of which £497- 16.2. is payable to 
the dean, and £248. 18. 1. to the vicar. The gross annual 
value of the deanery, as returned by the Commissioners 
on Ecclesiastical Revenues, is £1483. 19. The church is 
a large handsome edifice, in the early English style, 
erected in 1688, and a lofty square tower surmounted by 
an octagonal spire of hewn stone was added to it, for 
which the late Board of First Fruits, in 1821, granted a 
loan of £500. The glebe-house is a handsome residence ; 
the Board, in 1801, gave £100 towards its erection, and 
also purchased a glebe of 24 acres for the vicar. The 
R. C. parish is co-extensive with that of the Established 
Church, and is the benefice of the Vicar-general; there 
are two chapels, one in Loughbrickland, a large and 
handsome edifice, and a smaller at Lisnagead. There 
are three places of worship for Presbyterians, one near 


AG H 


A G H 


the lake in connection with the Synod of Ulster, another 
at Glascar with the Seceding Synod, and a third at Scar- 
vagh, all of the first class ; one for Covenanters near 
Scarvagh, and one for Primitive Methodists at Lough- 
brickland. There are two public schools, in which are 
about 100 boys and 70 girls ; and eleven private pay 
schools, in which are about 400 boys and 290 girls. 
Some remains of an ancient church exist in the town- 
land of Drumsallagh ; and about half a mile to the 
south-west of Lough-brickland are three upright stones, 
called “the three sisters of Greenan,” apparently the 
remains of an ancient cromlech : they are situated on a 
gentle eminence, and near them is a fourth lying in a 
ditch. In 1826, a canoe formed out of a solid piece of 
oak was found in Meenan bog ; and in a small earth- 
work near it were found several gold ornaments, earthen 
pots, and other relics of antiquity. At Drummillar is a 
vast cairn of loose stones, 60 feet high and 226 feet 
in circumference. — See Loughbrickland and Scar- 
vagh. 

AGHADOE, a parish, in the barony of Magonihy, 
county of Kerry, and province of Munster ; contain- 
ing, with part of the town of Killarney, 4796 inhabit- 
ants. This place was formerly the head of a bishop’s 
see, merged from time immemorial into that of Ardfert, 
which, with Limerick, forms the bishoprick of Limerick, 
Ardfert and Aghadoe. The annals of Innisfallen state that 
a son of O’Donoghue was buried in an abbey founded 
here by him, which was standing in 1231. The only 
traces of its ancient dignity are the ruins of its cathedral, 
and the archdeaconry of Aghadoe, of which it still forms 
the corps. The parish is situated chiefly on the road 
from Killarney to Milltown and Tralee, and partly on 
that from Killarney to Cork : it comprehends within its 
limits the Island of Innisfallen, and part of the lakes of 
Killarney, and comprises 17,720 statute acres, as ap- 
plotted under the tithe act. The lands consist of a 
ridge of shaly rock bounding and overlooking the lake ; 
and of a flat spreading towards the north into a wide 
expanse of wet bog, with shoals of gravel. On the expi- 
ration of the lease of this manor, held under its proprietor. 
Lord Headley, in 1826, his lordship took the estate 
under his own management ; the farms, previously con- 
sisting of small portions of land held under middlemen 
by cottier tenants, were surveyed and improved upon 
an arrangement adapted to the mutual benefit of land- 
lord and tenant, and let on leases of 21 years in por- 
tions varying from 100 to 200 acres, with stipulated 
allowances for building comfortable farm-houses, making 
fences and drains, and drawing the requisite quantities 
of lime for the improvement of the soil. Several miles 
of new road have been constructed, and extensive plan- 
tations made solely at his lordship’s expense. The 
hovels formerly occupied by the cottier tenants have 
been superseded by good farm-houses built of stone and 
roofed with slate ; attached to each are orchards and 
gardens, and the whole face of the district presents 
an appearance of improvement. Lord Headley has 
a pattern farm of considerable extent adjoining his 
demesne, and has erected a splendid villa in the Italian 
style of architecture, commanding an interesting and 
extensive view over the great Lower Lake of Killarney ; 
the approach is by a small but elegant bridge across 
a ravine, leading from the entrance gate and lodge, 
which are both in a corresponding style of architecture. 

14 


The plantations of Aghadoe House comprise about 100 
acres, extending along the hill overlooking the lake. 
[For Lord Headley’s other improvements see the articles 
on Castleisland and Glanbegh.] Grena, the seat of John 
O’Connell, Esq., is pleasantly situated on the river 
Laune, near its outlet from the lake : this river is con- 
sidered capable of being made navigable from Castle- 
maine bay to the lake. The other seats are Lakeville, 
the residence of James O’Connell, Esq. , so called from 
its proximity to the Lower Lake ; Fossa Cottage, of 
W. B. Harding, Lord Headley’s agent ; Lakelands, at 
present unoccupied ; Gurtroe, of S. Riordan, Esq. ; Pros- 
pect Hall, of the Hon. T. Browne, brother of the Earl 
of Kenmare, commanding a fine view of the lake and 
its numerous islands ; and, on the opposite side of the 
lake, Tomies, the seat of D. J. O’SuJlivan, Esq. Near 
the town of Killarney, but within the limits of this 
parish, are the extensive flour-mills of Messrs. Galway 
and Leahy, worked by the small river Dinagh. 

The living is a rectory, in the diocese of Ardfert and 
Aghadoe, forming the corps of the archdeaconry of 
Aghadoe, in the patronage of the Bishop, and partly 
impropriate in the Earl of Donoughmore and H. Herbert, 
Esq., of Muckross. The tithes, including those of “ the 
five plough-lands of Killarney,” amount to £552. 4. 7§., 
of which £447- 4. is payable to the archdeacon, 
and of the remainder, £55 is payable to the lessee 
of Lord Donoughmore, and £50 to H. Herbert, Esq., 
as abbot of Innisfallen. A glebe of lOf acres, and one- 
third of the tithes of the “ Church Quarter” in the 
parish of Kilgarvan, with tithes in Tuosist amounting 
to £15.6. 11^. late currency, belong also to the arch- 
deacon. There is at present neither church nor glebe- 
house : the ancient and much used burial-ground ad- 
joining the ruins of the cathedral of Aghadoe has been 
enlarged by the addition of a slip of ground given 
by Lord Headley. It is in contemplation to erect a 
church on a site to the west of the ancient cathedral, 
presented by Lord Headley, who has also contributed 
£100 towards a subscription now in progress for this 
purpose, and at present amounting to about £700, to 
which the archdeacon, who has appointed a curate, sub- 
scribed £100, and the Countess of Rosse, £50. In the 
R. C. divisions this parish forms part of the unions or 
districts of Killarney, Killorglin, and Glenflesk ; the 
chapel for the portion of the parish in the district of 
Killarney is at Fossa, to the north of the lake, adjoin- 
ing the plantations of Lord Headley ; and at Barraduff 
is also a chapel for that part of the parish which is in 
the district of Glenflesk. In that part of the town of 
Killarney which is within this parish is a convent for 
nuns of the order of the Presentation, in which is a 
school of nearly 400 girls, who are gratuitously in- 
structed by the ladies of the convent, and to the support 
of which the Earl of Kenmare contributes £100 per 
annum. There is also a school supported partly by an 
annual donation of £5 from his lordship, and by sub- 
scription. The venerable remains of the ancient cathe- 
dral are situated on the summit of a range of low hills, 
sloping gradually towards the northern shore of the 
great Lower Lake. Near them are the ruins of an an- 
cient round tower, of which about 20 feet are yet stand- 
ing ; and at a short distance are those of an ancient 
castle, usually called “ the Pulpit.” 

AGHADOWN.— See AUGHADOWN. 


A G H 


A G H 


AGHADOWY, or AGHADOEY, a parish, in the 
half-barony of Coleraine, county of Londonderry, 
and province of Ulster, 6 miles (S. by W.) from Cole- 
raine, on the road from that place to Dungannon ; con- 
taining 7634 inhabitants. This parish, which is bounded 
on the north-east by the river Bann, is lOf miles in 
length from north-west to south-east ; and 4§ miles in 
breadth from north-east to south-west ; and, with the 
extra-parochial grange or liberty of Agivey, which is 
locally within its limits, and has since the Reformation 
been attached to it, comprises, according to the Ord- 
nance survey, 18,1 15f statute acres, of which 1727f are 
in Agivey, 119§ are covered with water, and 16,290 are 
applotted under the tithe act. Its western extremity 
is mountainous and barren, but eastward towards the 
river the soil is fertile ; the lands are generally in a 
high state of cultivation, particularly in the neighbour- 
hood of Keeley, Ballybrittan, Rushbrook, Flowerfield, 
and Mullamore ; in the valley where the Agivey and 
Aghadowy waters meet, the soil is very rich. Previously 
to the year 1828, no wheat was grown in this parish 5 
but since that period the system of agriculture has been 
greatly improved, and, in 1832, Mr. James Hemphill 
introduced the cultivation of mangel-wurzel and turnips, 
which has been attended with complete success. There 
are considerable tracts of bog, but they will soon be 
exhausted by the large quantities annually consumed in 
the bleach-greens ; and in the western or mountainous 
parts are large tracts of land which, from the depth of 
the soil, might easily be brought into cultivation. Iron- 
stone is found in several parts, but is more particularly 
plentiful in the townland of Bovagh. The greater por- 
tion of the parish formed part of the lands granted, in 
1609, by Jas. I. to the Irish Society, and is now held 
under the Ironmongers’ Company, of London, by whom, 
on the expiration of the present leases, the lands will be 
let, as far as may be practicable, on the English princi- 
ple. the Mercers’ Company, the Bishop of Derry, and 
the Rev. T. Richardson are also proprietors. There are 
numerous gentlemen’s seats, of which the principal 
are Rushbrook, the residence of J. Knox, Esq. ; Land- 
more, of Geo. Dunbar, Esq.; Flowerfield, of J. Hunter, 
Esq. ; Flowerfield, of Mrs. Hemphill ; Keeley, of Andrew 
Orr, Esq. ; Ballydivitt, of T. Bennett, Esq. ; Mullamore, 
of A. Barklie, Esq. ; Moneycarrie, of J. M c Cleery, Esq.; 
Meath Park, of J. Wilson, Esq. ; Bovagh, of R. Hezlett, 
Esq. ; and Killeague, of Mrs. Wilson. Previously to 
1730 the parish was for the greater part unenclosed and 
uncultivated; but three streams of water which intersect 
it attracted the attention of some spirited individuals 
engaged in the linen trade, which at that time was 
coming into notice, and had obtained the sanction of 
some legislative enactments for its encouragement and 
support. Of these, the first that settled here with a 
view to the introduction of that trade were Mr. J. Orr, 
of Ballybrittan, and Mr. J. Blair of Ballydivitt, who, in 
1744, established some bleach-greens ; since that 
time the number has greatly increased, and there are 
at present not less than eleven in the parish, of which 
ten are in full operation. The quantity of linen bleached 
and finished here, in 1833, amounted to 126,000 pieces, 
almost exclusively for the English market ; they are 
chiefly purchased in the brown state in the markets of 
Coleraine, Ballymoney, Strabane, and Londonderry, and 
are generally known in England as “ Coleraines,” by 
15 


which name all linens of a similar kind, wherever 
made, are now called, from the early celebrity which 
that town acquired for linens of a certain width and 
quality. In addition to the bleaching and finishing, 
Messrs. A. and G. Barklie have recently introduced the 
manufacture of linens, and have already 800 looms 
employed. Coarse kinds of earthenware, bricks, and 
water pipes, are manufactured in considerable quanti- 
ties ; and when the navigation of the river Bann is 
opened, there is every probability that this place will 
increase in importance. 

The living is a rectory, in the diocese of Derry, 
constituting the corps of the prebend of Aghadowy in 
the cathedral church of that see, and in the patronage 
of the Bishop : the tithes amount to £500. The church, 
situated in a fertile vale near the centre of the parish, 
and rebuilt in 1797, is a small neat edifice with a hand- 
some tower, formerly surmounted by a lofty octagonal 
spire, erected at the expense of the late Earl of Bristol 
(when bishop of Derry) , but which was destroyed by 
lightning in 1826; the tower, being but slightly injured, 
was afterwards embattled and crowned with pinnacles : 
the Ecclesiastical Commissioners have lately granted 
£183 for the repair of the church. The late Board of 
First Fruits granted £100 towards the erection of a 
glebe-house, in 1789 ; and in 1794 the present house, 
called Blackheath, was built by the late Sir Harvey 
Bruce, Bart., as a glebe-house for the parish. It is a 
handsome residence ; over the mantel-piece in the 
drawing-room is an elegant sculpture, representing 
Socrates discovering his pupil Alcibiades in the haunts 
of dissipation, which was brought from Italy by Lord 
Bristol, and presented to Sir H. Bruce. The glebe lands 
comprise 403 statute acres, exclusively of a glebe of 
121 acres in Agivey; and the gross value of the prebend, 
as returned by His Majesty’s Commissioners on Eccle- 
siastical Revenues, is £880 per annum. In the R. C. 
divisions this parish forms part of the union or district 
of Killowen, or Coleraine, and contains a small chapel 
at Mullaghinch. There are places of worship for Pres- 
byterians of the Synod of Ulster (of the first class), 
Seceders in connection with the Associate Synod (of 
the second class), and Covenanters, situated respec- 
tively at Aghadowy, Ringsend, Ballylintagh, and Kil- 
league. There are five schools, situated respectively at 
Mullaghinch, Droghead, Collins, Drumstaple, and Kil- 
league, supported by the Ironmongers’ Company ; two 
free schools at Gorran and Callyrammer, and two schools 
situated at Blackheath and Ballynakelly, of which the 
former, for females only, is supported by the rector’s 
lady, and the latter is aided by an annual donation from 
Mr. Knox. About 530 boys and 350 girls are taught 
in these schools ; and there is a private school of 
about 16 boys and 20 girls. A religious establish- 
ment was founded here, in the 7th century, by St. 
Goarcus, as a cell to the priory or abbey founded by 
him at Agivey, the latter of which became a grange 
to the abbey of St. Mary-de-la-Fouta, or Mecasquin, in 
1172. A very splendid lachrymatory or double patera 
of pure gold, of exquisite workmanship and in good 
preservation, was found at Mullaghinch in 1832, and is 
now in the possession of Alexander Barklie, Esq. In 
the townland of Crevilla is a large druidical altar, called 
by the country people the “ Grey Stane ;” and on the 
mountains above Rushbrook is a copious chalybeate 


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spring, powerfully impregnated with iron and sulphur 
held in solution by carbonic acid gas. 

AGHAGALLEN, or AUGHAGALLON, a parish, 
in the Upper half-barony of Massareene, county of 
Antrim, and province of Ulster, 2 miles (N. W. byN.) 
from Moira, on the road from that place to Antrim ; 
containing 3574 inhabitants. It is bounded on the west 
by Lough Neagh, and comprises, according to the 
Ordnance survey, 7885 statute acres, of which 2415 
acres are in the lough : the land is chiefly under an im- 
proved system of tillage ; there are about 300 acres of 
bog, but no waste. Many of the inhabitants are engaged 
in weaving linen and cotton, and some in spinning. The 
parish is intersected by the Lagan canal from Lough 
Neagh to Belfast. It is a vicarage, in the diocese of 
Connor, and is part of the union of Magheramesk ; the 
rectory is impropriate in the Marquess of Hertford. 
The tithes amount to £166. 10., of which £26. 10. is 
payable to the impropriator, and the remainder to the 
vicar. The church has long been in ruins. In the 
R. C. divisions it is the head of a union or district, 
called also the union of Ballinderry, which comprises 
the parishes of Aghagallen and Ballinderry, and con- 
tains two chapels, one of which is in this parish. The 
parochial school is principally supported by the vicar ; 
and there are three private schools and a Sunday 
school. 

AGHAGOWER.— See AUGIIAGOWER. 

AGHALEE, or AGHANALEE, a parish, in the 
Upper half-barony of Massareene, county of Antrim, 
and province of Ulster, 1 mile (N. by W.) from Moira, 
on the road from that place to Antrim ; containing 
1411 inhabitants. This place obtained the name of 
Soldiers’-town from its having had, during the war in 
1641, a barrack in the village, in which were quartered 
two troops of horse and foot belonging to the royal 
army. The parish comprises, according to the Ord- 
nance survey, 2499^ statute acres : the land is fertile 
and in a very high state of cultivation ; there is neither 
bog nor waste land. Limestone abounds, and great 
quantities are shipped off by the Lagan canal from 
Lough Neagh to Belfast. Broommount House is the 
property and residence of Stafford Gorman, Esq. Many 
of the working class are employed at their own houses 
in weaving linen and cotton for the manufacturers of 
Belfast. The parish is in the diocese of Dromore ; the 
rectory is impropriate in the Marquess of Hertford ; 
the vicarage forms part of the union of Magheramesk. 
The tithes amount to £100. 16., of which £21. 16. is 
payable to the impropriator, and the remainder to the 
vicar. The church of the union, situated here, is a 
small plain edifice in substantial repair. The glebe- 
house, about half a mile from the church, was built in 
1S26 ; and the glebe contains 13 statute acres, valued at 
£16. 5. per annum. In the R. C. divisions it forms part 
of the union or district of Moira. The parochial school, 
near the church, is principally supported by the vicar ; 
and there are two other public and two private schools. 
A finely wrought and flexible piece of gold, shaped 
like a gorget, was found near this place a few years 
since. 

AGHALOO.— See AUGHALOO. 

AGHALURCHER, a parish, partly in the barony of 
Clogher, county of Tyrone, but chiefly in that of 
Magherastephena, county of Fermanagh, and pro- 
16 


vince of Ulster, on the mail coach road from Cavan to 
Enniskillen ; containing, with the towns of Maguire’s- 
bridge and Lisnaskea, 15,218 inhabitants. This parish 
is situated on Lough Erne, and is 17 miles in length 
(extending from the island of Cordillar, near Crumcastle, 
to Ballaghlough, within two miles of Clogher), and 5 
miles in breadth. It comprises, according to the Ordnance 
survey, 47,0 15 J statute acres (including 3157|; covered 
with water), of which 4708^ are in Tyrone, and 42,307| 
in Fermanagh, and of which also, about one-fourth are 
pasturable mountain and bog. The system of agriculture 
is greatly improved, and the crops and stock are gene- 
rally productive and of good quality ; the peasantry, in 
addition to their agricultural pursuits, are employed in 
spinning and weaving, and are generally industrious 
and in comfortable circumstances. Limestone and lime- 
stone gravel abound, and there are some good quarries 
of freestone and of mill-stone. Slushill quarry is con- 
sidered one of the best in the North of Ireland, and 
produces freestone of excellent quality. The only river 
of note is Maguire’s river, which runs nearly the whole 
length of the parish ; it is navigable, and abounds with 
pike, perch, trout, and eels. There are two bridges over 
this river, one at Maguire’s-bridge (which is a flourish- 
ing market-town), and one at Ballindanaford, between 
that place and Lough Erne, a substantial structure of 
seven large arches, on the great line of road. Lough 
Erne, in which are seven islands included within this 
parish, abounds with salmon, pike, eels, perch, and 
bream ; it is navigable from Belleek, and affords a 
facility of supplying the barracks of Belturbet with turf 
from this place. The principal seats are Cole-Brooke, 
the residence of Sir A. B. Brooke, Bart. ; Drumgoon, 
of R. Graham, Esq. ; Curragh, of Capt. Chartres ; 
Nutfield, of Lady Brooke; Shebrag, of H. Gresson, Esq. ; 
and Holybrook, of H. Leslie, Esq. The living is a 
rectory and vicarage, in the diocese of Clogher, and in 
the patronage of the Provost and Fellows of Trinity 
College, Dublin: the tithes amount to £831. The 
church, a plain building at Coletrain, for the erection 
of which the late Board of First Fruits, in 1762, gave 
£200, was, by an act of the 7th of Geo. III. (1767), 
constituted the parish church : the Ecclesiastical Com- 
missioners have lately granted £142 for its repair. 
There is also a chapel of ease at Lisnaskea. The glebe- 
house, with a glebe comprising 518 statute acres, of 
which two-thirds are arable land, and one - third 
moor and bog, is situated within a mile and a half from 
the church ; there is also another glebe, which is from 
5 to 6 miles distant from either the church or chapel. 
The R. C. parish is co-extensive with that of the Estab- 
lished Church ; there are two chapels, one at Maguire’s- 
bridge, and the other called the Moate Chapel, near 
Lisnaskea. There are also places of worship for Pres- 
byterians and Primitive Wesleyan Methodists at Ma- 
guire’s-bridge ; the former is in connection with the 
Synod of Ulster, and of the third class. There are 
seven public schools, affording also instruction to about 
440 boys and 200 girls ; also six Sunday schools, and ten 
private schools, in which latter are about 300 boys and 
160 girls. Within two miles of Lisnaskea are the 
venerable ruins of the ancient church of Aghalurcher, 
said to have been built towards the close of the 9th 
century, and dedicated to St. Ronan. There are some 
remains of an old castle on the townland of Aheter, 


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A G H 


within a mile of Five-mile-town, on the Cole-Brooke 
estate, in which the insurgents are said to have sus- 
tained a siege in the last rebellion of the Maguires. 
There are two old castles in Largy deer-park ; and one 
in the town of Brookboro’, in the parish of Aghaveagh, 
all of which belonged to the Maguire family ; and on 
Naan, an island in Lough Erne, are the remains of a 
very extensive castle, which in remote times was a for- 
midable strong hold, surrounded on all sides by water 
of the lake more than a mile in breadth. There are 
numerous sulphureous and chalybeate springs in the 
parish. — See Maguire’s-bridge and Lisnaskea. 

AGHAMACART.— See AUGHAMACART. 

AGHAMORE.— See AGHAYOWER. 

AGHANAGH.— See AUGHANAGH. 

AGHANCON, a parish, partly in the barony of 
Clonlisk, but chiefly in that of Ballybritt, King’s 
county, and province of Leinster, Similes (N.) from 
Roscrea, on the road from Parsonstown to Mountrath ; 
containing 1378 inhabitants. It comprises 3000 statute 
acres, as applotted under the tithe act : the land is 
mostly poor, and the state of agriculture is not much 
improved ; there is some bog, and gritstone used for 
building is found. The principal seats are Leap Castle, 
the residence of H. Darby, Esq. ; and Summer Hill, of 
F. Freeman, Esq. The living is a rectory and vicarage, 
in the diocese of Killaloe, and in the patronage of the 
Bishop : the tithes amount to £150. The church is a 
neat edifice in good repair : it was built in 1786, at the 
joint expense of Dr. Pery, then Bishop of Limerick, and 
Jonathan Darby, Esq., with the aid of a gift of £390 
from the late Board of First Fruits. The glebe-house 
was built by the late incumbent, and has been much 
improved and enlarged at the expense of the Rev. R. M. 
Kennedy, the present incumbent ; the glebe comprises 
15 acres. The parochial school, in which 22 boys and 
17 girls are at present taught, is supported by Mr. Darby; 
the school-house is a good slated building near the church. 
There are also two private pay schools, in which are 
about 50 boys and 30 girls. The ruins of Ballybrit 
castle yet exist ; and on the townland of Garryhill is a 
mineral spring. 

AGHANLOO, or AGHANLOE, a parish, in the 
barony of Kenaught, county of Londonderry, and 
province of Ulster, 2 miles (N.) from Newtown- 
Limavady ; containing 2159 inhabitants. It comprises, 
according to the Ordnance survey, 825 ll statute acres, 
of which 50|- acres are under water. On the plantation 
of Ulster in the reign of Jas. I., the lands of this parish 
and several others were allotted to the Haberdashers’ 
Company, of London, who selected this as the head of 
their territory, and built a bawn and castle for its de- 
fence, in 1619, which was called Bally Castle, or “the 
Castle of the Town,” and placed under the custody of 
Sir Robt. M c Lellan, who had a garrison of 80 able men 
and arms for its protection. In the war of 1641 the castle 
was besieged by the insurgents, headed by Capt. O. 
Hagan, but was bravely defended by Capt. Philips, its 
governor, till May in the following year, when it was 
relieved by the united Derry and Strabane troops, under 
the command of Col. Mervyn, and the assailants put to 
flight ; but in the contentions which afterwards ensued 
it was destroyed, and has ever since been in ruins. The 
lands are of variable quality ; in the district bordering 
on the Roe the soil is fertile, being principally composed 

Vol. I,— 17 


of gravel, with a mixture of clay, and produces abundant 
crops of wheat, oats, &c. ; towards the mountains it is 
a stiff marl, with a substratum of white limestone, and 
produces excellent crops of flax and oats. The moun- 
tain of Benyevenagh, consisting entirely of basalt, and 
rising to the height of 1260 feet above the level of Lough 
Foyle, which washes its base, affords excellent pas- 
turage, and is cultivated on the western side nearly to 
its summit. Limestone abounds, and is found ranging 
immediately under the basalt throughout the whole 
length of the parish. The living is a rectory, in the 
diocese of Derry, and in the patronage of the Bishop : 
the tithes amount to £315. The church, a small neat 
edifice in the early English style, was erected in 1S26, 
by aid of a grant from the late Board of First Fruits ; 
it has a lofty square tower crowned with pinnacles, and 
is situated about a quarter of a mile to the south of the 
ruins of the old church. Divine service is also performed 
in two school-houses, in distant parts of the parish, 
alternately once every Sunday, in summer, and twice in 
winter. The glebe-house, nearly adjoining the church, 
is a handsome residence; the glebe comprises 32a. lr. 19 p. 
of excellent land. In the R. C. divisions the parish is 
included partly in the union or district of Magilligan, 
and partly in that of Newtown-Limavady. There are 
schools at Lisnagrib, Stradragli, and Ballycarton, in 
which are about 140 boys and 90 girls ; and there is 
also a private school of about 11 boys and 7 girls. The 
parochial school, supported by the rector, is at present 
discontinued, in consequence of the erection of a new 
school-house now in progress at the expense of the 
Marquess of Waterford. A portion of the south wall 
of the old church is still remaining ; it was destroyed by 
the insurgents in 1641, and was rebuilt from the pro- 
duce of forfeited impropriations, by order of Wm. III. 
The Rev. G. V. Sampson, author of a “ Map and Memoir 
of the County of Derry,” was rector of this parish, and 
his statistical survey is dated from the glebe of Aghanloo. 

AGHARNEY.— See AHARNEY. 

AGHAYALLIN, or AGHAVALAH, a parish, in 
the barony of Iraghticonnor, county of Kerry, and 
province of Munster, 4| miles (W. S. W.) fromTarbert ; 
island containing, with the town of Ballylongford and the 
of Carrigue, 5688 inhabitants. This place anciently 
belonged to the O’Connors of Kerry, whose principal 
seat, Castle Carrig-a-foile, signifying in the Irish lan- 
guage “ the rock of the chasm,” was situated on the 
south-west side of the inlet between the main land and 
the small island of Carrigue, which is encircled by the 
river Shannon. This castle was defended on the land 
side by a double wall flanked with circular and square 
bastions, which are still remaining, and was fortified 
against Queen Elizabeth by O’Connor, who placed in it 
a garrison under the command of Julio, an Italian 
officer. The castle, with the entire barony, excepting 
only one estate, was forfeited by the O’Connors of 
Kerry, in 1666, and conferred by the act of settlement 
upon the Provost and Fellows of Trinity College, Dub- 
lin. The parish is situated on the river Shannon, and 
within a mile and a half of the high road from Tralee to 
Limerick, and comprises 15,152 statute acres, as ap- 
plotted under the tithe act. About one-third of it is 
good arable land, rather more than one-third of a 
coarser quality, and the remainder is mountain pasture 
and bog. Limestone for manure is brought from As- 

D 


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A G H 


keaton by turf boats returning from Limerick; and sea 
manure is also extensively used. A species of brown 
stone of good quality is quarried for building. The 
principal seats are Kiletton, the residence of W. Hickey, 
Esq. ; Litter, of G. Wren, Esq. ; Rusheen, of F. Crosbie, 
Esq. ; Rushy Park, the property of Godfrey Leonard, 
Esq., at present occupied by Terence O’Connor, Esq. ; 
Ahanogran, the seat of J. O’Connor, Esq. ; and Asdee, 
of Barry Collins, Esq. A steam-boat passes daily from 
Kilrush to Tarbert and Limerick, and vessels of 30 
tons enter the creek for potatoes and turf, in which 
a considerable traffic is carried on. Dredging for oysters 
off the island of Carrigue, and fishing, employ several 
persons in the season. The living is a vicarage, in 
the diocese of Ardfert and Aghadoe, to which those of 
Liseltin, Killehenny, Galey, Murhir, Kilnaughten, Disert, 
Finuge, Listowel, and Knockanure are united, consti- 
tuting the union of Aghavallin, in the patronage of An- 
thony Stoughton, Esq., in whom the rectory is impro- 
priate. The tithes amount to £304. 12- 2., of which 
£152. 6. 1. is payable to the impropriator, and the re- 
mainder to the vicar : the gross amount of tithes of the 
union payable to the incumbent is £774. 17. 11. The 
church, having been condemned, is about to be rebuilt 
by the Ecclesiastical Commissioners. There are churches 
at Liseltin, Kilnaughten, and Listowel. There, are 
several glebes in the union, but all in the possession 
of the impropriator. In the R. C. divisions this parish 
is the head of the union or district of Ballylongford, 
also called Tarbert, which comprises the parishes of 
Aghavallin and Kilnaughten : a chapel has been recently 
erected at Asdee, as a chapel of ease to that at Ballylong- 
ford ; and there is also a chapel at Tarbert, in the parish 
of Kilnaughten. A large and commodious school-house 
has been erected at Ballylongford : but the Protestant 
children of the parish attend a school at Sallow Glin, 
the demesne of Mr, Sandes, on the border of the adjoin- 
ing parish ; there are six pay schools. — See Bally- 
longford and Carrigue. 

AGHAYOWER, or AGHAMORE, a parish, in the 
barony of Costello, county of Mayo, and province of 
Connaught, 4| miles (N.) from Ballyhaunis, on the 
road from that place to Swinford ; containing 7062 
inhabitants. St. Patrick is said to have erected a mo- 
nastery here, for his disciple St. Loarn. The surface of 
the parish is varied with several small lakes ; the lands 
are chiefly under tillage ; there is a considerable quan- 
tity of bog, also a quarry of black marble. The gentle- 
men’s seats are Cooge, the residence of James Dillon, 
Esq. ; Annach, of Thomas Tyrrell, Esq. ; and Oahil, 
of James M c Donnell, Esq. Fairs are held at Ballina- 
costello on June 3rd, Aug. 8th, Oct. 19th, and Dec. 
18th. The parish is in the diocese of Tuam, and is a 
rectory and vicarage, forming part of the union of Kil- 
tullagh : the tithes amount to £158. 4. 10. The an- 
cient church is in ruins, but the cemetery is still used. 
In the R. C. divisions it is part of the district of Knock ; 
the chapel is an old thatched building. There are seven 
pay schools, in which are about 550 children. At 
Cloonfallagh there is a mineral spring. 

AGRER, a parish, in the barony of Upper Deece, 
county of Meath, and province of Leinster, 2| miles 
(8. S. W.) from Summerhill ; containing 360 inhabitants. 
It is situated on the road from Summerhill to Eden- 
derry, and from the latter town to Dunboyne, and con- 
18 


tains 1900 statute acres, as applotted under the tithe 
act. Its surface gently undulates, and the soil consists 
of loam of different qualities : about one-third of the 
land is under tillage, and the remainder, with the excep- 
tion of about 100 acres of bog, half of which is cut 
away and partly planted, is good grazing land. There 
are quarries of limestone ; the Royal Canal passes near 
the southern extremity of the parish. Agher House, 
the residence of J. P. Winter, Esq., occupies a beautiful 
situation in a demesne of about 650 statute acres, con- 
taining some fine timber : the gardens are extensive and 
well laid out ; and the neat appearance of the cottages 
on the estate manifests the proprietor’s regard for the 
comforts of the peasantry. The living is a rectory, in 
the diocese of Meath, and in the patronage of the 
Crown : the tithes amount to £ 80. The church is a 
neat edifice, erected by voluntary contributions and a 
parochial rate, in 1804 : it contains a window painted 
by Gervaise, representing Paul preaching at Athens, 
from the cartoons of Raphael, which was formerly in 
the private chapel at Dangan, in the adjoining parish, 
when that place was the seat of the Wellesley family. 
There is a glebe-house, with a glebe of 12§ acres. In 
the R. C. divisions this parish forms part of the union 
or district of Laracor, or Summerhill : the chapel is 
situated on the townland of Agher, on ground given by 
the family of Winter. The parochial school for both 
sexes is aided by annual donations from Mr. Winter 
and the rector, and there is a private pay school ; also a 
dispensary. 

AGHERN, or AHERN, a parish, in the barony of 
Kinnataloon, county of Cork, and province of Muns- 
ter, 5 miles (E.) from Rathcormac ; containing 1367 
inhabitants. This parish is situated on the river Bride, 
over which is a bridge of three arches of stone, and on 
the mail car road from Rathcormac to Castle Martyr, 
and the direct road from Cork to Tullow. A castle was 
erected here, in 1389, by one of the Fitzgeralds, to com- 
mand the pass of the river, on which was an ancient 
ford at that time of great importance : it was of great 
strength, and was powerfully garrisoned by the Earl of 
Desmond, against the forces of Elizabeth. At no great 
distance were the castles of Duneen and Conna, both 
founded by the Fitzgeralds for the defence of other 
passes of the Bride, of which there are some picturesque 
remains. The parish comprises 3480 statute acres, as 
applotted under the tithe act, and valued at £2296 per 
ann. : 2855 acres are arable and pasture land ; 425 are 
coarse land and bog, but capable of being improved ; 
and 200 consist of waste and mountain. The soil is in 
general fertile, particularly in the Yale of the Bride, 
where the substratum is limestone ; the land is princi- 
pally under tillage, and the system of agriculture is 
rapidly improving under the exertions of Spotsw’ood 
Bowles, Esq., and the Hon. and Rev. L. Tonson. Ahern 
House, the residence of Mr. Bowles, is pleasantly situ- 
ated near the picturesque ruins of the ancient castle, 
and the grounds comprise some interesting and beautiful 
scenery. There is a constabulary police station ; and 
petty sessions are held on the first Thursday in each 
month. The living is a rectory and vicarage, in the diocese 
of Clovne ; the rectory united from time immemorial to 
that of Ballynoe, and in the patronage of the Crown ; 
and the vicarage episcopally united for many years to 
the entire rectory of Britway, and in the patronage of 


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AGH 


the Bishop. The tithes amount to £370. 18. 5§., which 
is equally divided between the rector and the vicar ; and 
the gross tithes of the union, payable to the incumbent, 
amount to £456. 17. 4^. The church, situated near the 
bridge, at the extremity of the parish, is a neat edifice, 
built in 1817, for which the late Board of First Fruits 
granted a loan of £500. The Board also granted a gift 
and loan, each of £300, for the erection of the glebe - 
house, in 1822 : the glebe comprises seven acres of pro- 
fitable land. In the R. C. divisions the parish forms 
part of the union or district of Knockmourne, also 
called Ballynoe. The parochial school, in which are 
about 20 boys and 20 girls, is endowed with an acre of 
land by the Duke of Devonshire ; there are also a 
Sunday school and two hedge schools, in which latter 
are about 80 boys and 40 girls. 

AGHERTON, or BALLYAGHRAN, a parish, in the 
liberties of Coleraine, county of Londonderry, and 
province of Ulster, 3 miles (N. N. W.) from Coleraine ; 
containing, with the town of Portstewart, 2746 inhabi- 
tants. This parish occupies the whole of the pro- 
montory between the Bann and the Atlantic, comprising, 
according to the Ordnance survey, 3896f statute acres, 
of which 3709 are applotted under the tithe act, and 
valued at £2831 per annum. With the exception of about 
320 acres, the whole is arable ; there is a small portion 
of unenclosed land, part of which is light and sandy, and 
chiefly a rabbit warren, and part affords excellent pasture. 
The cultivation of wheat was introduced by Mr. Orr, 
in 1829, and great quantities are now annually raised. 
Similar success attended the cultivation of barley, pota- 
toes, mangel-wurzel, and turnips ; and the agriculture of 
the parish is at present in a very flourishing state. Iron- 
ore is found in great quantities, and might be worked 
to great advantage, but no works have yet been estab- 
lished. There are several gentlemen’s seats, the prin- 
cipal of which are Cromore, an elegant mansion, the 
residence of J. Cromie, Esq., the principal proprietor in 
the parish, who has recently planted several acres with 
forest and other trees ; Flowerfield, of S. Orr, Esq. ; 
O’Hara Castle, of H. O’Hara, Esq. ; Low Rock, of Miss 
M'Manus ; and Black Rock, of T. Bennett, Esq. There 
are also several villas and handsome bathing lodges at 
Portstewart, a pleasant and well-attended watering-place. 
A small manufacture of linen and linen yarn is carried 
on, and many of the inhabitants are employed in the 
fisheries, particularly in the salmon fishery on the river 
Bann. Of late, great quantities of salmon have been 
taken along the whole coast, by means of a newly in- 
vented net j and the sea fishery is continued for a long 
time after that on the river is bylaw compelled to cease. 
The Bann, which is the only outlet from Lough Neagh, 
discharges itself into the Atlantic at the western point 
of the parish it appears to have changed its course, 
and now passes close under the point of Down Hill, the 
celebrated mansion erected by the Earl of Bristol, when 
Bishop of Derry. The living is a rectory, in the diocese 
of Connor, united by charter of Jas. I„ in 1609, to the 
rectory of Ardclinis, together constituting the union of 
Agherton, and the corps of the treasurership in the 
cathedral church of St. Saviour, Connor, in the patron- 
age of the Bishop. The tithes amount to £240 ; and 
the tithes of the union, including glebe, amount to £470, 
constituting the gross income of the treasurership, to 
which no duty is annexed. The church, a small edifice, 
19 


was erected in 1826, at an expense of £960, of which 
£100 was raised by subscription, £800 was a loan from 
the late Board of First Fruits, and £6 0 was given by 
John Cromie, Esq., who also paid the interest on £700 
of the loan until the debt was cancelled in 1833. Divine 
service is also performed by the curate every Sunday 
in the school-house at Portstewart. The glebe-house, 
a handsome residence close adjoining the church, was 
built in 1806, for which the Board granted a gift of 
£250 and a loan of £500 ; the glebe comprises 20 acres 
of profitable land, valued at £S0 per annum. In the 
R. C. divisions the parish forms part of the union or 
district of Coleraine. There are places of worship for 
Presbyterians and Wesleyan Methodists, the former in 
connection with the Synod of Ulster and of the third 
class. There is a male free school, and a female and 
two infants’ schools are supported by Mrs. Cromie, who 
has built a large school-room for one of the latter : 
275 children are taught in these schools ; and there 
are four private schools, in which are about 130 chil- 
dren, and four Sunday schools. Mark Kerr O’Neill, 
Esq., in 1814, bequeathed £40 per ann. to the poor. 
There are some remains of the ancient castle of Mac 
Quillan on the glebe land adjoining the church. Near 
them are the gabled walls of the old church, still 
tolerably entire ; and in the adjoining field is an 
extensive cave formed of uncemented walls covered 
with large flat stones, one of the largest and most 
perfect yet known in this part of the country : 
there are also several other caves in the parish. In 
the townland of Carnanee is a very fine triangular 
fort, called Craig-an-Ariff ; it is defended by fosses 
and breastworks, and is the only fort so constructed 
in this part of Ireland ; within the enclosure are two 
cairns or tumuli. Dr. Adam Clarke, whose father kept a 
school for several years in the old parish church, 
received the rudiments of his education here ; and in 
the latter part of his life spent much of his time in 
the summer at Portstewart, where during his stay in 
1830, he built a handsome house, and erected in the 
gardens of Mr. Cromie a curious astronomical and geo- 
graphical dial, which is still preserved there. — See 
Portstewart. 

AGHIART, a parish, in the barony of Killian, 
county of Galway, and province of Connaught, 12 
miles (E. S. E.) from Tuam, on the road from that place 
to Ballinasloe ; the population is returned with the parish 
of Ballinakilly. It comprises 3203 statute acres, as 
applotted under the tithe act : the soil is fertile, the land 
generally in a good state of cultivation, and the bogs are 
all reclaimable. Mount Bellew is the seat of M. D. 
Bellew, Esq., and Bellew’s Grove, of Mrs. Bellew. The 
parish is in the diocese of Tuam, and is a rectory and 
vicarage, forming part of the union of Moylough : the 
tithes, which also include those of Ballinakilly, amount 
to £148. 10. 85. In the R. C. divisions it is the head 
of a union or district, also called the union of Mount 
Bellew, which comprises the parishes of Aghiart, Kili- 
ascobe, and Moylough, and contains three chapels, 
situated respectively at Mount Bellew, Menlo, and Moy- 
lough j the first is a handsome slated edifice, erected at 
the sole expense of C. D. Bellew, Esq. 

AGHNAMADLE, a parish, in the barony of Upper 
Ormond, county of Tipperary, and province of Mun- 
ster. 3§ miles (S.) from Moneygall, on the mail coach 

D 2 


A G 1 


A G L 


road from Limerick to Dublin ; containing, with the 
town of Toomavara, 3577 inhabitants. This place was 
formerly the residence of the O’Egan family, and there 
are still considerable portions of the old Court of Agh- 
namadle remaining. The parish, which is bounded on 
the east by King’s county, comprises 6076 statute acres, 
as applotted under the tithe act. The living is a rectory 
and vicarage, in the diocese of Killaloe, and in the pa- 
tronage of the Bishop : the tithes amount to £369. 4. 

The church is a small edifice, situated at Toomavara. 
There is neither glebe nor glebe-house. In the R. C. 
divisions it is the head of a union or district, which com- 
prises also the parish of Ballymackey, and is called the 
union of Toomavara, in which are two chapels, one at 
Toomavara, a large building, and one at Ballymackey. 
About 1*20 boys and 120 girls are taught in two public 
schools ; and there are also three private schools, in 
which are about 170 children. A poor fund has been 
established here on Dr. Chalmers’ plan. There are 
remains of Blane castle, and of the old church, near 
which is an oratory apparently of great antiquity ; and 
at Ballinlough is a chalybeate spring. — See Tooma- 
vara. 

AGHNAMOLT.— See ANNAMULT. 

AGHNAMULLEN.— See AUGHNAMULLEN. 

AGHOLD, or AGH-UAILL, a parish, in the half- 
barony of Shillelagh, county of Wicklow, and pro- 
vince of Leinster, 5 miles (E. byS.) fromTullow; con- 
taining 2977 inhabitants. This parish, which is situated 
on the south-western boundary of the county, comprises 
7978 statute acres, as applotted under the tithe act. 
The state of agriculture is improving ; there is a consi- 
derable quantity of mountain land and bog. The 
gentlemen’s seats are Munny, the residence of Capt. 
A. A. Nickson ; the Hall, of A. Haskins, Esq. ; and 
Killenure, of A. Muntford, Esq. A constabulary police 
station has been established here ; and petty sessions 
are held at Coolkenno every alternate Monday. The 
living is a rectory, in the diocese of Leighlin, consti- 
tuting the corps of the prebend of Agliold in the cathe- 
dral church of St. Lazerian, Leighlin, and episcopally 
united, in 1714, to the impropriate curacies of Mullina- 
cuff, Crecrim, and Liscoleman, which four parishes form 
the union of Aghold, in the patronage of the Bishop. 
The tithes amount to £464. 3. 3f. ; and the gross tithes 
of the union, payable to the incumbent, .amount to 
£674. 9- 9?- The church was erected in 17 16, and 
enlarged by aid of a loan of £350 from the late Board 
of First Fruits, in 1814. The glebe-house was built by 
a gift of £100 and a loan of £1350 from the same 
Board ; the glebe comprises 10 acres. In the R. C. 
divisions this parish is included in the union or district 
of Clonmore ; the chapel is at Kilquigan. There are 
five schools, of which the parochial school is under the 
Trustees of Erasmus Smith’s Charity, and another is 
aided by the Governors of the Foundling Hospital, and 
in which about 160 boys and 120 girls are taught. 

AGHOUR.— See FRESHFORD. 

AGHRIM.— See RATHDRUM. 

AGHULTIE. — See BALLY HOOLEY. 

AGIVEY, a grange, or extra parochial district, 
locally in the parish of Aghadowy, half-barony of 
Coleraine, county of Londonderry, and province of 
Ulster, 6 miles (S. S. E.) from Coleraine; containing 
938 inhabitants. This place appears to have been the 
20 


site of a religious establishment, by some called a priory 
and by others an abbey, the foundation of which, about 
the beginning of the seventh century, is attributed to St. 
Goarcus, who afterwards founded a cell at Agha-Dub- 
thaigh, now Aghadowy. This establishment subsequently 
became dependent on the abbey of St. Mary-de-la-Fonta, 
or Mecasquin, which was founded in the year 1172, and 
to which this district became a grange. There are still 
some slight remains of the ancient religious house, with 
an extensive cemetery, in which are some tombs of the 
ancient family of the Cannings, ancestors of the present 
Lord Garvagh. The liberty is situated on the western 
bank of the river Bann, and on the road fromNewtown- 
Limavady to Ballymoney, which is continued over the 
river by a light and handsome bridge of wood, of 6 
arches 203 feet in span, erected in 1834 at the joint 
expense of the counties of Londonderry and Antrim. 
It comprises, according to the Ordnance survey, 1727J 
statute acres, the whole of which is free from tithe 
or parochial assessment, and forms part of the estates of 
the Ironmongers’ Company, of London. The land is 
fertile, but being divided into small holdings in the 
occupation of tenants without capital to expend on its 
improvement, has been greatly neglected, and no regular 
system of agriculture has been adopted ; there is a small 
tract of bog, which is now nearly worked out for fuel. 
Potters’ clay of good quality is found here in great 
abundance ; and a considerable manufacture of coarse 
earthenware, bricks, and water pipes is carried on for 
the supply of the neighbourhood. Iron-stone is found 
near the Aghadowy water, and there are also some indi- 
cations of coal. A fair is held on Nov. 12tli, under a 
charter granted to the monks of Coleraine at a very 
early period, and is chiefly for the sale of cattle and 
pigs. There is neither church nor any place of worship 
in the district ; the inhabitants attend divine service 
at the several places of worship in Aghadowy. 

AGLISH, a parish, partly in the barony of Barretts, 
but chiefly in that of East Muskerry, county of Cork, 
and province of Munster, 10 miles (W. by S.) from 
Cork; containing 2782 inhabitants. It is situated on 
the south bank of the river Lee, between it and the 
Bride, which winds pleasantly on its southern border ; 
and contains 6701 statute acres, as applotted under the 
tithe act, and valued at £6527 per annum : 5000 acres 
are arable, 1481 are pasture, 150 are woodland, and 70 
are waste land and bog. The land is generally fertile, 
and the state of agriculture is improving ; irrigation is 
practised very advantageously on the grass lands. On 
the south side of the parish lies an extensive marsh, 
reclaimable at a small expense. The gentlemen’s seats 
are Curihaly, that of H. Penrose, Esq. ; Farren Lodge, 
of S. Penrose, jun.. Esq. ; Elm Park, of Valentine Barry, 
Esq. ; and Rose-Mount, of W. Hawkes, Esq. Here is a 
station of the constabulary police. The living is a 
vicarage, in the diocese of Cork, and in the patronage 
of the Bishop : the rectory is partly impropriate in 
P. Cross, of Shandy Hall, Esq., and partly appropriate 
to the prebend of Kilbrogan in the cathedral church of 
St. Finbarr, Cork. The tithes amount to £573. 3. Ilf., 
of which £152. 6. If. is payable to the impropriator, 
£379. 1. 1. to the prebendary, and £41. 16. 9- to the 
vicar. The church is in ruins, and until it can be 
rebuilt divine service will continue to be performed in a 
house licensed by the bishop. There is no glebe-house. 


A G L 


AGL 


In the R. C. divisions this parish forms part of the union 
or district of Ovens : the chapel is a large old plain 
building. Besides the parochial school for boys and 
girls, a school in which are about 60 boys is partly sup- 
ported by an annual donation of £8. 8 . from Mr. Rye : 
there are also two other pay schools. 

AGLISH, a parish, in the barony of Magonihy, 
county of Kerry, and province of Munster, 4 miles 
(S. E.) from Milltown, on the north-east side of the river 
Laune, and on the road from Killarney to Milltown ; 
containing 1901 inhabitants. It comprises 4924 statute 
acres, as applotted under the tithe act : the greater part 
of the land is of the best quality and chiefly under 
tillage, and the system of agriculture has been greatly 
improved within the last few years ; there are about 100 
acres of bog. At Barleymount is a quarry of excellent 
building stone, from which the stone was taken for Lord 
Headley’s mansion at Aghadoe. The living is a vicarage, 
in the diocese of Ardfert and Aghadoe, and in the 
patronage of the Earl of Cork, in whom the rectory is 
impropriate: the tithes amount to £156. 18. 4^., one- 
half of which is payable to the impropriator, and the 
other to the vicar. The church is a neat structure, with 
an octagon tower on a square base, and for its erection 
the late Board of First Fruits gave £600, in 1822. The 
glebe-house was built about the same time, the Board 
having granted a gift of £337 and a loan of £142 : the 
glebe comprises 14a. 3r. Ip. In the R. C. divisions 
the parish is included in the union or district of Fieries ; 
the old chapel is disused, and a chapel was built within 
the last fourteen years at Ballyhar, on the border of this 
parish, but within the limits of the parish of Kilcredane. 
A school, in which are 50 boys and 6 girls, is supported 
by Lord Kenmare ; and there is a pay school, in which 
are about 30 boys and 20 girls. Immediately adjoining 
the church are the remains of the ancient structure, 
completely mantled with ivy, and forming an interesting 
appendage. 

AGLISH, or AGLISHMARTIN, a parish, in the 
barony of Iverk, county of Kilkenny, and province of 
Leinster, 3 miles (W.) from Waterford, on the river 
Suir, and on the road from Waterford to Carrick-on- 
Saiir ■, containing 401 inhabitants, of which number, 142 
are In the village. It comprises 2414 statute acres, and 
is a rectory, in the diocese of Ossory, and in the patron- 
age of the Crown : the tithes amount to £96. 18. 5^. 
There is neither church nor glebe-house ; the glebe con- 
sists of 2| acres. In the R. C. divisions it is part of the 
union or district of Moncoin. 

AGLISH, county of Mayo.— S ee CASTLEBAR. 

AGLISH, a parish, in the barony of DECiES-within- 
Drum, county of Waterford, and province of Mun- 
ster, 8 miles (W.) from Dungarvan ; containing 36S9 
inhabitants, of which number, 302 are in the village. 
This parish is situated on the river Blackwater, by which 
it is bounded on the west, and comprises about 7800 
statute acres of arable, pasture, and meadow land, 810 of 
woodland, 1393 of waste, and 1296 of bog and marsh, 
the greater portion of which affords good pasturage for 
cattle : of its entire extent, 6706 acres are applotted 
under the tithe act. Part of it is mountainous, but 
towards the river the soil is generally fertile. It is 
in the diocese of Lismore, and is a vicarage, forming part 
of the union of Affane j the rectory is impropriate in the 
Duke of Devonshire. The tithes amount to £480, of 
21 


which £320 is payable to the impropriator, and the re- 
mainder to the vicar. There is a chapel at Yillierstown 
independent of the vicarage, founded and endowed by 
John, Earl of Grandison ; the living is a donative, in the 
patronage of H. Y. Stuart, Esq. In the R. C. divisions 
the parish is the head of a union or district, which com- 
prises also the parish of Whitechurch and part of the 
parish of Ardmore, and contains three chapels, situated 
respectively at Aglish, Ballynamileach, and Slievegrine 
also a friary chapel. There are two schools, supported 
by H. V. Stuart, Esq., in which 183 children are in- 
structed ; and five pay schools, in which are about 220 
boys and 85 girls. 

AGLISHCLOGHANE, or EGLISH, a parish, in 
the barony of Lower Ormond, county of Tipperary, 
and province of Munster, 3 miles (N. E.) from Bur- 
ris-o-kane, on the road from Roscrea to Portumna ; con- 
taining 1961 inhabitants. It comprises 4474 statute 
acres, as applotted under the tithe act. The system of 
agriculture is improving, and a considerable portion of 
moor land, formerly waste, has been reclaimed and 
brought into cultivation : there is an abundance of bog. 
Limestone of superior quality abounds, and is quarried 
for building. Milford, pleasantly situated in a well-plant- 
ed demesne, is the occasional residence of Ralph Smith, 
Esq. The living consists of a rectory, vicarage, and 
perpetual curacy, in the diocese of Killaloe ; the vicar- 
age, with cure of souls, forms the corps of the archdea- 
conry of Killaloe, with which are held, without cure, the 
rectories of Aglishcloghane, Lorrha, and Dorrha, epis- 
copally united in 1785, and by act of council in 1802, 
and in the patronage of the Bishop ■, the perpetual 
curacy is in the patronage of the Archdeacon. The 
tithes amount to £161. 10. 9?., and of the entire union, 
to £1013. 7. 8f. The church of the union is at Lorrha, 
where is also the glebe-house of the archdeaconry 5 and 
there are two glebes, comprising together about 43 acres, 
situated respectively near the sites of the old churches. 
The church of the perpetual curacy, a neat modern 
building, for the erection of which the late Board of 
First Fruits gave £800, in 1813, is situated near the 
ruins of the old church, in the churchyard of which is 
a very old ash tree of large dimensions. The glebe- 
house was built by aid of a gift of £450 and a loan of 
£50 from the same Board, in 1816; the glebe com- 
prises 13^ acres ; and the stipend of the perpetual curate 
is £100 per ann., paid by the archdeacon. This is 
one of the three parishes which constitute the R. C. 
union or district of Burris o-kane : the chapel is situated 
in the village of Eglish. The parochial school is sup- 
ported under the patronage of the perpetual curate 5 
and there is also a school in the R. C. chapel. 

AGLISHCORMICK, or LISCORMUCK, a parish, 
partly in the barony of Coonagh, but principally in 
that of Clanwilliam, county of Limerick, and pro- 
vince of Munster, 2| miles (W. S. W.) from Pallas- 
Greine, on the road to Bruff 5 containing 316 inhabit- 
ants. It comprises 1020^ statute acres, as applotted 
under the tithe act : the land is in general of good 
quality. The living is a rectory and vicarage, in the 
diocese of Emly, and forms part of the corps of the 
precentorship in the cathedral church of St. Alibeus, 
Emly, in the patronage of the Archbishop of Cashel. 
The tithes amount to £138. 9. 2f. : there is neither 
church, glebe-house, nor glebe. In the R. C. divisions 


AHA 


AHA 


the parish is included in the union or district of Kil- 
teely, or Listeely. A school-house is now being erected; 
and there is a pay school of about 30 boys and 12 girls. 
There are some remains of the old parish church. 

AGLISHDRINAGH, or AGLISHDRIDEEN, a pa- 
rish, in the barony of Orrery and Kilmore, county 
of Cork, and province of Munster, 3| miles (S. W. by 
W.) from Charleville, on the road from that place to 
Buttevant ; containing 973 inhabitants. It comprises 
4770 statute acres, as applotted under the tithe act, and 
valued at £4228 per ann. : the land under tillage is in 
general of good quality, but a very large portion of the 
parish consists chiefly of hilly pasture. The living is a 
rectory, in the diocese of Cloyne, and in the patronage 
of the Bishop : the tithes amount to £240. There is 
neither church, glebe-house, nor glebe. In the R. C. 
divisions this is one of the six parishes that constitute 
the union of Ballyhea, or Newtown. There are some 
vestiges of the ancient parish church. 

AGLISHMARTIN. — See AGLISH. 

AGLISHVENAN. — See BALLYMACART. 

AHACROSS, or AGHACROSS, a parish, in the 
barony of Condons and Clongibbons, county of Cork, 
and province of Munster, 4 miles (W. by N.) from 
Mitchelstown : the population is returned with the pa- 
rish of Templemolloga. This parish, which is situated 
on the confines of the county of Limerick, and near the 
road from Kildorrery to Mitchelstown, comprises only 
356| statute acres, as applotted under the tithe act, and 
valued at £445 per annum : it consists chiefly of moun- 
tainous pasture, and for all civil purposes has merged 
into the parish of Templemollogga, of which it is now 
regarded only as a townland. Fairs are held on 
Jan. 20th and Oct. 3rd, chiefly for cattle. It is a rec- 
tory, in the diocese of Cloyne, and forms part of the 
union of Clenore, from which it is detached by the 
intervention of several other parishes . the tithes amount 
to £30. 5. 7. The nearest church is at Marshalstown. 
In the R. C. divisions it is included in the union or dis- 
trict of Kildorrery. 

AHAMPLISH, a parish, in the barony of Lower 
Carbery, county of SLiGO,and province of Connaught, 
9 miles (N. N. W.) from Sligo ; containing, with the 
villages of Ballintample and Grange, and the islands of 
Innismurray and Dernish (which are separately des- 
cribed), 7483 inhabitants. It is situated on the north- 
west coast, near the entrance to the bay of Sligo, and 
on the road from Sligo to Ballyshannon ; and comprises 
9286 statute acres, of which 6509 are applotted under 
the tithe act, and of which, also, 7311 are arable and 
pasture, and J975 bog and waste. The surface is naked 
and unadorned, having only one small wood on the lands 
of Grellagh, near the river Bunduff, the estate of Vis- 
count Palmerston, who is proprietor of the greater part 
of the parish. The mountain of Benbulbin extends in a 
direction from east to west, and separates this parish 
from Drumcliffe. The principal village is Grange, con- 
sisting of one street, in which are only four decent houses, 
and the rest are thatched cabins. Some improvement 
in the mode of tillage has taken place of late years, but 
the system of husbandry is comparatively still very de- 
ficient, and the farming implements are of a very inferior 
kind : limestone and turf are plentiful. A great extent 
of bog has been reclaimed by Lord Palmerston, who has 
also planted large scopes of sandy banks with bent. 

22 


Considerable improvements at Mullaghmore have been 
made exclusively by the direction and at the expense 
of that nobleman, which are noticed under the head of 
that place. There is a salmon fishery in the river Bun- 
duff ; and at Mullaghmore several boats were formerly 
employed in taking turbot, cod, and other kinds of fish, 
which abound on this part of the coast. There are some 
corn-mills in the parish. The principal seats are Money- 
gold, the residence of J. Soden, Esq. ; Streeda, of Booth 
Jones, Esq. ; Grange, of the Rev. C. West, the incum- 
bent ; and Creenymore, of the Rev. J. M'Hugh, P.P. 
Seven fairs for live stock are held at Grange ; and a 
fair on Feb. 1st is held at Cliffony, which has also 
a penny post from Sligo. Grange is both a coast- 
guard and a constabulary police station. The living is 
a vicarage, in the diocese of Elphin, and in the patron- 
age of the Bishop ; the rectory is impropriate in Lord 
Palmerston. The tithes amount to £221. 10. 9., divided 
in moieties between the impropriator and the incum- 
bent. The church is a plain edifice, built in 1813, for 
which the late Board of First Fruits granted a loan of 
£700, and Lord Palmerston contributed £100 : it con- 
tains a marble monument to the Soden family, with an 
inscription recording the death of James Soden, in 1?05, 
at the age of 109 years : the Ecclesiastical Commis- 
sioners have lately granted £119 for its repair. There 
is neither glebe nor glebe-house. The R. C. parish is 
co-extensive with that of the Established Church : there 
are two chapels, situated at Grange and Cliffony, and 
built at the sole expense of Lord Palmerston. Three 
schools are supported principally by his lordship, each 
of which has a house and garden, and in which are 170 
boys and more than 100 girls ; and in other private 
schools are taught more than 100 boys and 60 girls. 

AHARA, otherwise AUGHARA, a parish, in the 
barony of Abbeyshruel, county of Longford, and 
province of Leinster, 4| miles (N. E.) from Bally- 
mahon, on the mail coach road from that place to Mul- 
lingar : the population is returned with Kilglass. It 
comprises 2277 statute acres, as applotted under the 
tithe act : the land is principally under tillage, but there 
is a large tract of bog. Castle-Wilder is the residence 
of H. Pollock, Esq. Petty sessions are held at Castle- 
Wilder every alternate week. It is in the diocese of 
Ardagh, and is part of the union of Kilglass, to which 
the vicarage is attached ; the rectory is impropriate in 
Col. Fox. The tithes amount to £108. 15.4^., of which 
£37. 7- 85. is payable to the impropriator, and the re- 
mainder to the vicar : the glebe comprises 37 acres 
valued at £59- 19. 2. per annum. In the R. C. divisions 
it is also united to Kilglass. There are five hedge 
schools, in which are 96 boys and 56 girls. The remains 
of the church are still visible at Ahara, and there are 
also ruins of the ancient castle of Ardandra. 

AHARNEY, or AGHARNEY, also called LISDOW- 
NEY, a parish, partly in the barony of Upper Ossory, 
Queen’s county, but chiefly in that of Galmoy, county 
of Kilkenny, and in the province of Leinster, 3 
miles (S. by E.) from Durrow, on the road to Kilkenny ; 
containing 2156 inhabitants. It comprises 6809 statute 
acres, as applotted under the tithe act, and valued at 
£4616 per ann., and is nearly equally divided between 
tillage and pasturage ; there is plenty of limestone, used 
both for building and burning. At Ballyconra is an 
extensive flour-mill, capable of manufacturing 16,000 


A II A 


A H I 


barrels of flour annually ; and there is another at the 
bridge of Ballyragget, both carried on by John Mosse, 
Esq. Ballyconra, situated in a fine demesne on the 
banks of the Nore, is the ancient seat of the family of 
Butler, Earls of Kilkenny, and is the occasional re- 
sidence of the Hon. Col. Pierce Butler. A manor court 
is held at Clontubrid once a month, the jurisdiction of 
which extends over part of this parish. The living con- 
sists of a rectory and a vicarage, in the diocese of 
Ossory, the former united to the rectory of Attanagh, 
and the latter forming part of the vicarial union of 
Attanagh : the tithes amount to £340, of which 
£226. 13. 4. is payable to the rector, and the remainder 
to the vicar. In the R. C. divisions this parish is the 
head of a district, called the union of Lisdowney, com- 
prising the parishes of Aharney, Sheffin, Balleen, Cool- 
cashin, and parts of Rathbeagh and Grange, and con- 
taining three chapels ; that of Lisdowney, with a school- 
house attached, was built by subscription. About 100 
boys and 100 girls are taught in the school, and about 
80 boys and 40 girls in two pay schools ; there is also 
a Sunday school. The parochial church is in ruins ; 
on the demesne of Ballyconra, where is the burial- 
place of the family of Butler, are other remains ; 
and on the opposite side of the river there is a Danish 
fort. 

AHASCRAGH, a post-town and parish, partly in 
the baronies of Kilconnell and Killian, but chiefly 
in that of Clonmacnoon, county of Galway, and pro- 
vince of Connaught, 30 miles (E. N. E.) from Galway, 
and 78 miles (W.) from Dublin, on the road from Bal- 
linasloe to Castlebar ; containing 5205 inhabitants, of 
which number, 851 are in the town, which contains 
about 120 houses. It is situated in a fine corn country, 
and there is a mill, belonging to Mr. Bell, capable ot 
manufacturing 25,000 barrels of very fine oatmeal an- 
nually, solely for the English market. Fairs are held 
on Easter-Monday, Wednesday after Trinity, Aug. 25th, 
and Nov. 24th. Petty sessions are held fortnightly 
and here is a station of the constabulary police. The 
parish comprises 10,692 statute acres: there are quarries 
of excellent limestone, also a large tract of bog. The 
principal seats are Castle Ffrench, that of Lord Ffrench ; 
Ballyglass, of — Clarke, Esq. ; Weston, of the Very 
Rev. Jas. Mahon, Dean of Dromore ; Cregane, of S. 
Masters, Esq., J. P. ; Castlegar, of Sir Ross Mahon, 
Bart. ; Cloncannon, of Capt. W. Kelly ; and Killyglass 
House, of F. Brennan, Esq. Part of the demesne of Clon- 
brock, the seat of Lord Clonbrock, is also within the 
parish. The living is a rectory, in the diocese of Elphin, 
and in the alternate patronage of the Crown and the 
Bishop: the tithes amount to £323. 1.6^. The church is 
aneat building, erected at an expense of £1500, of which 
£1000 was granted on loan by the late Board of First 
Fruits, in 1814. The glebe-house was built in 1804, 
and the same Board gave £100 towards defraying the 
expense : the glebe comprises 24 acres. The R. C. parish 
is co-extensive with that of the Established Church : the 
chapel is a large building, with a burial-ground annexed. 
In addition to the parochial school, there is one for hoys 
and girls, supported by Lord Clonbrock, by whom a 
few of the children are clothed j and a male and female 
school are also supported by Sir Ross Mahon, under 
whose patronage and that of Lord Clonbrock a charit- 
able loan society was established in 1833 
23 


AHINAGH, or AGHINAGH, a parish, in the barony 
of East Muskerry, county of Cork, and province of 
Munster, 4 miles (S. E.) from Macroom containing 
2442 inhabitants. This parish, anciently called Omal, 
contains the village of Carrigadrohid, which has a penny 
post, and through which the mail coach from Cork to 
Tralee passes. It comprises 9080 statute acres, as ap- 
plotted under the tithe act, and valued at £5321 per 
annum : the land is generally good and is well sheltered, 
particularly towards its southern boundary ; about four- 
fifths are under a good system of cultivation ; the re- 
mainder is rough pasture and bog. There are stone 
quarries, which arc worked only for building. The river 
Lee is crossed at the village of Carrigadrohid by an old 
bridge, built by order of Cromwell, which connects the 
parish with the pretty modern village of Killinardrisli. 
The banks of the river are here adorned with several 
elegant houses. Oakgrove, the residence of John Bowen, 
Esq., is a handsome modern mansion, situated in a 
richly ornamented demesne containing some of the finest 
oaks in the county. Coolalta, the residence of W. Fur- 
long, Esq., M. D., is a pretty villa in the midst of some 
picturesque ground stastefully planted ; and contiguous 
to the church is the glebe-house, a handsome edifice, the 
residence of the Rev. S. Gerrard Fairtlough. Besides the 
oak woods of Oakgrove, there are flourishing plantations 
of young timber at Carrigadrohid and Umery, the former 
of which is very extensive. The living is a rectory and 
vicarage, in the diocese of Cloyne, and in the patronage 
of the Bishop : the tithes amount to £738. 3. 11. The 
church is a small plain edifice with a square tower, 
erected in 1791, for which the late Board of First Fruits 
gave £500. The glebe-house was built in 1814, by a 
gift of £100 and a loan of £1500 from the same 
Board : the glebe comprises 24 acres. In the R. C. 
divisions one-half of this parish is comprised within the 
union or district of Aghabologue, which has a chapel at 
Rusheen, and the other is united to Macroom, for which 
there is a chapel at Caum : it is also in contemplation 
to erect a third chapel, by subscription, on ground given 
by Mr. Bowen. The parochial school for boys and girls 
is supported by contributions from resi dent gentlemen, and 
a neat building has been erected as a school-house : there 
are also an infants’ school, a Sunday school, and a 
private pay school. The principal remains of antiquity 
are the ruined castles of Carrigadrohid and Mashana- 
glass ; the former, according to some writers, built by a 
branch of the Macarthy family, and by others ascribed 
to the family of O’Leary : it is a massive structure, 
situated on a rock in the river Lee, with some modern 
additions, including an entrance opened from the bridge. 
The owner of the lands of Carrigadrohid has a patent 
for a fair, which is now held in a field in the parish of 
Cannaway. The castle of Mashanaglass is a lofty 
square tower of gloomy aspect, built by the Mac Swineys. 
Smith, in his history of Cork, mentions a letter ad- 
dressed by Jas. I. to the Lord-deputy Sydney, directing 
him to accept the surrender of the lands of Owen Mac 
Swiney, otherwise “ Hoggy of Mashanaglass.” A little 
to the north of this ruin is Glen Laurn, “the crooked 
glen,” now called Umery, through which the mail coach 
road is carried : it is enclosed by precipitous rocky 
heights covered with valuable plantations, the property 
of Sir Thomas Deane, Knt., of Dundanion Castle, near 
Cork. On the glebe are the remains of a cromlech ; 


A H O 


ALL 


and several single stones, called “ Gcllanes,” are stand- 
ing in the parish. Raths or Danish forts are numer- 
ous, and there are several artificial caves. 

AHOGHILL, a parish, partly in the barony of 
Lower Antrim, partly in that of Kilconway, partly 
in that of Upper Toome, but chiefly in the barony of 
Lower Toome, county of Antrim, and province of 
Ulster, 4 miles (E. S. E.) from Portglenone ; containing 
14,920 inhabitants, of which number, 421 are in the 
village. The district around this place appears, from 
the numerous remains of forts and the great number of 
tumuli and human bones found, to have been the scene 
of much early warfare. During the war of 1688, the 
ford of the river Bann at Portglenone was regarded as 
a very important pass between the counties of Antrim 
and Derry ; and Sir I. Magill and Capt. Edmonston 
were, in 1689, despatched to defend it against the Irish 
army on their march towards the Bann, in order to 
enter the county of Derry. In 1760, when the French 
under Thurot made a descent on Carrickfergus, the in- 
habitants of this place rose in a body for the defence of 
the country : a well-appointed force marched to Belfast, 
numerous parties proceeded to Carrickfergus, while 
others patroled the country nightly, and these irregular 
levies had a powerful effect in repelling the invaders. 
About the year 1771, an organised system of outrage 
pervaded the whole of this parish, in common with 
other parts of the county : the persons who thus com- 
bined, called themselves “ Steel Men,” or “ Hearts of 
Steel,” and executed their revenge by houghing cattle 
and perpetrating other outrages ; they attacked the 
house of Paul M c Larnon, Esq., who, in defending 
himself, was shot. In 1778, a corps was raised by John 
Dickey, Esq., of Cullybackey, and called the Cullybackey 
Volunteers ; a similar corps was embodied the following 
year by T. Hill, Esq., of Drumra, called the Portglenone 
Volunteers, to which was afterwards added a second 
corps by — Simpson, Esq. ; and a corps, called the 
Ahoghill Volunteers, was raised by Alexander M c Manus, 
of Mount Davies. 

The parish, anciently called Maghrahoghill, of which 
the derivation is unknown, is bounded by the river 
Bann, which flows out of Lough Neagh in a direction 
from south to north, and is intersected by the river 
Maine, which flows into that lough in a direction 
from north to south. It was formerly more extensive 
than at present, having included Portglenone, which, in 
1825, was, together with 21 townlands, severed from it 
and formed into a distinct parish. According to the 
Ordnance survey, including Portglenone, it comprises 
35,419 statute acres, of which 14,954 are applotted 
under the tithe act, and 145f are covered with water. 
The system of agriculture is in a very indifferent state ; 
there is a considerable quantity of waste land, with some 
extensive bogs, which might be drained. The surface is 
hilly, and many of the eminences being planted, render 
the valley through which the Maine flows beautiful and 
interesting. The village is neatly built, and the neigh- 
bourhood, is enlivened with several gentlemen’s seats. 
The castle of Galgorm, a seat of the Earl of Mount- 
cashel, is a handsome square embattled edifice, erected 
in the 17th century by the celebrated Dr. Colville ; the 
rooms are wainscoted with Irish oak from the woods of 
Largy and Grange. The other principal seats in the 
parish and neighbourhood are Mount Davies, the resi- 
24 


dence of Alex. M c Manus, Esq. ; Low Park, of J. Dickey, 
Esq. ; Ballybollan, the property of Ambrose O’Rourke, 
Esq. ; Lisnafillen, of W. Gihon, Esq., of Ballymena ; 
Fenaghy, the residence of S. Cuningham, Esq. ; Leighn- 
more, the property of J. Dickey, Esq. ; and Drumona, 
built by Alex. Brown, Esq. The linen trade appears to 
have been introduced here by the ancestor of John 
Dickey, Esq., of Low Park, and now in its several 
branches affords employment to the greater number of 
the inhabitants. There are several bleach-greens on the 
river Maine : and a good monthly market, is held in the 
village, for the sale of linens, on the Friday before Bally - 
mony market. Fairs for cattle and pigs are held on 
June 4th, Aug. 26th, Oct. 12th, and Dec. 5th. The 
manorial court of Fortescue, anciently Straboy, has 
jurisdiction extending to debts not exceeding £5 late 
currency ; and the manorial court of Cashel is held 
monthly at Portglenone, for the recovery of debts to 
the same amount. Two courts leet are held an- 
nually ; and petty sessions are held every alternate 
Friday. 

The living is a rectory, in the diocese of Connor, 
and in the patronage of the Crown : the tithes amount 
to £1015. 7 • 8. The church is an ancient edifice; the 
walls have within the last few years been raised and 
covered with a new roof. The glebe-house was built by 
a gift of £100 and a loan of £1500 from the late Board 
of First Fruits, in 1815 ; the glebe comprises 133§ 
acres. In the R. C. divisions this is the head of a union 
or district, comprising also Portglenone, and containing 
three chapels, one about half a mile from the village, 
another at Aughnahoy, and a third at Portglenone. 
There are places of worship for Presbyterians in connec- 
tion with the Synod of Ulster at Ahoghill and Cully- 
backey, both of the third class : in the former are also 
two places of worship for Seceders of the Ahoghill 
Presbytery, each of the second class, and in the latter 
is one for Covenanters ; there is also a place of worship 
for Independents, and a Moravian meeting-house at 
Gracehill. There are 15 schools in different parts of 
the parish, in which are about 400 boys and 330 girls ; 
and there are also 12 private schools, in which are about 
300 boys and 150 girls ; and 16 Sunday schools. John 
Guy, in 1813, bequeathed £12 per ann. to the Moravian 
establishment, which sum is now, by the death of his 
adopted heir, augmented to £45 per annum. There are 
some remains of Rory Oge Mac Quillan’s castle of 
Straboy, and some tumuli at Moyessit. 

ALISH.— See RATHKYRAN. 

ALLEN, Isle of.— See RATHERNON. 

ALL SAINTS, a parish, in the barony of Raphoe, 
county of Donegal, and province of Ulster, 6 miles 
(W.) from Londonderry, on Lough Swilly, and on the 
road from Londonderry to Letterkenny ; containing 
4066 inhabitants. It consists of several townlands for- 
merly in the parish of Taughboyne, from which they 
were separated and formed into a distinct parish, con- 
taining, according to the Ordnance survey, 9673f statute 
acres, of which 102 are covered with water. The land 
is generally good and in a profitable state of cultivation; 
the system of agriculture is improving ; the bog affords 
a valuable supply of fuel, and there are some good 
quarries of stone for building. Castle Forward, the pro- 
perty of the Earl of Wicklow, is at present in the occu- 
pation of W. Marshall, Esq. A distillery and a brewery 


A M B 


ANA 


are eurried on to some extent ; and petty sessions are 
held on the first Friday in every month. The living is 
a perpetual curacy, in the diocese of Raphoe, and in 
the patronage of the Incumbent of Taughboyne. The 
church, a neat small edifice, was formerly a chapel of 
ease to the church of Taughboyne. In the R. C. divi- 
sions this parish is the head of a union or district, called 
the union of Lagan, and comprising also the parishes of 
Taughboyne, Killea, and Raymochy ; there are three 
chapels, situated respectively at Newtown-Conyngham 
(in All Saints), Raymochy, and Taughboyne. There 
are two places of worship for Presbyterians, one in con- 
nection with the Synod of Ulster, of the third class ; 
and the other with the Seceding Synod. The parochial 
school is aided from Robinson’s fund ; a school of 28 
girls is supported by Lady Wicklow, and a school is 
supported by subscription ; there are also three pay 
schools, in which are about 90 boys and 20 girls, and a 
Sunday school. The interest of £200, bequeathed by 
a respectable farmer, is annually divided among the 
poor. 

ALL SAINTS, an island, in the parish of Cashel, 
barony of Rathcline, county of Longford, and pro- 
vince of Leinster ; the population is returned with the 
parish. This island, which is situated in Lough Ree, 
comprises only 291 statute acres, divided into several 
small farms, and contains eight houses. — See Cashel. 

ALMORITIA, or MORANSTOWN, a parish, in 
the barony of Rathconrath, county of Westmeath, 
and province of Leinster, 4§ miles (N. E.) from Bally- 
more, on the road from Mullingar to Athlone ; con- 
taining 675 inhabitants. This parish, which is also 
called Ballymoran, comprises 2330 statute acres, as 
applotted under the tithe act, and is principally under 
an improving system of tillage : there is but an incon- 
siderable portion of bog ; limestone of very good quality 
abounds, and is quarried chiefly for building. The Royal 
Canal passes within four miles of the parish, affording 
great advantages to this district, which is wholly agri- 
cultural. The principal seats are Glencarry, the resi- 
dence of J. H. Kelly, Esq., surrounded with flourishing 
plantations ; Darlington Lodge, of A. M c Donnell, Esq. ; 
and Halston, of H. Boyd Gamble, Esq. On a stream 
which runs from Ballinacurra lake, through the parish, 
into the river Inney, is a large flour-mill. The living is 
a rectory, in the diocese of Meath, to which that of 
Piercetown was united episcopally in 1791, and in the 
patronage of the Bishop : the tithes of the parish amount 
to £70, and of the entire benefice to £165. The church 
was rebuilt in 1816, for which the late Board of First 
Fruits granted a loan of £600, obtained by the bishop, 
through the representation of Mr. Kelly, of Glencarry. 
The glebe-house was built in 1820, the Board having 
granted a loan of £600 and a gift of £200. The glebe 
comprises 28 acres, valued at £56 per annum • and there 
is also a glebe of 12^ acres at Piercetown, valued at 
£24. 10. per annum. In the R. C. divisions the parish 
forms part of the union or district of Rathconrath, also 
called Miltown. There is a pay school, in which are 
about twelve children. 

AMBROSETOWN, a parish, in the barony of Bargy, 
county of Wexford, and province of Leinster, 6 miles 
(S. by W.) from Taghmon ; containing, with the extra- 
parochial townlands of Ballingeal and Rochestown, 1045 
inhabitants. This parish comprises 2274 statute acres, 
Vol. I. — 25 


as applotted under the tithe act : it is partly under 
tillage and partly in pasture, and contains an entirely 
exhausted bog, part of which has been reclaimed and is 
now under cultivation, and the remainder is grazed. It 
is a rectory, in the diocese of Ferns, and fomrs part 
of the union of Duncormuck : the tithes amount to 
£138. 9- 2f. In the R. C. divisions it is partly within 
the union or district of Rathangan, or Duncormuck, but 
chiefly in that of Carrig. A school, in which are about 
50 boys and 30 girls, is aided by Mr. Morgan, of Johns- 
town ; and there is a private school of about 20 children. 

ANACLOAN, or ANNAGHLONE, a parish, in the 
barony of Upper Iveagh, county of Down, and pro- 
vince of Ulster, 3 miles (S. E. by E.) from Banbridge, 
on the river Bann, and on the road from Banbridge to 
Castlewellan, containing 3426 inhabitants. It com- 
prises, according to the Ordnance survey, 6544| statute 
acres : the lands are fertile and in a high state of culti- 
vation ; there is no waste land, and only about 200 acres 
of bog, which is daily becoming more scarce and valu- 
able. The living is a rectory, in the diocese of Dromore, 
and in the patronage of the Bishop : the tithes amount 
to £188. 3. 8. The church is a neat small edifice in 
good repair. The glebe-house was built by aid of a gift 
of £200 and a loan of £600 from the late Board of 
First Fruits, in 1818: the glebe comprises 204 acres. 
In the R. C. divisions the parish is the head of a union 
or district, comprising also that of Drumballyroney, and 
containing a chapel in each parish. There are places of 
worship for Presbyterians in connection with the Synod 
of Ulster and the Seceding Synod ; the former of the 
third, and the latter of the second class. There are 
three schools, affording instruction to about 190 boys 
and 100 girls j also four private schools, in which are 
about 90 boys and 60 girls. Near the church is Tan- 
vally fort, one of the largest and most perfect in this 
part of the country, and within sight of it are many 
others of smaller dimensions. 

ANADORN, a village, in the parish of Lotjgham 
Island, barony of Kinelearty, county of Down, and 
province of Ulster, 3 miles (N.) from Clough ■, con- 
taining 93 inhabitants. This place, with an extensive 
surrounding district, formerly belonged to the ancient and 
powerful family of the M c Cartans, who had a castle here, 
situated on an eminence, or mound, now called Castle- 
hill ; but M c Cartan having joined in the rebellion of the 
Earl of Tyrone, his estates became forfeited to the crown. 
The village is situated on the road from Ballynahinch 
and Hillsborough to Downpatrick : it appears to have 
been much neglected, but it has been recently purchased 
by Col. Forde, who has already commenced a series of 
improvements. Fairs are held on May 14th and Nov. 
8th. — See Lotjgham Island. 

ANAHILT, a parish, partly in the barony of Kine- 
learty, but chiefly in that of Lower Iveagh, county 
of Down, and province of Ulster, 3 miles (E. S. E.) 
from Hillsborough ; containing 3755 inhabitants. This 
parish is intersected by numerous roads, of which the 
principal are those leading respectively from Hills- 
borough and Dromore, and from Lisburn to Down- 
patrick, and from Belfast and Lisburn to Rathfriland. 
It comprises, according to the Ordnance survey, 6777? 
statute acres, of which 6069 are in Lower Iveagh, and 
708t§ in Kinelearty, and is principally arable and pasture 
land, but mostly under tillage : 6202 acres are applotted 

E 


AND 


AND 


under the tithe act. The lands are in a state of excel- 
lent cultivation : under- draining is well understood and 
extensively practised. In the townland of Cluntogh 
there is a fine slate quarry. The inhabitants combine 
with agricultural pursuits the weaving of linen and 
cotton for the manufacturers of the neighbouring towns, 
and the women and girls are employed in spinning. A 
penny post has been lately established from Hillsborough. 
The principal seats are Larchfield, the handsome man- 
sion and extensive demesne of W. Mussenden, Esq., and 
Lough Aghery, the residence of James Magill, Esq. 
The living is a rectory and vicarage, in the diocese of 
Dromore, and in the patronage of the Bishop : the tithes 
amount to £367. 5. 4. The church was built in 1741, 
at the sole expense of the Rev. T. Smith, then rector of 
the parish ; and the tower was added to it by the Mar- 
quess of Downshire, in 1768. The glebe-house was 
built, in 1793, by the Rev. J. Doubourdieu, then rector, 
at an expense of £845. 16. 2. : the glebe comprises 60 
acres, contiguous to the church. In the R. C. divisions 
the parish forms part of the union or district of Magh- 
eradroll, also called Dunmore. There is a place of 
worship near Hillsborough for Presbyterians in connec- 
tion with the Synod of Ulster, also one for those in con- 
nection with the Seceding Synod, at Lough Aghery, both 
of the first class. A free school of about 150 boys and 
100 girls was founded in 1796, by Thos. Jamieson, Esq., 
who bequeathed £1000 for its support; it is further 
endowed with four acres of land given by the Marquess 
of Downshire, who also contributed towards defraying 
the expense of building the school-houses. Near Larch- 
field are two schools, supported by W. Mussenden, Esq., 
and Mrs. Forde, in which about SO boys and 70 girls 
are educated and partly clothed ; and there are also 
three private schools, in which are about 120 boys and 
70 girls. Robert Sharland, Esq., a native of Barnstaple, 
Devon, who died on the 6th of May, 1833, bequeathed 
from £2000 to £3000 in trust to the clergy of the parish 
and the proprietor of one or two townlands, for the 
erection of ten almshouses for ten aged men and ten 
aged women, and a house for the housekeeper, to each 
of whom he assigned £5 per ann. : the buildings were 
about to be commenced in the spring of 1835. The 
burial-ground about the church occupies the site of an 
ancient fort, which is the innermost of four enclosures, 
the whole occupying about 9 acres, and sloping to the 
east in a regular glacis. There are also numerous forts 
on the hill, all within view of each other, and several 
relics of antiquity have been discovered here. 

ANBALLY, a village, in the parish of Kilmoylan, 
barony of Clare, county of Galway, and province of 
Connaught, 7 miles (S.) from Tuam, on the road to 
Galway, containing 224 inhabitants. It consists of 54 
cottages, and is only remarkable for the ruins of an 
ancient castle in excellent preservation, which, during 
winter, are completely surrounded by water from the 
turlough in the immediate vicinity. 

ANDREW’S (ST.), a parish, in the barony of 
Ardes, county of Down, and province of Ulster, 
comprising the post-town of Kirkcubbin, and contain- 
ing, with the parishes of Ballywalter or Whitechurch, 
Ballyhalbert, and Innishargy, 76 18 inhabitants. This 
parish, together with those which are now united 
with it, formed part of the possessions of a Bene- 
dictine monastery founded as a cell to the abbey 
26 


of St. Mary, at Lonley, in Normandy, by John 
de Courcey, who died in 1210; and though desig- 
nated, in the charter of foundation, the abbey of £t. 
Andrew de Stokes, is more generally known by the 
appellation of the Black Abbey. It was seized into the 
king’s hands as an alien priory in 1395, and was grant- 
ed to the Archbishop of Armagh, who annexed it to 
his see ; and after the dissolution it fell into the hands 
of the O’Neils. On the rebellion of O’Neil it escheated 
to the crown, and was granted to Sir James Hamilton, 
who assigned it to Sir Hugh Montgomery, Lord of the 
Ardes ; but in 1639 it was finally awarded to the Arch- 
bishop of Armagh. The parishes of Ballywalter or 
Whitechurch, Ballyhalbert, and Innishargy are all in- 
cluded under the general name of St. Andrew’s, and 
comprise, according to the Ordnance survey, 12,907 
statute acres, of which 4012 are in St. Andrew’s (in- 
cluding Ballyhalbert) and its islands. The land is fer- 
tile and in a high state of cultivation ; but the fences 
are in bad condition, and in many places the system of 
draining is very inefficient. A large quantity of bog 
has been lately reclaimed by the Rev. Hugh Montgomery, 
which is now under cultivation and produces good crops. 
There are several gentlemen’s seats, of which theprincipal 
are Spring Vale, the residence of G. Matthews, Esq. ; Ech- 
linville, of J. Echlin, Esq. ; Glastrv, of F. Savage, Esq. ; 
and the Roddens, of J. Blackiston, Esq., all handsome 
and spacious mansions ornamented with thriving plan- 
tations. The post-town of Kirkcubbin is situated on 
the shore of Strangford Lough, on the west, and is se- 
parately described ; and off the coast, on the east, are 
two islets, called respectively Green Island and Bur or 
Burrial, the former connected with the shore by a strand 
which is dry at low water ; and the latter is remarkable 
as being the most eastern point of land in Ireland. 
There are some yawls and fishing smacks belonging 
to these islands ; and about a mile to the north of Green 
Island is John’s port, a small harbour for fishing boats, 
sheltered by a rock, called the Plough. On this coast is 
also a creek called Cloughy bay, having a bottom of clean 
sand ; it has several fishing boats and wherries, and a 
coast-guard station has been established there, which 
is one of the twelve forming the district of Donaghadee. 
At the commencement of the last century, the churches 
of these parishes were in ruins ; and, in the 2nd of 
Anne, an act was obtained for uniting the parishes and 
erecting a church in the centre of the union. The liv- 
ing is denominated the vicarage of St. Andrew’s, or the 
union of Ballywalter, in the diocese of Down, and in the 
patronage of the Lord-Primate : the tithes amount to 
£1200, of which, £800 is payable to the Primate, as rec- 
tor, and £400 to the vicar. The church, a spacious 
structure, was erected in the year 1704. The glebe- 
house, a handsome residence close to the town of Kirk- 
cubbin, and about 2^ miles from the church, was built 
about 50 years since, and has been greatly improved 
by the Rev. F. Lascelles, the present incumbent, at an 
expense of nearly £400 : the glebe comprises about 30 
acres, valued at £77. 18. per annum. In the R. C. divi- 
sions this union forms part of the district of Upper 
Ardes, also called Portaferry. There are three places of 
worship for Presbyterians in connection with the Synod 
of Ulster, situated respectively at Ballywalter, Kirkcub- 
bin, and Glastry, all of the second class ; one at Bally- 
hamlin in connection with the Remonstrant Synod, and 


A N E 


A N E 


one for Independents. There are six schools, two of which 
are supported by Lord Dufferin and J. Echlin, Esq., 
respectively, and two are infants’ schools, supported by 
Miss Keown. In these schools are about 550 children 
of both sexes ; and there are also four private schools, 
in which are about 100 boys and 80 girls. The sum of 
£50 per ann., payable out of the estate of Ballyatwood, 
was bequeathed by the Countess of Clanbrassil for 
clothing the poor on that estate. At Cloughy are the 
extensive ruins of a commandery of the Knights of St. 
John of Jerusalem, founded in 1189, by Hugh de Lacie, 
and called Castlebuoy ; not far from which are the 
ruins of Slane church. Kirkstown castle, a heavy pile 
of building, erected in the reign of Jas. I., is in tolerable 
repair, and the tower in excellent preservation. — See 
Kirkcubbin. 

ANEY, or KNOCKANEY, a parish, in the barony 
of Small County, county of Limerick, and province 
of Munster, 3 miles (E.) from Bruff ; containing 4542 
inhabitants, of which number, 514 are in the village. 
This place, which is situated on the river Commogue, 
and bounded on the north by Lough Gur, appears to 
have been distinguished at a very early period of Irish 
history. Its parish church and a monastery, or college, 
are said, by ecclesiastical writers, to have been founded 
about the time of St. Patrick ; but the earliest authentic 
notice of the place occurs in 941, when a convent for 
nuns of the order of St. Augustine was founded, but by 
whom is not recorded. This establishment, which was 
called Monaster -ni-Cailliagh Juxta Aney, and was situated 
on Lough Gur, was destroyed in the Danish irruption, 
but was refounded, in 1283, by a branch of the Fitzgib- 
bon family, and appears to have subsisted till the dis- 
solution : of the building, only some small fragments 
are remaining. In 1226, a preceptory was founded here, 
which subsequently became the property of the Knights 
of St. John of Jerusalem; and, in 1349, a friary for 
Eremites of the order of St. Augustine was founded by 
John Fitzgerald, or, as he was sometimes called, Fitz- 
Robert, which, after the dissolution, was granted by 
Queen Elizabeth to Edward, John and Mary Absley. 
This place was equally celebrated for its numerous 
stately castles ; the most important was a spacious and 
very strong fortress, erected in 1248 by John Fitzgerald, 
sometimes called John of Callan, on the western bank 
of the river Commogue, in which the founder died in 
1296 ; some very inconsiderable fragments only are re- 
maining. In the fourteenth century the same powerful 
family erected two very strong castles on the shores of 
Lough Gur, called respectively Doon and the Black 
castle, to defend the two entrances to Knockadoon, a 
lofty eminence nearly surrounded by the lake, and by 
most writers considered as an island. The present cas- 
tle of Doon, supposed to have been erected on the site 
of the original by Sir George Boucher, in the reign of 
Jas. I., is in a very perfect state ; but the Black castle 
is a heap of ruins. A smaller castle was built in the 
village, soon after the erection of those on Lough Gur, 
probably by the family of O’ Grady, who also built a very 
extensive castle at" Kilballyowen : the former is, with 
the exception of the roof, in a very perfect state ; and 
the latter has been incorporated with the modern 
dwelling-house, and contains four rooms in perfect 
order. Though the surrounding neighbourhood is fer- 
tile, and the inhabitants in general opulent, yet the vil- 
27 


lage, which is the property of the Provost and Fellows 
of Trinity College, and of the Earls of Aldborough and 
Kenmare, is in a state of neglect and ruin. The parish 
comprises 8312 statute acres, as applotted under the 
tithe act : the land is remarkably productive, particu- 
larly round Kilballyowen ; about one- fifth is under til- 
lage, more than three-fifths are meadow and pasture land, 
and there is a small tract of very valuable bog. The 
great fertility of the soil seems to have obviated the 
necessity of paying much attention to the improvement 
of agriculture, which throughout the district is generally 
disregarded. The surface is adorned with rich planta- 
tions : the principal seats are Kilballyowen, the resi- 
dence of De Courcy O’Grady, Esq. (who retains the an- 
cient title of O’Grady of Kilballyowen), a handsome 
modern building in a richly planted demesne ; Elton, 
of Mrs. Grady ; Lough Gur Castle, of Miss Bailie ; 
Baggotstown, of J. Bouchier, Esq. ; Milltown Lodge, 
of T. D. O’Grady, Esq. ; and Rathaney, of T. Bennett, 
Esq. 

The living is a vicarage, in the diocese of Emly, with 
the vicarages of Ballynard, Ballynamona, Long or 
Knocklong, Kilfrush, Ballinlough, and Hospital, which 
seven parishes constitute the union of Aney, in the pa- 
tronage of the Crown during the legal incapacity of the 
Earl of Kenmare ; the rectory is impropriate in E. 
Deane Freeman, Esq. The tithes amount to £860, of 
which £573. 6. 8. is payable to the impropriator, and 
the remainder to the vicar ; and the entire tithes of 
the benefice amount to £748. 0. The church is 

a neat edifice, with a handsome octagonal spire of hewn 
stone, and the Ecclesiastical Commissioners have lately 
granted £183 for its repair. The glebe-house, nearly 
adjoining the church, but not habitable for a family, is 
built on a glebe of 7 a. 1 r. 38 p. The R. C. parish is co- 
extensive with that of the Established Church , the 
chapel is in the village of Aney, and has been rebuilt 
and was consecrated on the 9th of October, 1836 ; 
there is also another at St. Patrick’s Well. There 
is a school aided by a donation from the parish, which 
is held in the R. C. chapel ; and a school is also sup- 
ported by the Count de Salis. In these schools are 
about 220 boys and 130 girls ; and there is also a pay 
school of 20 boys and 8 girls. Lough Gur, the only 
lake of importance in the county, is about four miles in 
circumference, and bounds the parish for nearly three 
miles ; it has two beautiful small islands, and is of very 
picturesque and romantic character. On one of the 
islands are the remains of ancient fortifications ; and 
midway between Knockadoon and Knockfennel is the 
other, about three-quarters of an acre in extent, which 
was strongly fortified, and the walls are now nearly 
in a perfect state. Not far from the Black castle are 
the interesting ruins of the New Church, so called 
from its being founded by the Countess of Bath, when 
resident at Doon Castle, by whom it was also endowed 
with £20 per annum for the support of a chaplain ; but 
the property having descended to the Count de Salis, 
and the church not being registered in the diocesan 
records, that nobleman discontinued the appointment 
of a chaplain, and the church has fallen into ruins. The 
plate presented to this church by the Countess of Bath 
is now used in the parish church of Aney. At St. 
Patrick’s well are some remains of a church, with an 
extensive burial-ground ; and near Elton are also some 

E 2 


ANN 


ANN 


fragments of another, in a churchyard. Not far distant 
are the picturesque ruins of Baggotstown castle, built 
by one of the Baggot family in the reign of Chas. I., 
and forming, with its lofty gables and chimneys, a sin- 
gular object when viewed from a distance. On the 
hill of Knockadoon, just over the lake, are some rude 
traces of an ancient fortress. 

ANHID, or ATHNETT, a parish, in the barony of 
Coshma, county of Limerick, and province of Munster, 
1^ mile (S.) from Croom ; containing 475 inhabitants. 
This parish, which is situated on the western bank of the 
river Maigue, and on the new road from Charleville to 
Limerick, by way of Croom, comprises 928 statute acres, 
as applotted under the tithe act. The land is very fer- 
tile : about one-half of it is under tillage, and the re- 
mainder is good meadow and pasture. A new line of 
road is now in progress from Croom to Charleville, 
which will be intersected by the direct mail coach road 
from Cork to Limerick. Athnett is a prebend in the 
cathedral church of St. Mary, Limerick, which has, 
from time immemorial, been annexed to the bishoprick, 
and gives to the bishop a seat in the chapter : the tithes 
amount to £42. There is neither church nor glebe- 
house. In the R. C. divisions it forms part of the union 
or district of Croom. 

ANNADUFF, or ANNAGHDUFF, a parish, partly 
in the barony of Mohill, but chiefly in that of Leitrim, 
county of Leitrim, and province of Connaught ; con- 
taining, with the post-town of Drumsna, 5858 inhabi- 
tants. This place is situated on the mail coach road 
from Dublin to Sligo, and on the river Shannon, which 
here forms the beautiful and picturesque loughs of Bo- 
darig and Boffin. An abbey was founded here in 766 ; 
but there are no further accounts of it, and the only 
vestiges are a few curious stones worked into the win- 
dow in the south gable of the. ancient parish church, 
the ruins of which are in the present churchyard. In 
the reign of Jas. II. a skirmish took place here between 
the partisans of that monarch and the troops of Wm. III., 
at a ford over the river Shannon, near Derrycarne, and 
the spot is still called James's Heap. The parish com- 
prises 8428 statute acres, as applotted under the tithe 
act, and valued at £6871. 4. 10. per annum : it is prin- 
cipally under an improving system of tillage. There is a 
tract of bog, affording a good supply of fuel : limestone 
of inferior quality is quarried, and freestone is found in 
the vicinity of Drumod. Iron ore exists in various parts, 
particularly near Drumod. The principal seats are 
Mount Campbell, the handsome residence of Admiral Sir 
Josias Rowley, Bart. ; Derrycarne, of F. Nisbett, Esq., 
surrounded by a well- planted demesne and picturesquely 
situated between the two loughs, Bodarig and Boffin ; 
Lismoyle, of T. Waldron, Esq. ; and the residence of 
Messrs. Walsh, near Drumsna, commanding extensive 
views of the Shannon and surrounding country. The 
living is a rectory and vicarage, in the diocese of Ardagh, 
and in the patronage of the Bishop : the tithes amount 
to £262. 13. 1. The church is a neat edifice, in the 
later English style, with a square tower crowned with 
minarets, for the erection of which the late Board of 
First Fruits, in 1815, granted a loan of £1600. There 
is also a chapel of ease at Drumod. The glebe-house is 
a good residence, and the glebe comprises 300 acres. 
The R. C. parish is co-extensive with that of the Esta- 
blished Church : the chapel, at Aughamore, is in a very 
28 


bad state of repair, and it is in contemplation to erect a 
new one as soon as a convenient site can be obtained. 
Divine service is also performed in a school-house. 
There are four schools, affording instruction to about 
120 boys and 180 girls; also six pay schools, in which 
are about 270 boys and 100 girls, and two Sunday 
schools. — See Drumod and Drumsna. 

ANNAGASSON, a village, in the parish of Drum- 
car, barony of Ardee, county of Louth, and pro- 
vince of Leinster, 8 miles (S.) from Dundalk; con- 
taining 235 inhabitants. This place is situated on 
a pleasant beach, forming part of Dundalk bay; it 
comprises 38 houses, which are neatly built, and the 
handsome residence of Robert Thompson, Esq., who 
has some extensive mills, and is proprietor of the 
shipping, which afford employment to the inhabitants. 
The river Drumcar abounds with salmon and trout, and 
is here crossed by a substantial bridge. There is a beau- 
tiful drive along the sea-side to Dundalk, and to Clogher 
Head, where regattas are annually held ; and the view of 
the bay and the sea, with steam-boats and other craft 
daily passing and repassing, give an air of cheerfulness 
to the place. The principal import is coal for the supply 
of the neighbourhood. Fairs are held on March 17th, 
May 7th, July 22d, and Nov. 8th. — See Drumcar. 

ANNAGELIFFE, a parish, in the barony of Upper 
Loughtee, county of Cavan, and province of Uls- 
ter, 1 mile (N. E. by E.) from Cavan, on the road from 
that place to Virginia; containing 4341 inhabitants. 
It comprises, according to the Ordnance survey, 8260^ 
statute acres, of which 5096 are applotted under the 
tithe act. The living is a vicarage, in the diocese of 
Kilmore, forming, with that of Urney, the union of 
Urney and Annageliffe, in the patronage of the Bishop ; 
the rectory is impropriate in the Representatives of 
Richard, Earl of Westmeath. The tithes amount to 
£217. 16. 11^., of which £62. 2. 2^. is payable to the 
impropriator, and £155. 14. 9. to the vicar. In the 
R. C. divisions this parish forms part of the union or 
district of Urney, or, as it is more commonly called, 
Cavan : the chapel is a large building, situated at Stra- 
golla. There are a parochial school, and a school on the 
townland of Curlurgan ; also four hedge schools. 

ANNAGH, or BELTURBET, a parish, partly in the 
barony of Lower Loughtee, but chiefly in that of 
Tullaghgarvey, county of Cavan, and province of 
Ulster, on the road from Ballyconnell to Cavan ; con- 
taining, with the greater part of the. market and post- 
town of Belturbet, 12,269 inhabitants. It comprises, 
according to the Ordnance survey, 19,145^ statute acres, 
of which 12,340 are in Tullaghgarvey; about 16,000 
are arable and pasture, 2000 are bog and waste, 300 
are woodland, and 200 are common : of its entire 
area, 14,936 acres are applotted under the tithe act. 
The principal seats are Castle Saunderson, the resi- 
dence of A. Saunderson, Esq. ; Erne Hill, of G. M. 
Knipe, Esq. ; Clover Hill, of J. Saunderson, Esq. ; and 
Red Hill, of — White, Esq. The living is a rectory 
and vicarage, in the diocese of Kilmore, and in the 
patronage of Lord Farnham : the tithes amount to 
£384. 4. 7 \. The church is a handsome edifice, for the 
repairs and enlargement of which the late Board of First 
Fruits granted £2600, in 1812 and 1814; and the Ec- 
clesiastical Commissioners have recently granted £112 
for its further repair. The glebe-house was purchased 


ANN 


ANN 


by aid of a loan of £844, in 1810, from the same Board ; 
the glebe comprises 400 acres. In 1813, forty-seven 
townlands of he parish were disunited, to form the per- 
petual cure of Killoughter. This parish is divided into 
the two R. C. districts of Annagh West and Annagh 
East, or Killoughter, the former containing a chapel at 
Drumalee, and the latter at Red Hill. There are two 
places of worship for Wesleyan Methodists, one of 
which belongs to the Primitive class. A school is sup- 
ported by the Trustees of Erasmus Smith’s charity ; and 
there are schools at Drumlaney, Killoughter, and Drum- 
loor ; also an infants’ and two other schools, besides 
six private pay schools. The ruins of the old church 
yet exist. — See Belturbet. 

ANNAGH, or ST. ANNA, a parish, in the barony 
of Trughenackmy, county of Kerry, and province of 
Munster, miles (W. S. W.) from Tralee; containing, 
with the town of Blennerville, 3253 inhabitants. This 
parish, which is situated on the bay of Tralee, and on 
the high road from Tralee to Dingle, extends for some 
miles between a chain of mountains and the sea, and 
comprises 17,967 statute acres, as applotted under the 
tithe act, about 11,400 of which consist of rough moun- 
tain pasture, and the remainder of arable land. It is a 
rectory, in the diocese of Ardfert and Aghadoe, and 
forms part of the union of Ballynahaglisli : the tithes 
amount to £332. 6. 1. The church, situated in the 
town of Blennerville, is a neat modern structure with a 
square tower ; and about half a mile distant are the ruins 
of the old church, with the burial-ground, in which is a 
stone bearing a rude effigy of an armed horseman. 
There is neither glebe nor glebe-house. In the R. C. 
divisions it is included in the unions of Tralee and Bally- 
macelligot ; the chapel is at Curragheen, 1§ mile to the 
west of Blennerville. A school is supported by the 
R. C. clergyman ; and at Curragrague is one under the 
Trustees of Erasmus Smith’s charity; in which, together, 
are about 170 boys and 110 girls. — See Blennerville. 

ANNAGH, a parish, in the barony of Costello, 
county of Mayo, and province of Connaught, on the 
road from Castlebar to Frenchpark ; containing, with 
the post-town of Ballyhaunis, 6885 inhabitants. This 
place was chiefly distinguished for a cell of Franciscan 
friars, though by some writers said to have been founded 
by Walter de Burgh for brethren of the order of St. 
Augustine, as a cell to the abbey of Cong, and to have 
been the burial-place of Walter, Lord Mae William 
Oughter, who was interred here in 1440. The parish 
comprises 16,325 statute acres, as applotted under the 
tithe act : it is principally under tillage ; and there is a 
sufficient quantity of bog. Logboy is the residence of 
E. Nolan, Esq., and Hollywell, of J. Bourke, Esq. 
A weekly market and annual fairs are held at Bally- 
haunis, which see. It is a rectory and vicarage, in the 
diocese of Tuam, and forms part of the union of Kiltul- 
lagh : the tithes amount to £194. 19. 11. The R. C. 
parish is co-extensive with that of the Established 
Church ; there are chapels at Ballyhaunis and Tulrahan. 
The old monastery at the former place is still occupied 
by friars of the order of St. Augustine. There are eight 
pay schools in the parish, in which are about 390 boys 
and 230 girls. 

ANNAGH, an island, in the parish of Kilcommon, 
barony of Erris, county of Mayo, and province of 
Connaught, 23 miles (S. by E.) from Belmullet ; con- 
29 


tabling 6 inhabitants. This island is situated in the 
bay of Tulloghane, on the western coast, and near the 
entrance of the sound of Achill; it is separated from the 
mainland of Ballycroy by a narrow sound to which it 
gives name, and is the property of Sir Richard O’Don- 
nell, Bart., from whom it is rented by the inhabitants of 
the village of Claggan-Caferky. The greater portion of 
the land is mountainous, but affords very good pasture ; 
and there is a salmon and herring fishery. 

ANNAGHCLONE.— See ANACLOAN. 

ANNAGHDOWN, or ENAGHDUNE, a parish, in 
the barony of Clare, county of Galway, and province 
of Connaught, 7\ miles (N.) from Galway, on the road 
from Galway to Headford ; containing 6093 inhabitants. 
This parish is bounded on the west by Lough Corrib, 
and comprises 16,508 statute acres, as applotted under 
the tithe act. It was formerly the seat of an inde- 
pendent bishoprick, of which some notice will be found 
in the account of the archiepiscopal see of Tuam, with 
which it has for centuries been incorporated. St. Bren- 
dan of Clonfert built a nunnery here under the invoca- 
tion of the Blessed Virgin, for his sister Briga, which, in 
1195, was confirmed by Pope Celestine III., together with 
the town of Kelgel, to nuns of the Arroasian order : at 
the suppression it was granted to the Earl of Clanricarde. 
An abbey, dedicated to St. Mary, and called the abbey 
of St. Mary de portu patrum, was founded at an early 
period for White Premonstratensian canons ; and here 
was a Franciscan friary, the head of a custody, to which 
the monasteries of Connaught and Ulster were subordi- 
nate. There was also another religious house, called the 
College of St. Brendan, in which four priests or vicars 
were supported ; and at Kilcoonagh, in the vicinity, was 
an abbey, which Tipraid, Prince of Hy Fiacria, granted 
to St. Columb, who placed over it St. Cuannan, from 
whom it derived its name. The seats are Cregg Castle, 
that of Fras. Blake, Esq. ; Cahermorris, of Capt. Cramp- 
ton ; Woodpark, of John French, Esq. ; Winterfield, of 
Capt. Butler ; and Annaghdown Lodge, of Mrs. Burke. 
There is a constabulary police station in the parish ; 
and near Cregg Castle is a large flour- mill. The living 
is a vicarage, in the diocese of Tuam, to which those of 
Kilascobe and Laccagh are episcopally united, and in 
the patronage of the Archbishop ; the rectory is impro- 
priate in John Kirwan, Esq. The tithes amount to 
£553. 16. 11^., of which £138. 9. 3. is payable to the 
impropriator, and the remainder to the incumbent ; and 
of the entire union, to £6 75. 9- 4f. The church is a 
small neat building, for the erection of which the late 
Board of First Fruits gave £500, in 1798. The glebe- 
house was also built by aid of a gift of £350 and a loan 
of £450, in 1818, from the same Board : the glebe com- 
prises 20 acres. The R. C. parish is co-extensive with 
that of the Established Church : the chapel is at Coron- 
dola, and divine service is also regularly performed in a 
school-house at Woodpark. Schools at Annaghdown and 
Woodpark were each endowed with£100 late currency by 
the Rev. Redmond Hardagan, for the gratuitous instruc- 
tion of 30 children in each ; about 160 children are at 
present taught in these schools. There are also six hedge 
schools, in which are about 300 children ; a Sunday 
school, supported by the vicar, and a dispensary. 

ANNAMOE, a village, in the parish of Derra- 
lossory, barony of Ballinacor, county of Wicklow, 
and province of Leinster, 6 £ miles (S. W.) from New- 


ANN 


ANT 


town-Mount- Kennedy ; containing 67 inhabitants. This 
small village is situated in a sequestered spot, where 
a small valley opens on the east into the beautiful and 
romantic vale through which the river Annamoe flows in 
its descent from Lough Dan. The scenery is richly di- 
versified, and in the vicinity are several gentlemen’s 
seats, among which is Castle Kevin, the residence of Dr. 
Frizell, occupying a lofty eminence richly planted with 
firs and other forest trees, and commanding an extensive 
and delightful view. About half a mile to the north- 
west of the village is Dromeen, the seat of Captain Hugo, 
situated in a demesne tastefully laid out ; near it is 
the glebe-house of Derralossory , and in the neighbour- 
hood is Lara House, the residence of Robert Burrowes, 
Esq., from which is a most extensive mountain view. A 
daily penny post from Newtown-Mount-Kennedy has 
been established ; and here is a small neat R. C. chapel 
belonging to the union or district of Glendalough. At a 
short distance up the valley, at the head of which the 
village is situated, is the site of Castle Kevin, supposed 
to have been originally built by the O’Tooles, a spacious 
quadrangular area encompassed by a deep ditch and 
rampart, which, with some of the foundations, is all that 
remains of that ancient fortress. Lawrence Sterne, 
when a child, was on a visit with his father at the par- 
sonage-house for about six months, during which period 
occurred the circumstance which he relates of his falling 
through a mill-race, while the mill was at work, and 
being taken up unhurt. — See Derralossory. 

ANNAMULT, otherwise AGHNAMOLT, a parish, 
in the barony of Shillelogher, county of Kilkenny, 
and province of Leinster, 6 miles (S.) from Kilkenny; 
containing 458 inhabitants. It is situated on the river 
Nore, which here receives the King’s river, on the high 
road from Stoneyford to Kilkenny by Bennett’s-Bridge, 
and contains 1664 statute acres. An extensive Merino 
factory for superfine cloth, with a farm attached, was 
established here about 20 years since, at an expense, in- 
cluding the machinery, of nearly £30,000, and a further 
sum of £10,000 was subsequently expended on addi- 
tional buildings and machinery. This excellent esta- 
blishment, in which about 800 persons were employed 
and every process of the manufacture was carried on, 
was conducted on a plan which afforded to the children 
of the neighbouring peasantry the means of acquiring 
not only a knowledge of the trade, but also an useful 
elementary education ; but from unavoidable losses and 
want of sufficient encouragement the undertaking was 
abandoned by its projectors, in 1822, and the works 
were subsequently taken by a firm in Dublin and Leeds, 
which, in 1 826, being unable to obtain a satisfactory lease, 
discontinued them, and they are now unoccupied. Ex- 
cept about 25 acres of woodland attached to Annamult, 
the handsome residence of T. Neville, Esq., and to the 
residence of the Rev. Dr. Butler, the lands are all arable 
and pasture ; about one-half are held immediately from 
Major Wemyss, and the other half under the lessees of 
Sir J. Blunden, Bart. The parish is tithe-free : it is a 
rectory, in the diocese of Ossory, and forms part of the 
union of Kells. In the R. C. divisions it is united 
to Danesfort. 

ANNASCALL, or AUNASCALL, a hamlet, in the 
parish of Ballinacourty, barony of Coricaguiney, 
county of Kerry, and province of Munster, 9 miles 
(E. by N.) from Dingle ; containing 1 1 houses and 92 
30 


inhabitants. This place is situated in a pleasant valley 
on the new mail coach road from Tralee to Dingle, to each 
of which it has a penny post recently established. It is a 
constabulary police station ; and petty sessions are held 
generally on alternate Mondays. The parish church, a 
small plain edifice with a square tower, is situated here; 
and a R. C. chapel has been recently erected. In the vi- 
cinity is a beautiful lake, about a mile in circumference ; 
and in a glen among the mountains in its neigh- 
bourhood, bordering on BallydufF, it is said the last 
wolf in Ireland was killed ; the particular spot is called 
the “ Wolf Step.” — See Ballinacourty. 

ANNESBOROUGH.— See DROMARAGH. 

ANNESTOWN, a village, in the parish of Dunhill, 
barony of Middlethird, county of Waterford, and 
province of Munster, 6 miles (S.W.) fromTramore; con- 
taining 232 inhabitants. This place is situated on the 
south coast, and on the western side of a pleasant 
valley, which extends for a considerable distance inland. 
The village contains 31 houses, and possesses some na- 
tural advantages as a place of resort during summer ; 
and a few lodging-houses have been established for the 
accommodation of visiters. Its situation and appearance 
are highly picturesque ; the vicinity presents an exten- 
sive line of coast, consisting of stupendous rocks rising 
abruptly from the sea. On the east the view is bounded 
by the isles of Icane, and on the opposite side the head- 
land of Dungarvan is seen stretching far to the south- 
west. The parish church, a neat edifice, erected by aid 
of a gift of £900 from the late Board of First Fruits, in 
1822, is situated in the village. — See Dunhill. 

ANTRIM (County of), a maritime county in the 
province of U lster, bounded on the north by the North- 
ern Ocean, or Deucaledonian Sea ; on the north-east 
and east, by the North Channel ; on the south-east, by 
the lough or bay of Belfast and the river Lagan, 
separating it from the county of Down, which likewise 
borders it on the south ; on the south-west, by Lough 
Neagh ; on the west, by Lough Beg and the river 
Bann, which separate it from the county of London- 
derry ; and on the north-west, by the liberties of Cole- 
raine. It extends from 54° 26' to 55° 12' 16" (N. Lat.), 
and from 5° 47' to 6° 52' (W. Lon.) ; and, exclusively of 
the extensive parish of Carrickfergus (which is a county 
of a town in itself), comprises, according to the Ord- 
nance survey, 76l,877| statute acres, of which 466,564 
are cultivated land, 53,487^ are under water, and the 
remainder unimproved mountain and bog. The popu- 
lation, in 1821, was 262,860; and in 1831, 316,909. 

In the ancient division of the island the southern and 
south-western parts of this county were included in the 
territory called Dalaradice, or U Lidia. , the western and 
north-western were designated Dalrieda, and the name 
of the whole was Endruim or Andruim, signifying the 
“ habitation upon the waters,” and strikingly descriptive 
of its situation. It was afterwards divided into the three 
districts of North or Lower Clan-Hugh-Boy, Clanehoy, 
or Clandeboy ; the Glynnes ; and the Reuta, Route, or 
Rowte. North or Lower Clandeboy, so called to distin- 
guish it from South or Upper Clandeboy, now included 
in the adjacent county of Down, extended from Carrick- 
fergus bay and the river Lagan to Lough Neagh, and 
consisted of the tract now forming the baronies of Bel- 
fast, Massareene, and Antrim : the Glynnes, so called 
from the intersection of its surface by many rocky dells. 


A N T 


ANT 


extended from Larne, northward along the coast, to 
Ballycastle, being backed by the mountains on the 
west, and containing the present baronies of Glenarm, 
and part of that of Carey : the Route included nearly all 
the rest of the county to the west and north, forming 
the more ancient Dalrieda, and, in the reign of Eliza- 
beth, occasionally called “ Mac Sorley Boy’s Country.” 
Within the limits of Clandeboy was a minor division, 
called “ Bryen Carrogh’s Country,” W'on from the rest 
by the Scots. At what precise period Antrim was 
erected into a county is uncertain : it was divided into 
baronies in 1584, by the lord-deputy. Sir John Perrot, 
but this arrangement was not until some time after- 
wards strictly observed. 

The earliest inhabitants of this part of Ireland on 
record were a race of its ancient Celtic possessors, desig- 
nated by Ptolemy Darnii or Darini ; and it deserves 
notice that Nennius mentions the “regions of Dalrieda” 
as the ultimate settlement of the Scythian colony in 
Ireland. According to the Irish annalists, Murdoch 
Mac Erch, chief of the Hibernian Dalaradians, early in 
the fourth century, by a series of conquests extended 
his dominions in the north of Antrim and the adjacent 
districts, while his brother Fergus succeeded in esta- 
blishing a colony in North Britain. The first intruders 
upon these earliest settlers were probably the Danish 
marauders, to whose desolating descents this coast was 
for several ages peculiarly exposed. Subsequently the 
northern Scots harassed the inhabitants by numerous 
plundering inroads, and ultimately accomplished perma- 
nent settlements here, maintaining for a long time a con- 
stant intercourse with their roving countrymen of the 
isles. A right of supremacy over the lords of this terri- 
tory was claimed by the powerful family of the northern 
O’Nials (now written O’Neill), who were at length de- 
prived of the southern part of this county by the family 
of Savage and other English adventurers. Early in the 
14th century, Edward Bruce, the Scottish chieftain, 
gained possession of this district by the reduction of 
Carrickfergus, which had long resisted the most vigorous 
assaults of his troops. The English, however, shortly 
afterwards recovered their dominion ; but in 1333, 
William de Burgho, Earl of Ulster, being assassinated 
at Carrickfergus by his own servants, and his countess, 
with her infant daughter, seeking safety by escaping 
into England, the sept of O’Nial rose suddenly in arms, 
and, falling furiously upon the English settlers, suc- 
ceeded, notwithstanding a brave and obstinate defence, 
in either totally extirpating them, or reducing them 
within very narrow bounds. The conquerors then 
allotted amongst themselves the extensive possessions 
thus recaptured from the English, and the entire dis- 
trict received the name of the Upper and Lower Clan- 
Hugh-Boy, from their leader, Hugh-Boy O’Nial. Dur- 
ing the successful operations of Sir John Perrot, lord- 
deputy in the reign of Elizabeth, to reduce the province 
of Ulster into allegiance to the English government, he 
was compelled to lay siege to Dunluce castle, on the 
northern coast of Antrim, which surrendered on honour- 
able terms : this fortress having been subsequently lost 
through treachery, in 1585, was again given up to the 
English by Sorley Boy O’Donnell or Mac Donnell, the 
proprietor of a great extent of the surrounding country, 
to whom it was returned in charge. 

This county is in the diocese of Connor, except part 
31 


of the parish of Ballyscullion in the diocese of Derry, 
Lambeg in that of Down, and Aghalee in that of Dro- 
more. For purposes of civil jurisdiction it is divided 
into the baronies of Upper Belfast, Lower Belfast, 
Upper Massareene, Lower Massareene, Upper Antrim, 
Lower Antrim, Upper Toome, Lower Toome, Upper 
Glenarm, Lower Glenarm, Upper Dunluce, Lower Dun- 
luce, Kilconway, and Carey. It contains the borough, 
market, and sea-port town of Belfast ; the borough and 
market- town of Lisburn ; the ancient disfranchised 
borough and market-towns of Antrim and Randalstown ; 
the sea-port and market-towns of Ballycastle, Larne, 
and Portrush ; the market and post-towns of Ballymena, 
Ballymoney, Broughshane, and Glenarm ; and the post- 
towns of Ballinderry, Ballyclare, Bushmills, Crumlin, 
Cushendall, Dervock, Glenavy, Portglenone, and Toome. 
Connor, the ancient seat of the diocese, is now merely a 
village : the largest villages are Ballykennedy, Temple- 
patrick, Whitehouse, Dunmurry, Kells (each of which 
has a penny post), Doagh, Duuethery, Eden, Massa- 
reene, and Parkgate. Prior to the Union, this county 
sent ten members to the Irish parliament, — two knights 
of the shire, and two representatives for each of the 
boroughs of Antrim, Belfast, Lisburn, and Randals- 
town : from that period until 1832 it returned four 
members to the Imperial parliament, — two for the 
county, and one each for the boroughs of Belfast and 
Lisburn ; but, by the act to amend the representation, 
passed in that year (2 Wm. IV., c. 88), an additional 
member has been given to Belfast. The county con- 
stituency (as registered in October, 1836,) consists of 
598 £50, 562 £20, and 2246 £10 freeholders ; 6 £50 
and 19 £20 rent- chargers ; and 59 £20 and 337 £10 
leaseholders ; making a total of 3827 registered voters. 
The election for the county takes place at Carrickfergus. 
It is included in the north-east circuit : the assizes are 
held at Carrickfergus, and the general quarter sessions 
at Belfast, Antrim, Carrickfergus, Ballymena, and Bally- 
money, at which the assistant barrister presides. The 
county court-house and gaol is situated at Carrick- 
fergus, the house of correction at Belfast, and there are 
bridewells at Antrim, Ballymena, and Ballymoney. The 
number of persons charged with criminal offences and 
committed to these prisons, in the year 1835, was 202 ; 
and the commitments under civil bill decrees amounted 
to 106. The local government is vested in a lieutenant 
and thirteen deputy-lieutenants, who are all justices of 
the pacee : the entire number of magistrates is 84, includ- 
ing the mayor of the town and county of the town of 
Carrickfergus, and the “ sovereign” of Belfast, who are 
ex-officio magistrates of the county ; besides whom there 
are the usual county officers, including two coroners. 
There are 29 constabulary police stations, having a force 
of a stipendiary magistrate, sub-inspector, pay-master, 6 
chief and 33 subordinate constables, and 165 men, with 8 
horses, the expense of whose maintenance is defrayed 
equally by grand jury presentments and by Government. 
Along the coast are 16 coast-guard stations, — 8 in the dis- 
trict of Ballycastle, having a force of 8 officers and 54 men, 
— and 8 in the district of Carrickfergus, with a force of 
8 officers and 51 men; each district is under the con- 
trol of a resident inspecting commander. The district 
lunatic asylum and the county fever hospital are at Bel- 
fast, the county infirmary is at Lisburn, and there are 
two dispensaries at Belfast, and others at Crumlin, 


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Ballymoney, Ballymena, Larne, Doagh, Randalstown, 
Whitehouse, Antrim, Connor, Ahoghill, Loughguile, 
Bushmills, Ballycastle, Broughshane, and Cushendall, 
supported by equal grand jury presentments and pri- 
vate subscriptions. The amount of grand jury present- 
sentments, for 1835, was £41,002. 16. 1., of which 
£5230. 7. 10. was for the public roads of the county at 
large; £14,072.4.4. for the public roads, being the baronial 
charge; £7666. 8. 2. in repayment of loans advanced by 
Government, £3802. 11. 8. for police, and £10,231. 4. 1. 
for public establishments, officers’ salaries, buildings, 
&c. In military arrangements this county is included 
in the north-eastern district : there are barracks for 
artillery and infantry at Belfast ; and Carrickfergus 
Castle, in which the ordnance stores are deposited, is 
appropriated as a barrack for detachments from Belfast. 

The most striking features of the surface of this 
county are its mountains, which stretch in a regular 
outline from the southern to the northern extremity, 
terminating on the shore in abrupt and almost perpen- 
dicular declivities : they attain their greatest elevation 
near the coast, and have a gradual descent inland ; so 
that many of the principal streams have their source 
near the sea, and run directly thence towards Lough 
Neagh : exclusively of the valleys embosomed amid them, 
these mountains are computed to occupy about one-third 
of the superficial area of the county. Between this 
range and the shore, in some places, are tracts of very 
fertile land, especially from Belfast to Carrickfergus, 
and thence to Larne, near which the mountains project 
in rugged grandeur so as nearly to overhang the sea. 
From Glenarm round to Bengore Head this succession 
of rocky headlands presents numerous striking and 
picturesque views broken by narrow valleys watered by 
mountain torrents, which give a diversified character to 
the romantic scenery by which this part of the coast is 
distinguished. The most remarkable ranges of cliffs 
are those of perpendicular basaltic columns, which ex- 
tend for many miles, and form a coast of surpassing 
magnificence : their arrangement is most strikingly dis- 
played in Fair Head and the Giant’s Causeway, which 
project several hundred feet into the sea, at the northern 
extremity of the county. On the western side of the 
mountain range the valleys expand to a considerable 
width, and are of great fertility : that of the Six-mile- 
water, stretching towards the town of Antrim, is parti- 
cularly distinguished for its beauty and high state of 
cultivation. The valley of the Lagan merits especial 
notice for its beautiful undulating surface, its richness, 
the enlivening aspect of its bleach-greens, and the 
numerous excellent habitations, with their gardens and 
plantations, which impart an air of cheerfulness and in- 
dustry to this interesting vale. The general inclination 
of the surface of the mountainous region becomes less 
rapid as it approaches the river Bann : the flattest parts 
of this elevated tract are composed of turf bogs, which 
occupy a great space, but are mostly susceptible of 
improvement. In the southern part of the barony of 
Toome, along the shore of Lough Neagh to the east 
of Shane’s Castle, the surface consists of numerous de- 
tached swells, and presents a remarkably pleasing aspect. 
Thence southward, along the shore of Lough Neagh to 
the confines of the county, lies the most extensive 
level tract within its limits, which for fertility and 
cultivation is nowhere surpassed. Detached basaltic 
32 


eminences, in some instances attaining a mountainous 
elevation, are conspicuous in several parts of the county, 
of which Slemish, to the south-east of Broughshane, 
and 1437 feet high, is the most remarkable : and in 
divers places, but generally in the lower tracts, are 
scattered gravelly knolls, which from Antrim to Kells 
are particularly striking. Off the northern extremity 
of the county, nearly seven miles distant from the town 
of Ballycastle, lies the island of Rathlin, about 6§ miles 
in length by 1^ in breadth, the shores of which are prin- 
cipally composed of precipitous basaltic and limestone 
rocks, rearing their heads in sublime grandeur above 
the waves of a wild and turbulent ocean. Off this part 
of the coast are some small islets, and a few others lie 
off the eastern shore, and in Lough Neagh. 

Lough Neagh, which is the largest lake in the British 
islands, is chiefly in this county, but extends into several 
others : — it is traditionally stated to have been formed 
in the year 62, by an irruption of the sea, but is 
obviously formed by the confluence of the Blackwater, 
Upper Bann, and five other rivers. This lake is about 
20 British miles in length from north-east to south- 
west, about 12 miles in extreme breadth from east 
to west, 80 miles in circumference, and comprises about 
154 square miles: its greatest depth in the middle is 
45 feet. According to the Ordnance survey, it is 48 
feet above the level of the sea at low water, and contains 
98,255| statute acres, of which 50,025 are in this county, 
27,355^ in Tyrone, 15,556f in Armagh, 5160 in London- 
derry, and 138 in Down. The only outlet is the Lower 
Bann, which being obstructed by weirs and rocks pre- 
vents the free egress of the waters, and causes the sur- 
rounding country to be injuriously inundated in winter. 
In some places the waters possess medicinal properties, 
which they are supposed to derive from the adjacent 
shore. They have also petrifying powers, but these are 
supposed to exist in the soil, as petrifactions are only 
found in the lake near the shore of this county, while 
they are found at considerable heights and depths and 
at some distance from the coast inland. Valuable hones 
are made of the petrified wood, and in the white sand 
on the shore very hard and beautiful stones, known by 
the name of Lough Neagh pebbles, are found : they are 
chiefly chalcedony, generally yellow or veined with red, 
susceptible of a fine polish, and highly valued for seals 
and necklaces. Besides the fish usually caught in fresh 
water lakes, Lough Neagh has the char, a species of trout 
called the dollaghern, and the pullan or fresh water her- 
ring. Swans, teal, widgeon, herons, bitterns, and several 
other kinds of birds frequent its shores. Canals connect it 
with Belfast, Newry, and Coal island, and a steam-boat is 
employed in towing trading vessels across its surface, 
which, although sometimes violently agitated, is scarcely 
ever visited by tempests, from the absence of moun- 
tains from its borders. This vast expanse of water was 
frozen in 1739 and 1784, and in 1814 the ice was suffi- 
ciently thick for Col. Heyland to ride from Crumlin 
water foot to Ram’s Island, which is the only one of 
any importance in the lake, and contains the remains of 
a round tower. Sir Arthur Chichester, in 1604, received 
from James I. a grant of the fisheries and of the office of 
Admiral of Lough Neagh, which have been held by his 
successors and are now vested in the Marquess of Done- 
gal. Lough Neagh gives the title of Baron to Viscount 
Masareene. North of this lake, and connected with it 


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by a narrow channel about a mile long, over which is 
the handsome bridge of Toome, is Lough Beg, or “ the 
small lake,” containing S144f acres, of which 1624 are 
in this county, and 1520f in Derry. This lake, which 
is generally 15 inches lower than Lough Neagh, contains 
four small islands, and its banks are more diversified 
and pleasing than those of the larger lake. 

The soils are of considerable variety : that of the 
plains and valleys is a strong loam upon clay, capable 
of being rendered very fertile, and in many parts inter- 
spersed with whinstones lying on or near the surface, the 
removal of which is necessary preparatory to tillage. 
On the rising grounds this kind of soil assumes a dif- 
ferent quality, the vegetable mould diminishing in 
quantity, and being lighter in texture and colour ; and 
the substratum deteriorates into a brown or yellow till. 
Still nearer the mountains this change becomes more 
apparent from the coarse and scanty produce, rocks and 
stones in many parts occupying nearly the entire sur- 
face, and the soil gradually acquiring a mixture of peat, 
and thus forming extensive moors. To the north of the 
Lagan, at a short distance from Belfast, commences 
a sandy loam which extends, with occasional interrup- 
tions, to the Maze-course, and under good management 
is very productive : on the shores of Lough Neagh are 
likewise some tracts of a similar soil : and small stripes 
of sand are found on different parts of the sea shore. 
Gravelly soils prevail on the irregularly disposed swells 
above mentioned, which are composed of water-worn 
stones of various dimensions, with a loamy covering. 
There are several detached tracts of soils of various tex- 
ture, of a superior quality, resting on a substratum of 
limestone ■, one of the most extensive lies in the parishes 
of Maheragall and Soldierstown. Besides the turf, a 
prevailing soil upon the mountains is a peculiar loam 
without either cohesion or strength, which appears to 
be only a rust or oxyde of the softer parts of the iron- 
stone, and under tillage yields exceedingly scanty crops 
of grain, but an abundance of straw, and tolerably 
good crops of potatoes : its herbage forms excellent 
pasturage. 

The main feature in the tillage system of a great part 
of Antrim is the potatoe fallow, to which it owes nearly 
as much as Norfolk does to the turnip fallow. The 
principal wheat district extends along the shore of Lough 
Neagh and the course of the Lagan river, stretching as 
far north as Cairdcastle, in approaching which its extent 
is greatly reduced by the projection of the mountainous 
districts. Much barley of the four-rowed or Bere species 
is grown on the dry and gravelly swells ; but the cul- 
tivation of oats is most extensive, the straw being used 
as fodder for cattle, and the meal, together with pota- 
toes, the chief food of the great body of the people. 
The other crops of common cultivation are potatoes and 
flax : turnips have been grown by some agriculturists 
since 1774, and the quantity is yearly increasing. In 
some districts the grass lands are extensive and pro- 
ductive, although a considerable portion formerly em- 
ployed as grazing pastures is now under tillage : the 
mountains and high lands also are constantly stocked 
with either the cattle of the proprietors, or those taken 
in from distant owners. Much butter is made through- 
out the county, and is packed in firkins containing 
from 60 to 80lb., and sold at Belfast, whence a consider- 
able quantity is exported. Carrickfergus and Antrim 
Von. I. — 33 


have long been celebrated for cheese, some of which 
rivals in quality that of Cheshire. 

The principal manure, besides that of the farm-yard, 
is lime, the produce of the county ; but the quarries 
being situated at its extremities, it requires much labour 
and expense to convey it into the interior. Near the 
coast, shells and sea-sand are applied ; and sea-sand 
is also used even where it contains few shells. Great 
improvement has of late years been made in the agri- 
cultural implements, by introducing the best Scotch and 
English modes of construction. The soil being parti- 
cularly favourable to the growth of the white thorn, the 
numerous hedges planted with it greatly enrich the 
appearance of the lower districts : the mountain fences 
consist either of loose stones collected from the surface 
of the ground, or of drains (called shoughs) with banks 
of earth. The breed of cattle has been very much im- 
proved within the last few years, particularly in the 
more fertile districts ; the most esteemed English and 
Scottish breeds have been introduced, and by judicious 
crosses stock of the most valuable kind are becoming 
general. In several parts is a Bengal breed, imported 
by Sir Fras. M c Naghten, Bart., from which several 
crosses have been tried, but they appear too tender to 
endure the cold of winter. Generally, little attention is 
paid to the improvement of the breed of sheep, though 
on the rich lands of Muckamore and Massareene it has 
been very much improved : the old native sheep are 
principally found in and near the barony of Carey. A 
very hardy and strong, though small, race of horses, 
partly bred in the county and partly imported from 
Scotland, is employed on the'northern and north-eastern 
coast, and among the mountains ; and in Rathlin island 
is a breed similar to these, but still smaller. In other 
parts of the county the horses are of a good size and 
valuable kinds, but are chiefly introduced by dealers 
from other counties. The long-legged flat-sided hogs 
formerly reared have been superseded by the best En- 
glish breeds : the bacon and pork of more than 100,000 
are annually exported from Belfast. 

There is but little natural wood in the county, the 
greater portion being that which surrounds Shane’s 
Castle, and the scattered trees on the steep banks of a 
few rivers. Numerous, and in some instances extensive, 
plantations have, however, been made in various parts ; 
and, though there are still many wide naked tracts, 
there are others well clothed with wood, especially ad- 
joining Lough Neagh, the vicinities of Moneyglass and 
Drumraymond, the valleys of the Six-mile-water, Kells- 
water, and the Braid, the whole extent from Lisburn to 
Carrickfergus, the neighbourhood of Bella hill and 
Castle Dobbs, of Larne, Glenarm, Benvarden, O’Hara- 
brook, Ballynacre, Leslie hill, and Lisanoure. The 
greatest tracts of waste land are the highest portions of 
the mountain range : even the irreclaimable bogs of 
these elevated tracts produce a coarse herbage, and 
many of the bogs which overspread to a considerable 
extent the plains between the mountains and the Bann 
are likewise covered with verdure. Towards the south- 
ern part of the county most of the bogs have been ex- 
hausted. Coal is furnished to the northern and eastern 
coasts from the mines of Ballycastle, but the chief sup- 
ply is from England, Wales, and Scotland. 

The geology of Antrim presents a great variety of 
the most interesting features, and its mineral produc- 

F 


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tions are of considerable importance. With the excep- 
tion of a diversified district on the eastern coast and 
the entire vale of the Lagan, nearly the whole is occupied 
by basaltic beds, presenting abrupt declivities on the 
eastern and northern coasts, which are truly magnificent. 
These secondary beds consist of enormous unstratified 
masses, the average depth of which is about 300 feet, 
though in the north, at Knock -laid, it is 980 feet ; the 
base of that mountain is composed of mica slate. The 
island of Rathlin is principally occupied by these bas- 
altic beds, which are classified by Dr. Berger under the 
following heads : — tabular basalt, columnar basalt, 
green- stone, grey-stone, porphyry, bole or red ochre, 
wacke, amygdaloidal wacke, and wood coal : and imbed- 
ded in them are granular olivine augite, calcareous spar, 
steatite, zeolite, iron pyrites, glassy feldspar, and chal- 
cedony. The beds of columnar basalt occur almost ex- 
clusively towards the northern extremity of the county, 
and form an amazing display of natural grandeur along 
the shore. Besides the well-known columnar strata 
composing the Giant’s Causeway and the adjacent cliffs, 
similar strata are seen in divers parts of the county, 
particularly near Antrim and Kilroot : the pillars com- 
posing the Giant’s Causeway (which is minutely des- 
cribed in the article on Billy), are irregular prisms stand- 
ing in the closest contact, and of various forms, from 
three to nine sides, the hexagonal equalling in number 
all the rest. Slievemish, or Slemish, mountain is an 
enormous mass of greenstone, which likewise occurs in 
other situations. Porphyry occupies a considerable 
district to the south of Connor and Kells, and is met 
with in several other places, particularly near Cushen- 
dall. The remarkable substance called wood coal occurs 
in thin strata at Portnoffer, Kiltymorris, Ballintoy, and 
elsewhere. All the other rocks of Antrim are beneath 
the basaltic beds in geological position. The first is 
hard chalk, sometimes called white limestone, which 
does not average more than 200 feet in thickness, and 
occurs on the eastern and southern sides of the county, 
and on the southern coast of Rathlin island. Mulattoe, 
or green sandstone next occurs in the neighbourhood of 
Belfast, to the north of Carrickfergus, near Larne, at 
Garron Point, &c. ; and under this are found lias beds 
on the coast between Garron Point and Larne, and in 
other places. These, together with the chalk and basalt, 
are based upon beds of reddish and reddish-brown 
sandstone of various textures, which are found under 
the entire south-eastern border of the county, in several 
detached spots along the eastern coast, and in consider- 
able tracts from Red bay to Ballycastle : the upper 
strata form a marl, in which are veins of gypsum. The 
coal district of Ballycastle comprises an extent of about 
two miles along the coast ; the beds crop out above the 
level of the sea, dipping to the south-east about one 
foot in nine, and alternate with others of sandstone and 
slate clay, being themselves of a slaty quality. The 
only rocks lying under the strata of the great coal dis- 
trict, besides the primitive rocks of mica-slate, 8tc., al- 
ready mentioned, are those of “ old red sandstone,” 
between the bays of Cushendall and Cushendun. All the 
above-mentioned strata are occasionally intersected and 
dislocated by remarkable dykes of basalt or whinstone, 
varying from three inches to sixteen feet in width. Some- 
times very minute dykes or veins of greenstone pene- 
trate these enormous beds of basalt, and are particu- 
34 


larly observable near Portrush, where they are seen in 
the face of the cliff not more than an inch broad. Chert 
is also found in abundance and variety at Portrush. 
Fullers’ earth exists in the basaltic district, in which 
also a rough tripoli is found at Agnew’s Hill, and a vein 
of steatite or French chalk in the path to the Gobbins. 
In Belfast Lough, lying under the level of the ordinary 
tides, but generally left bare at the ebb, is a stratum of 
submarine peat and timber, in which nuts are singularly 
petrified on the east and west sides of the Lough. 
Numerous organic remains are also found in the beds 
of chalk, &c. ; large and beautiful crystals in the 
basaltic region, particularly near the Giant’s Cause- 
way, where agates, opal, and chalcedony are met with 
in different situations. Of all this variety of subter- 
ranean productions, the coal has been procured to the 
greatest extent. The collieries of Ballycastle, once 
flourishing, are now but little worked ; they were 
formerly twelve in number, and exported from 10,000 
to 15,000 tons annually. Gypsum or alabaster is dug 
in different places, and the various species of stone are 
quarried in spots convenient for building and other 
purposes. 

As this county is situated in the centre of the dis- 
trict in which the linen and cotton manufactures are 
most vigorously carried on, a brief historical view of 
the progress of these branches of industry, the most 
valuable in the island, may here be introduced. The 
linen manufacture, of which Belfast is the grand mart, 
is most extensively carried on at Lisburn and the 
surrounding country : it is of remote antiquity in 
Ireland, but appears to have been first particularly en- 
couraged in the north about 1637, by Lord Strafford, 
who induced the Scottish and English settlers, then 
recently established in Ulster, to cultivate flax, offering 
them every facility in exporting the yarn. But this 
rising trade was for some time entirely destroyed by the 
civil war which speedily followed, and its revival effec- 
tually prevented by the competition of the French and 
Dutch in the English market. In 1678, an act prohibit- 
ing the importation of linen from France was passed, 
which was soon afterwards disannulled by Jas. II., 
who afforded great encouragement to the French manu- 
facturers. The first parliament of Wm. III. declared 
the importation of French linens highly injurious to the 
interests of the three kingdoms ; and the progress of 
the woollen trade in Ireland having alarmed the English 
manufacturers, the king was prevailed upon to suppress 
it, and re-establish in lieu the manufacture of linen, 
which was accordingly so much encouraged as to induce 
many of the Hugonots to emigrate hither from France, 
several of whom had carried on the trade extensively 
in their native country. Amongst these emigrants was 
Mr. Crommelin, who received from Government a grant 
of £800 per annum, as an equivalent for the interest of 
capital to be expended by him in establishing the linen 
manufacture at Lisburn, with a patent for its improve- 
ment, and an additional salary of £200, on condition 
that, with the assistance of three other persons, also re- 
munerated from the public purse, he should instruct 
the Irish farmers in the cultivation of flax, which had 
been altogether neglected for upwards of half a cen- 
tury. These and similar efforts, aided by protecting 
legislative enactments, produced the most important re- 
sults : a board of trustees of the linen and hempen 


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manufactures was established under an act passed in 
1711, at which period the value of the exports did not 
exceed £6000 per annum. But in the early part of the 
reign of Geo. I., a linen-hall having been erected in 
Dublin, and a Board of Management appointed, autho- 
rised by parliament annually to employ a large specific 
6um in the importation and gratuitous distribution of 
flax seed, and in awarding premiums for the extension 
and improvement of the trade, the annual imports, 
before the year 1730, had increased in value to upwards 
of £400,000 ; in twenty years more they exceeded one 
million sterling ; and of such importance was the suc- 
cess of this staple manufacture deemed, that £12,000 
was annually granted by parliament for its better pro- 
tection. During this rapid growth, numerous abuses 
crept in, and the most obnoxious frauds were practised 
by the weavers in the length and quality of their webs ; 
for the suppression of which several acts were passed 
in vain, until the provisions of the act of the 33rd of 
Geo. II. were enforced, on the southern border of this 
county, by Lord Hillsborough and Mr. Williamson, 
whose persevering activity rendering it impossible for 
the weavers any longer to evade the law, while the 
bleachers and merchants were convinced of the advan- 
tages to be derived from its observance, the sealing of 
brown linen by deputed responsible officers, to attest its 
quantity and quality, became general throughout the 
whole province, and continues to be practised with 
equal strictness at present. In 1784, the value of brown 
linens sold in the markets of Ulster was £1,214,560; 
and for several years prior and subsequent to the Union, 
the total exports amounted in value to upwards of 
£2,600,000, of which nearly one-half was the produce 
of the county of Antrim. Some conception of the pre- 
sent extent of the manufacture may be derived from the 
fact that at one only of the numerous bleach-greens 
about 80,000 pieces of linen are finished annually, and 
at many others nearly the same number. Prior to the 
accession of Geo. II., every branch of the manufacture 
was performed by the same parties. Machinery was 
first invented and applied in the operation of washing, 
rubbing and beetling at Ballydrain, in the parish of 
Belfast, in 1725, and, as the manufacture extended, the 
process of bleaching became a separate business ; the 
bleacher became merchant, bought the brown linens in 
the open market, and has made this business one of the 
most important branches of the trade. Owing to the 
improvements in machinery, and the aid afforded by the 
application of chymical preparations, the present num- 
ber of bleach- greens is not so great as formerly, not- 
withstanding the vast increase in the produce of the 
manufacture. So late as 1761, the only acid used in 
bleaching was buttermilk : in 1764, Dr, James Ferguson, 
of Belfast, received from the Linen Board a premium of 
£300 for the successful application of lime, and in 1770 
he introduced the use of sulphuric acid ; ten years sub- 
sequently, potash was first used, and, in 1795, chloride 
of lime was introduced : the articles now generally used 
are barilla, American ashes, chloride of lime, and 
vitriol. The fine material which first induced competi- 
tion and the offer of a bounty was cambrics : the atten 
tion of the Board was next directed to the production 
of damasks and diapers, and many looms were given to 
the weavers in the counties of Down and Antrim ; and 
so great a degree of perfection has the weaving of 
35 


damasks attained, that the Lisburn and Ardoyne manu- 
factures adorn the tables of most of the sovereigns of 
Europe. Every species of fabric, from the coarsest 
canvas to the finest cambric, is now manufactured here, 
from flax which is cultivated and prepared in all its 
stages in the province of Ulster. 

The cotton trade, which has become of so great im- 
portance in the North of Ireland, was introduced in 
1777, merely as a source of employment for the children 
in the poor-house at Belfast, by Mr. Robt. Joy and 
Thos. M c Cabe, who, unable to secure individual co-opera- 
tion, offered the machinery, which was then of the 
most improved description, to the managers of the 
charitable institution at prime cost. But the latter re- 
fusing to embark in a speculation altogether novel in 
Ireland, Messrs. Joy, M e Cabe, and M c Cracken formed 
themselves into a company, erected buildings, introduced 
new machinery, and generously opened their works to 
the public, at a time when it was endeavoured in En- 
gland to keep the nature of the improved machinery a 
secret. In 1779 they commenced the manufacture of 
calico, dimities, and Marseilles quilting ; and introduced 
the use of the fly shuttle. This branch of the trade 
soon acquiring considerable celebrity, many persons 
were induced to embark in it : the first mill for spinning 
twist by water was erected at Whitehouse, near Belfast, 
in 1784, from which period may be dated the fixed esta- 
blishment of the cotton manufacture ; and so rapid was 
thenceforward its progress that, in 1800, in Belfast and 
the surrounding country within a circuit of ten miles, 
it furnished employment to upwards of 13,000 indivi- 
duals, or, including those indirectly connected with it, 
to 27,000. In 1811, the number of bags of cotton 
wool imported into Belfast was 14,320, and the number 
exported, 3007 ; leaving for home consumption 11,313, 
worth £226,260, and, when manufactured, worth about 
one million sterling. The number of spinners in the 
mills, at the same period, was estimated at 22,000 ; of 
weavers, including attendants on looms, 25,000 ; and 
engaged in bleaching, embroidery, making looms, reels, 
&c., about 5000 more. The manufacture has been since 
still further extended, and every description of cotton 
fabric is now produced. In addition to the two above- 
named important branches of manufacture, there are, 
in this county, at Belfast, canvas and rope manufac- 
tories, and extensive paper-mills in various places. 
Woollen stockings are woven in several of the towns ; 
soap and candles are made for exportation and home 
consumption ; the manufacture of chloride of lime and 
vitriol, for which there is a great demand in the bleach- 
greens, has long been carried on at Lisburn and Belfast ; 
and the manufacture of leather, though not so extensive 
as formerly, is still considerable throughout the county. 
At Belfast are several large iron-foundries and glass- 
manufactories ; and at Lisburn are works for turning 
and fluting iron. Hence the commerce of this county 
is very extensive : the exports are linens, linen yarn, 
cotton goods, all kinds of grain, pork, bacon, hams, 
beef, butter, eggs, lard, potatoes, soap, and candles ; 
and the imports consist of the raw materials for the 
cotton manufacture, also coal and the various foreign 
articles of consumption required by the numerous po- 
pulation. There is an extensive salmon fishery along 
the coast at Carrickarede, between Ballintoy and Ken- 
bane Head, and this fish is also caught at different places 

F 2 


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along the entire coast north of Glenarm, and also in the 
rivers Bann and Bush : all the other rivers, except the 
Lagan, are likewise frequented by salmon ; and all 
abound with eels, which are taken at weirs in the Bann. 
There is a great variety of other valuable fish off the 
coast ; of testaceous fish this shore affords the lobster 
and the crab, and oysters of superior size and flavour 
are found in Carrickfergus bay ; the seal is common. 

The two largest rivers are the Lagan and the Bann, 
both of which rise in the county of Down : at Belfast 
the Lagan spreads into the wide sestuary called the bay 
of Belfast, or Belfast Lough, and above it, with the aid 
of several cuts, has been made navigable to Lisburn, 
forming part of the navigation between Belfast and 
Lough Neagh : the Bann flows through Lough Neagh 
and Lough Beg, and continues its course to Coleraine, 
below which it falls into the sea. Most of the rivers 
strictly belonging to the county rise in the mountains 
on the coast, and owing to the rapidity and shortness of 
their currents are unnavigable. The Bush runs westward 
from the mountains of Lisanoure to Benvarden, and 
then northward to the sea at Port Ballintrae : the Main 
flows southward into Lough Neagh, and has three 
copious tributaries, the Ravel, the Eraid, and the Glen- 
wherry : the Six-mile-water also falls into Lough Neagh, 
at Antrim, and the Camlin, or Crumlin, and Glenavy 
rivers at Sandy-bay. The rapidity of these and the 
smaller rivers renders their banks peculiarly advanta- 
geous sites for bleach-greens, cotton-mills, and flour and 
corn-mills, of which the last are especially numerous. 
The only artificial line of navigation is the Belfast Canal, 
or Lagan Navigation. The Lagan Navigation Company 
were incorporated by an act of the 2/t.h of Geo. III., 
empowering them to levy a duty of one penny per gallon 
on beer, and fourpence per gallon on spirits, in the 
excise district of Lisburn ; but these duties having 
recently been repealed, an equivalent sum was annually 
paid to the Company by Government, until the year 
1835, when their right ceased : it is navigable for vessels 
of fifty tons’ burden, and the entire length from Lough 
Neagh to the quays of Belfast is twenty-two miles : its 
construction was powerfully aided by the noble family 
of Chichester, and the expense amounted to £62,000, 
raised by debentures. The roads of late years have 
been gradually improved, the materials existing within 
the county for making and repairing them being of the 
best quality. An important and very difficult work, 
called the Antrim Coast Road, from Larne to Bally- 
castle, has been lately executed under the immediate 
control of the Board of Public Works, opening an im- 
proved communication with a fine tract of country com- 
prehended between the coast and the range of moun- 
tains from Carrickfergus to Ballycastle, and hitherto cut 
off from any reasonable means of intercourse by the 
badness of the roads over those mountains, some of 
which were conducted for miles at slopes varying from 
one yard in six to one in twelve. Many projects had 
been formed, at different times, for an improved line, 
but were abandoned on account of the great expense 
involved in the execution of them ; but at length a plan 
with a moderate estimate was sanctioned by the Com- 
missioners, and they and the grand jury granted about 
£18,000 for carrying it into effect. The new road pro- 
ceeds from Larne close along the shore to Black Cave, 
where it winds round the promontory of Ballygalley 
36 


Head, passing by Glenarm, Cairnlough, Garron Head, 
and Waterfoot, to Cushendall, where it strikes off inland 
to its northern terminus at Ballycastle, taking in the 
few portions of the old line that were available. The 
greatest difficulties encountered in its formation arose 
from the necessity of conducting the road, in part of 
its line, under a considerable extent of rock, some hun- 
dreds of feet in height, having its base washed by the 
open sea 5 and from its passing along portions of very 
steep hills of moving clay bank. The former obstacle 
presented itself at the bold headland of Glenarm deer- 
park, where about 30,000 cubic yards of rock were, by 
blasting with great care and judgment, hurled in im- 
mense masses down upon the shore ; and the road, 21 
feet in clear width and 10 feet above the highest tides, 
has been floored partly on the loose and partly on the 
solid rock. The latter occurred more particularly at the 
base of the hill of Cloony, and was by far the more 
serious obstacle, from the slippery nature of the clay 
banks and their tendency to move over the road. To 
counteract this inconvenience the engineer proposed, 
after having thrown down very large masses of detached 
rock, which were found strewed over the face of the 
bank (so as to form a sufficient flooring), to construct 
a revetment wall, from the summit of which any 
gradual accumulation of the slippery bank might from 
time to time be removed. Very solid piers of heavy 
rough blocks were deeply bedded into the bank, 30 feet 
apart, to be connected by substantial walls having a 
vertical curvilinear batter combined with an arched 
horizontal curve, to which the piers form the abutments. 
The entire distance being also concave, affords a power- 
ful combination of resistance against the pressure. The 
old road passes over the hill at an elevation of nearly 
200 feet above the sea, with slopes of one in six and 
upwards ; while the new line along the coast is nearly 
level. A new line of road has been opened from Belfast 
to Lisburn ; another from Belfast to Antrim, which is 
to be immediately continued to Ballymoney, Ballymena, 
and Coleraine ; and a third recently from Belfast to 
Crumlin. A new line has been made from Ballymoney 
to Dervock, crossing a large and valuable tract of bog ; 
and others are in progress leading respectively from 
Whitewell-brae to Ballyclare and Ballymena, from Bel- 
fast to Carrickfergus and Larne, from Glenavy to Moira, 
from Doagh to Ballymena, and from Ballymena to 
Cushendall. But the most important and expensive is 
the mail coach road from Belfast to Derry, now in pro- 
gress. The lines from Belfast to Carrickfergus and 
Larne, and from Antrim to Coleraine (the latter being 
the Derry road), have been undertaken with the sanction 
of the Commissioners of Public Works. A double line 
of railway is in progress from Belfast to Cave Hill, 
which was the first undertaken in Ireland, but for want 
of funds was abandoned for some years ; the operations 
have, however, been resumed. Railways are also con- 
templated from Belfast to Carrickfergus, from Belfast 
to Armagh (being the Dublin line), and from Armagh 
to Portrush ; the last will only pass about two miles 
through this county. 

The remains of antiquity of earliest date consist of 
cairns or barrows, cromlechs, raths or intrenchments, 
and mounts differing in magnitude and form. The most 
remarkable of the cairns is that on Colin mountain, 
about three miles north of Lisburn ; there is also one 


A N T 


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on Slieve True, to the west of Carrickfergus, and two 
on Colinward. Near Cairngrainey, to the north-east of 
the old road from Belfast to Templepatrick, is the crom- 
lech most worthy of especial notice : it has several table 
stones resting on numerous upright ones ; and near it 
is a large mount, also several fortified posts different 
from all others in the county. There is likewise a large 
cromlech at Mount Druid, near Ballintoy ; another at 
the northern extremity of Island Magee ; and Hole 
Stone, to the east of the road from Antrim to Glenavy, 
appears to be a relic of the druids. Of mounts, forts, 
and intrenchments, there is every variety which exists 
in Ireland ; and so numerous are they, that the parishes 
of Killead and Muckamore alone contain two hundred 
and thirty, defended by one or more ramparts ; and 
ten mounts, two of them containing caves, of which 
that called Donald’s Mount is a fine specimen of this 
kind of earthwork. Among the most remarkable of 
the rest are, one at Donegore, one at Kilconway, one at 
the Clough- water, one at Dunethery, the last of which 
is planted with trees ; one with a square outwork at 
Dunmacaltar, in the parish of Culfeightrin ; Dunmaul 
fort, near Nappan ; one at Cushendall, having a castle 
within its defences, and probably a Danish relic ; one 
at Drumfane on the Braid, one at Camlent-Oldchurch, 
and another in a bog near Ballykennedy : one near 

Connor has outworks exactly resembling that at Dro- 
more, and in another near Carrickfergus have been 
found several curious Danish trumpets. Stone hatchets 
or celts of various sizes have been discovered in several 
places, but in the greatest numbers near Ballintoy ; 
arrow heads of flint, spear heads of brass, and numerous 
miscellaneous relics have been found. There have also 
been discovered a Roman torques, a coin of Yalentinian, 
fibulae, and other Roman antiquities, supposed to be 
relics of the spoil obtained by the Irish Scots in their 
plunder of South Britain, in alliance with the Piets. 
Of the singular round towers, the original purpose of 
which has been a fertile source of almost innumerable 
conjectures, there are at present four in this county ; 
viz., one at Antrim, one on Ram’s Island in Lough 
Neagh, a fragment of one near the old church at Trum- 
mery (between Lisburn and Moira), and one in the 
churchyard of Armoy. 

Archdall enumerates forty-eight religious establish- 
ments, as having existed in this county, but adds, that 
twenty of them are now unknown, and scarcely can the 
existence of half the entire number be now established 
by positive evidence. There are still interesting remains 
of those of Bonamargy, Kells, Glenarm, Glynn near 
Larne, Muckamore, and White Abbey, to the west of 
the road from Belfast to Carrickfergus ; and extensive 
ruins of other religious edifices, in the several townlands 
of Dundesert, Ballykennedy, and Carmavy, in the parish 
of Killead. Of ancient fortresses, that of Carrickfergus, 
which has always been the strongest and most import- 
ant, is the only one in complete preservation : there are 
interesting ruins of Green Castle, to the west of the road 
between Belfast and Carrickfergus ; Olderfleet Castle, 
situated at the extremity of the peninsula which forms 
one side of the harbour of Larne ; Castle Chichester, 
near the entrance to the peninsula of Island Magee ; 
Red Bay Castle ; and the Castle of Court Martin, near 
Cushendall. Near the northern coast are likewise several 
old castles, some of which are very difficult of access, 
37 


and must have been fortresses of great strength prior 
to the use of artillery : of these the principal are Dun- 
luce, remarkable for its amazing extent and romantic 
situation, also Dunsevericlc, Kenbane, Doonaninny, and 
Castle Carey ; in Rathlin Island are the remains of 
Bruce’s Castle. Inland there are also many remains of 
fortified residences, of which Shane’s Castle, the vener- 
able seat of the O’Nials, was destroyed by fire in 1816 : 
Castle Upton is the only mansion of this kind at pre- 
sent habitable. Lisanoure, the beautiful seat of George 
Macartney, Esq., on the banks of Lough Guile, is so 
called from an old fort in the vicinity. Near the sum- 
mit of White Mountain, two miles north of Lisburn, 
are the extensive remains of Castle Robin ; and at 
Portmore, near the Little Lough in Ballinderry, are 
similar remains. Among the mansions of the nobility 
and gentry, few are splendid, though many are of con- 
siderable elegance ; they are noticed under the heads of 
the parishes in which they are respectively situated. 
There are numerous mineral springs : one near Bally- 
castle is chalybeate, another aluminous and vitriolic, 
and a third, on Knocklaid mountain, chalybeate ; at 
Kilroot there is a nitrous water of a purgative quality ; 
and near Carrickfergus are two salt springs, one at 
Bella hill, and the other in Island Magee. There are also 
various natural caverns, of which the most remarkable 
are those of the pictui'esque mountain called Cave Hill ; 
a curious and extensive cavity at Black-cave-head, to 
the north of Larne ; a cave of larger dimensions under 
Red Bay Castle ; one under Dunluce Castle ; the cave 
at Port Coon, near the Giant’s Causeway ; and those of 
Cushendun and the white rocks, near Dunluce ; besides 
which there are numerous artificial caves. 

ANTRIM, a market and post-town, and a parish (for- 
merly a parliamentary borough) : partly in the barony 
of Upper Antrim, and partly in that of Upper Toome, 
county of Antrim, and province of Ulster, 13 miles 
(N. W. by W.) from Belfast, and 94 miles (N.) from 
Dublin ; containing 5415 inhabitants, of which number, 
2655 are in the town. This place was anciently called 
Entruim, Entrumnia, or Entrum Neagh, signifying, ac- 
cording to some writers, “ the habitation upon the 
waters,” probably from its contiguity to Lough Neagh. 
The earliest notice of it occurs in the year 495, when 
Aodh, a disciple of St. Patrick, founded a monastery 
here, which was destroyed during the Danish incursions, 
and of which no further mention appears till the foun- 
dation of Woodburn Abbey, to which it became an 
appendage. A sanguinary battle between the native 
Irish and the English took place near the town, when 
Sir Robert Savage, one of the earliest English settlers, 
is said with a small party of his forces to have killed 
more than 3000 of the Irish army. In the 13th of 
Jas. I., the town and sixteen townlands of the parish, 
together with the advowson of the living and the recto- 
rial tithes, were granted to Sir Arthur Chichester. A 
naval engagement took place on Lough Neagh, in 1643, 
when Col. Conolly and Capt. Longford gave battle to a 
party of Irish marauders, who at that time had posses- 
sion of the fort of Charlemont, near the shore of Clan- 
brassil, on which occasion the Irish were defeated, and 
their fleet brought by the victors in triumph up to the 
town. In 1649 the town was burnt by Gen. Monroe; 
and in 1688 a party of Lord Blayney’s troops, being 
separated from the main body of the army, crossed the 


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river Bann at Toome, and were made prisoners in a 
skirmish near this place. During the disturbances of 
1798 it was the principal scene of the hostilities which 
took place in the county : the insurgents had planned 
an attack on the 7th of June, by marching their forces 
in four columns respectively by the Belfast, Carriekfer- 
gus, Ballymena and Shane’s Castle roads 3 but their 
design becoming known to the military commanders of 
the district, troops were hastily assembled in the town, 
and the inhabitants were also mustered for its defence. 
The conflict was obstinately maintained on both sides, 
but at length the insurgents fled in all directions, leav- 
ing behind them about 3000 pikes and muskets : more 
than 900 of them were slain in the town and many 
killed in the pursuit. 

The town is situated on the banks of the Six-mile- 
water river, on the great road from Belfast to London- 
derry, and in one of the most fertile and beautiful 
valleys in the county : it consists of two principal streets, 
with others branching from them ; many of the houses 
are modern, and well built of stone and roofed with 
slate, and several are ancient, of timber frame-work and 
plaister, with gable fronts, of which the upper projects 
over the lower story : the inhabitants are amply sup- 
plied with water from conduits in the streets. The ma- 
nufacture of paper is carried on to a very great extent ; 
mills for that purpose were first erected about the year 
1776, but were burnt down a few years after 3 they were, 
however, rebuilt on a very extensive scale, and the first 
machinery used in the North of Ireland for the making 
of paper was introduced and is now employed in manu- 
facturing paper of every description. Attached to these 
and belonging to the same proprietors, Messrs. Fergu- 
son and Fowke, are a large brewery, flour and meal 
mills, malt-kilns, stores for grain, and other appendages, 
the whole affording employment to a great number of 
the industrious poor. At Boghead, one mile distant, 
and on the same stream, is another paper-mill on a 
smaller scale : there are also several bleach-greens in 
the parish 3 and the weaving of linen, calico, and hosiery 
is carried on in the dwellings of many of the poor both 
in the town and neighbourhood. The situation of the 
town within a quarter of a mile of the north-eastern 
portion of Lough Neagh, where a small rude pier or 
quay has been constructed, is favourable to the increase 
of its trade, from the facility of water conveyance afforded 
by the lake, the Belfast canal, and the Upper Bann. 
Several patents granting fairs and markets are extant, 
of which the earliest, granting to Sir James Hamilton a 
market on Thursday, is dated Feb. 14th, 1605. The 
market is still held on Thursday, and there is a market 
for grain every Tuesday, but, although the town is 
situated in a fine grain country, the market is very 
small. Fairs are held on Jan. 1st, May 12th, Aug. 1st, 
and Nov. 12th 5 those in May and August are well 
supplied with black cattle and pigs. Tolls were formerly 
levied, but were discontinued about fourteen years since, 
by direction of Viscount Ferrard. This is a chief or 
baronial station of the constabulary police. Chas. II., 
in the 17th year of his reign (1666), granted the inha- 
bitants letters patent empowering them to send two 
members to the Irish parliament, which they continued 
to do till deprived of the privilege at the time of the 
Union, when the compensation grant of £15,000 for 
the abolition of the franchise was assigned in equal 
38 


shares to Clotworthy, Earl of Massareene, and three 
members of the Skeffington family. The seneschal of 
the manor of Moylinny, within which the town is situ- 
ated, is appointed by the Marquess of Donegal, and 
holds a court once in three weeks, under charter of the 
21st of Chas. II., granted to Arthur, Earl of Donegal, 
for determining pleas “ not exceeding £20 current money 
in England,” with power of attachment of goods : he 
also holds a court-leet annually. Petty sessions are 
held every alternate Tuesday ; and the quarter sessions 
for the county are held here in April and October. The 
court-house is a large and handsome building nearly in 
the centre of the town ; and part of the market-house 
is appropriated as a county district bridewell. 

The parish comprises, according to the Ordnance 
survey, 8884| statute acres, of which about three-fourths 
are arable and one-fourth pasture land, and 200 acres 
are under plantations ; there is little waste and no bog. 
The scenery is diversified and embellished with several 
gentlemen’s seats, and derives much interest from Lough 
Neagh, which is partly within the limits of the parish. 
Closely adjoining the town is Antrim Castle, the ancient 
residence of the Earls of Massareene, and now, by mar- 
riage, the property and residence of Viscount Ferrard : 
it appears to have been originally built in the reign of 
Chas. II. by Sir John Clotworthy, and has been enlarged 
and partly rebuilt. It occupies an elevated situation 
above the precipitous banks of the Six-mile-water, com- 
manding a fine view of the lake and of the surrounding 
country. Not far from the town are Steeple, the resi- 
dence of G. J. Clark, Esq. ; Ballycraigy, of W. Chaine, 
Esq. ; Spring Farm, of Lewis Reford, Esq. ; Birch Hill, 
of A. Montgomery, Esq. 5 Greenmount, of W. Thomp- 
son, Esq. ; Muekamore, of S. Thompson, Esq. j the 
Cottage, of F. Whittle, Esq. ; Moilena, of W. Chaine, 
jun.. Esq. ; and Holywell, of H. Joy Holmes, Esq. The 
living is a vicarage, in the diocese of Connor, and in the 
patronage of the Marquess of Donegal 3 the rectory is 
impropriate in Lord Ferrard. The tithes amount to 
£598. 2. 10., of which sum, £318. 18. 8. is payable to 
the impropriator, and the remainder to the vicar. The 
church, originally built in 1596, was destroyed by fire 
in 1649, and remained in ruins till 1720, when it was 
rebuilt 3 a lofty square embattled tower, surmounted by 
an elegant octagonal spire of freestone, was added in 
1812, for which the late Board of First Fruits granted 
a loan of £1500. There is a glebe-house, but no glebe. 
In the R. C. divisions the parish forms part of the 
union or district of Drumaul, also called Randalstown • 
the chapel is a spacious and handsome edifice. There 
are two meeting-houses for Presbyterians ; one, in Main- 
street, in connection with the Synod of Ulster and of 
the second class, was built in 1 6 13 5 and the other, in 
Mill-row, in connection with the presbytery of Antrim 
and of the third class, was built in 1726. There are 
also two places of worship for Primitive Wesleyan 
Methodists, and one for the Society of Friends. A 
free school on the foundation of Erasmus Smith was 
established in 1812, and is supported by annual 
grants of £30 from the trustees and £2 from the 
rector : the school-house was built at an expense of 
£800, of which £200 was given by Lord Ferrard. On 
the same foundation is also a school for girls, to which 
the trustees contribute £27. 10. per annum 5 and there 
are an infants’ school, supported by subscriptions 


A R B 


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amounting to about £15 per ann., and two Sunday 
schools. The total number of children on the books of 
these schools, exclusively of the Sunday schools, is 
about 300 ; and in the private pay schools are 230 
boys and 100 girls. A mendicity society has been esta- 
blished for some years ; a temperance society was 
formed in 1829 ; and a branch savings’ bank, in con- 
nection wifh the Belfast savings’ bank, was established 
here in Dec. 1832, in which the deposits during the first 
half year amounted to £1369- 9. 3. About half a mile 
to the north-east of the church, and in the middle of 
the plantations of G. J. Clark, Esq., in a part of the 
valley leading to Lough Neagh, is one of the most per- 
fect round towers in the island : it is built of unhewn 
stone and mortar, perfectly cylindrical in form, and is 
95 feet in height and 49 feet in circumference at the 
base ; the summit terminates with a cone 12 feet high ; 
the door is on the north side, and at a height of 7 feet 
9 inches from the ground ; the walls are 2 feet 9 inches 
in thickness, and the tower contains four stories, the 
ascent to which appears to have been by a spiral stair- 
case ; each of the three lower stories is lighted by a 
square window, and the upper story by four square per- 
forations, corresponding with the cardinal points ; im- 
mediately above the doorway is a Grecian cross rudely 
sculptured in alto relievo on a block of freestone, which 
appears to be part of the original building. Around the 
base of the tower great quantities of human bones and 
some vestiges of the foundations of buildings have been 
discovered ; the latter are supposed to indicate the site 
of the ancient monastery founded by Aodh. In a garden 
adjoining the tower is a large detached mass of basalt, 
having nearly a level surface, in which are two cavities 
or basins, evidently the work of art, of which the larger 
is 19 inches in length, 16 inches wide, and 9 inches 
deep, and during the driest seasons is constantly filled 
with fine clear water. There is a very powerful chaly- 
beate spring in the garden of Frederick Macauley, Esq. 
John Abernethy, Esq., the eminent surgeon, was a 
native of this place. Antrim gives the title of Earl to 
the family of Macdonnel, of which the present repre- 
sentative is the Countess of Antrim and Viscountess 
Dunluce, in the peerage of Ireland, who succeeded 
her father, Randal William, Marquess and sixth Earl 
of Antrim, in 1791, in the earldom and viscounty only, 
by virtue of a new patent which the earl, having no son, 
obtained in 1785, with remainder to bis daughters and 
their heirs male. 

ARBOE, or ARDBOE, a parish, partly in the barony 
of Loughinsholin, county of Londonderry, but 
chiefly in the barony of Dungannon, county of Tyrone, 
and province of Ulster, 5 miles (E. N. E.) from Stew- 
artstown ; containing 8148 inhabitants. A monastery 
was founded here by St. Colman, son of Aidhe, and sur- 
named Mucaidhe, whose reliques were long preserved in 
it : it was destroyed in 1166, by Rory Makang Makill- 
mory Omorna, but there are still some remains. The 
parish is situated on the shore of Lough Neagh, by 
which it is bounded on the east, and comprises, accord- 
ing to the Ordnance survey, 33,504 statute acres, of 
which 21,000 form part of Lough Neagh, and 56 are in 
small islands. The greater portion is under tillage, and 
there are some tracts of good meadow, about 50 acres 
of woodland, and 1000 acres of bog. The system of 
agriculture is improved ; the soil is fertile, and the 
39 


lands generally in a high state of cultivation. There 
are several large and handsome houses, the principal of 
which is Elogh, the residence of Mrs. Mackay. The 
living is a rectory, in the diocese of Armagh, and in the 
patronage of the Provost and Fellows of Trinity College, 
Dublin : the tithes amount to £507. 13. 10§. The 
church, a neat small edifice, was erected in the reign of 
William and Mary, on a site two miles westward from 
the ruins of the ancient abbey. The glebe-house is a 
handsome building; and the glebe comprises 212 acres. 
The R. C. parish is co-extensive with that of the Esta- 
blished Church ; the chapel, a spacious and handsome 
edifice, is situated at New Arboe ; and there are two 
altars in the open air, where divine service is performed 
alternately once every Sunday. There is a place of 
worship for Presbyterians in connection with the Seced- 
ing synod. There are four public schools, in which about 
320 boys and 240 girls are taught ; and there are also 
five private schools, in which are about 140 boys and 
50 girls, and five Sunday schools. On the western shore 
of Lough Neagh are the ruins of the ancient abbey, 
which form an interesting and picturesque feature ; and 
the remains of an old church, of which the walls are 
standing. Near them is an ancient ornamented stone 
cross in good preservation. 

ARDAGH, a parish, in the barony of Imokilly, 
county of Cork, and province of Munster, 3 miles (N. 
W.) from Youghal, on the new mail-coach road from 
that place to Tallow ; containing 2658 inhabitants. 
This parish is situated on the confines of the county of 
Waterford, and comprises 7629 statute acres, as ap- 
plotted under the tithe act, and valued at £3402 per 
annum. The general aspect is mountainous, and a 
large portion of its surface is unreclaimed, affording a 
plentiful supply of turf. The soil is for the most part 
poor and stony ; and excepting the waste, the land is 
wholly in tillage and only indifferently cultivated. The 
living is a rectory, in the diocese of Cloyne, and in the 
patronage of the Crown : the tithes amount to £600. 
The church is an old plain building of small dimensions. 
There is no glebe-house ; the glebe comprises five acres. 
In the R. C. divisions this parish forms part of the 
union or district of Killeigh : the chapel is a small 
thatched building, situated at Inch. There is a school 
for boys and girls at Killeigh, aided by a donation of 
£5 per ann. from Lord Ponsonby, who also gave the 
school-house rent-free, and contributes to another school 
for both sexes ; there is only one pay school in the 
parish. On the banks of the Turra, which runs through 
the centre of the parish, is the ruined castle of Kilna- 
turra, a massive square tower in excellent preserva- 
tion. 

ARDAGH, a parish, in the Shanid Division of the 
barony of Lower Connello, county of Limerick, and 
province of Munster, 3 miles (N. W.) from Newcastle, 
on the road from that place to Shanagolden ; containing 
2197 inhabitants, of which number, 415 are in the vil- 
lage. This place is situated in the heart of an interesting 
and fertile district ; the village consists of one long 
irregular street, containing 65 houses, which are in a 
very ruinous condition. Near it are the interesting 
remains of the old parish church, which was destroyed 
in the insurrection of 1641, and has not been rebuilt. 
Fairs are held on the 11th of May, Aug. 14th, and 
Nov. 21st, chiefly for the sale of cattle, pigs, and pedlery. 


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AR D 


The parish comprises 6572 statute acres, as applotted 
under the tithe act, exclusively of a considerable tract 
of bog ; the land is some of the best in the county and 
finely planted ; the system of agriculture is little im- 
proved, the fertility of the soil and the abundance of 
the crops rendering the farmer unwilling to change his 
plans. On the west it is bounded by heathy and boggy 
mountains, which contain several strata of coal, but 
the two upper strata, which are very thin, are alone 
worked : the only pits now open are at Carrigkerry. 
Iron-stone and fire clay of very superior quality are also 
abundant, but no attempt has yet been made to work 
them. The seats are Ardagh Lodge, the residence of 
T. Fitzgibbon, Esq. ; and Ballynaborney, of W. Upton, 
Esq. The parish is in the diocese of Limerick, and the 
rectory forms part of the union of St. Michael and 
corps of the archdeaconry, in the patronage of the 
Bishop : the tithes amount to £184. 12. 3f. In the 
R. C. divisions it is the head of a union or district, 
comprising also the parish of Rathronan and part of 
the parish of Kilscannell ; the chapel, a large but old 
and neglected building, is situated in the village, where 
a school-house is now in course of erection. There 
are two schools, in which are about 100 boys and 80 
girls. 

ARDAGH, a parish, partly in the barony of Moydow, 
but chiefly in that of Ardagh, county of Longford, 
and province of Leinster, 4 miles (W. S. W.) from 
Edgeworthstown ; containing 4980 inhabitants, of which 
number, 142 are in the village, which comprises 25 
houses and is wholly in the latter barony. This ancient 
place derives its name from its elevated situation, and 
its origin may at the latest be ascribed to the middle of 
the fifth century, when its church was founded. Sub- 
sequently here was a friary of the third order of St. 
Francis, founded at Ballynesaggard by the family of 
O’Ferrall, and reformed in 1521 by the friars of the 
Strict Observance. The parish is situated on the nearest 
road from Mullingar to Longford overBallicorkey bridge, 
but the coach road is through Edgeworthstown, from 
which there is a penny post. It comprises 10,063 statute 
acres, as applotted under the tithe act, and valued at 
£ 8073 per annum ; there is a moderate extent of bog, 
but no waste land. The land is good, and is principally 
under tillage, and the system of agriculture, though still 
very backward, has considerably improved. Ardagh 
House is the seat of Sir G. R. Fetherston, Bart. ; 
Richfort, of J. A. Richardson, Esq. ; Oldtown, of Thorn- 
ton Gregg, Esq. ; and Drumbawn, of Peyton Johnston, 
Esq. Fairs are held on April 5th and Aug. 26th. Petty 
sessions are held every Thursday ; and here is a consta- 
bulary police station. 

The Diocese of Ardagh appears to have been founded 
either by St. Patrick or by his disciple and nephew, 
St. Mell, a Briton, who became bishop and abbot of 
Ardagh before the year 454. Of his successors until 
the arrival of the English, in the reign of Hen. II., little 
with certainty is known, and nothing remarkable is 
recorded of any. Near the close of the fifteenth century 
the bishoprick was held by William O’Ferrall, who was 
also dynast of the surrounding territory ; and Richard 
O'Ferrall combined these two dignities from 1541 to 
1553. It was held jointly with the diocese of Kilmore 
by royal patent from 1603 till 1633, when it was volun- 
tarily resigned by William Bedell, Bishop of Kilmore ; 

40 


and John Richardson, D.D., Archdeacon of Derry, and 
a native of Chester, was advanced to the see of Ardagh. 
This prelate, apprehensive of the insurrection which 
broke out towards the close of 1641, withdrew with all 
his substance into England in the summer of that year ; 
and having a short time before his departure recovered 
some lands in his diocese from one Teigue O’Roddy, the 
latter applied for relief to the British House of Com- 
mons, and a summons was sent to the bishop requiring 
his appearance on a certain day ; but on application to 
the Irish House of Lords, the lord- chancellor was ordered 
to write to the Speaker of the English House, asserting 
their privileges, and refusing to permit the bishop’s 
compliance ; and on a motion of the Bishop of Clonfert 
an order was resolved on to prevent such grievances in 
future. After his death, in 1653 or 1654, the see con- 
tinued vacant and its revenues sequestrated until the 
Restoration of Chas. II., when the dioceses were again 
united and so continued until the deprivation of Bishop 
Sheridan, in 1692. Ulysses Burgh, D.D., was then 
promoted to Ardagh ; and dying in the same year the 
union was restored, but was ultimately dissolved in 1742, 
on the translation of Bishop Hart to the archiepiscopal 
see of Tuam, with which Ardagh has been since held in 
commendam, the archbishop being suffragan to the Lord- 
Primate for this see. Under the provisions of the 
Church Temporalities Act (3rd of Wm. IV.) this dio- 
cese, on the death of the present Archbishop of Tuam, 
will be again permanently united to that of Kilmore. 
It is one of the ten which constitute the ecclesiastical 
province of Armagh, and comprehends part of the coun- 
ties of Sligo, Roscommon, and Leitrim, in the civil pro- 
vince of Connaught ; part of Cavan, in Ulster ; and part 
of Westmeath and nearly the whole of Longford, in 
Leinster. It comprises, by estimation, 233,650 acres, of 
which 4400 are in Sligo, 8700 in Roscommon, 71,200 in 
Leitrim, 10,600 in Cavan, 8900 in Westmeath, and 
129,850 in Longford. A dean and an archdeacon are 
the only dignitaries, but have no official duties to per- 
form, and the latter has no emoluments : there is no 
chapter, but in cases of necessity a majority of the be- 
neficed clergymen of the diocese represent that body ; 
the parochial church of Ardagh serves as the cathedral. 
It was divided into four rural deaneries prior to the 
year 1S19, when the diocesan dispensed with the ser- 
vices of the rural deans and has since discharged their 
duties himself. The diocese comprises 38 parishes, of 
which 20 are rectories or united rectories and vicarages, 
17 vicarages, and 1 impropriate cure : the total number 
of benefices is 26, of which 8 are unions consisting of 
20 parishes, and the remainder consist of single parishes, 
and of which 1 is in the gift of the crown, 22 in that of 
the diocesan, and 3 are in lay patronage ; the number 
of churches is 33, and of glebe-houses 22. The see 
lands comprise 22,216 statute acres, of which 13,194 are 
profitable land, and 9022 are unprofitable ; and the gross 
annual revenue payable to the archbishop is, on an 
average, £3186. 2. 6|. In the R. C. divisions this diocese 
and a few parishes in Meath constitute the see, which is 
suffragan to Armagh ; it contains 65 chapels, served by 
42 parish priests and 42 coadjutors and curates. 

The living is a rectory and vicarage, in the diocese 
of Ardagh, and constituting the corps of the deanery, 
which is in the patronage of the Crown. The tithes 
amount to £482. 11. 5|. : and the mensal and other 


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lands of the deanery, exclusively of several houses, tolls 
of fairs, a plot of nearly two acres on which the deanery- 
house is built, a farm of 13a. Ir. 10p., and a large 
bog, comprise 714a. 2 r. 35p., (statute measure) pro- 
ducing, with the annual renewal fines, a rental of 
£292. 11. 2. per annum. The church is a plain com- 
modious building with a square tower, for the erection 
of which the late Board of First Fruits granted a loan 
of £900, in 1812, and the Ecclesiastical Commissioners 
have lately granted £301 for its repair. The deanery- 
house was built in 1823, by a gift of £100 and a loan 
of £1200 from the same Board. In the R. C. divisions 
this parish is the head of a union or district, which 
includes also the adjoining parish of Moydow, in each 
of which is a chapel $ that of Ardagh is situated near 
the village. The parochial school for boys is principally 
supported by a grant of £40 per ann. from Dr. Murray, 
the present dean, who also contributes annually £15. 
towards the support of the girls’ school, which is further 
aided by an annual grant of £5 from the Ardagh Dio- 
cesan Society : the school-house is a good slated build- 
ing of two stories, with apartments for the master and 
mistress, erected by Dr. Murray at an expense of £400, 
and attached to it is an acre of land. There are 40 boys 
and 30 girls in this school, and in the private pay schools 
are about 290 boys and 170 girls : there is also a Sunday 
school for boys and girls. Some remains of the old 
cathedral church, a small edifice rudely built of fragments 
of rock of a large size, are still visible ; it was superseded 
by another church, now also in ruins, and the present 
edifice was erected near its site. St. Mell was interred 
here, and his festival is annually celebrated on Feb. 6th. 
The comedy of th.e “ Mistakes of a Night,” written by 
Dr. Goldsmith, derives its plot from an incident that 
occurred at this village to the author, who, on passing 
through it, having inquired for the “ head inn,” was 
directed by a humorous individual to the residence of 
the proprietor of the place, Mr. Fetherston, who per- 
ceiving the delusion, nevertheless indulged it, and hospi- 
tably entertained his guest ; and it was not until next 
morning that, on finishing his breakfast and calling for 
the bill, the poet discovered his mistake. 

ARDAGH, a parish, in the barony of Tyrawley, 
county of Mayo, and province of Connaught, 2| miles 
(W. S. W.) from Ballina 5 containing 1813 inhabitants. 
This parish is situated on the shores of Lough Conn and 
the river Deel, and on the road from Ballina to Cross- 
molina : it comprises 3215 statute acres, as applotted 
under the tithe act, and valued at £1794 per annum; 
the land is chiefly under tillage. There are large tracts 
of bog, furnishing abundance of fuel. Deel Castle, the 
seat of St. George Cuff, Esq., is delightfully situated 
on the river Deel, and in a fine demesne. Fairs are held 
at Newtown on the 4th of Aug. and the 1st of Nov. 
The living is a vicarage, in the diocese of Rillala, with 
the vicarages of Ballynahaglish, Kilbelfad, Kilmoremoy, 
Attymass, and Kilgarvan episcopally united, constituting 
the union of Ardagh, in the patronage of the Bishop : the 
rectory is partly appropriate to the precentorship of the 
cathedral of Killala, and partly to the vicars choral of 
the cathedral of Christchurch, Dublin. The tithes 
amount to £110. 15. 4j., of which £38. 10. 10. is 
payable to the precentor of Killala, £13. 16. 11. to the 
vicars choral, and £55. 7- 8§. to the vicar. The glebes, 
which are detached, comprise together 31 acres ; and 
Vol. I. — 41 


the gross tithes payable to the incumbent amount to 
£948. 19. 2^. The church of this parish is in ruins, 
and the church of the union is situated at Kilmoremoy. 
An episcopal chapel has been partly built at Deel Castle, 
but is not yet roofed. The R. C. parish is co-extensive 
with that of the Established Church : the chapel, a neat 
slated building, is situated at Newtown. Here is a 
school of 60 boys and 30 girls. 

ARDAGH, a parish, partly in the barony of Mor- 
gallion, but chiefly in that of Lower Slane, county 
of Meath, and province of Leinster, 2 miles (E. S. E.) 
from Kingscourt ; containing 2408 inhabitants. This 
parish, which is situated on the road from Drumconra 
to Kingscourt, and on the confines of the counties of 
Louth, Monaghan, and Cavan ; comprises 3290 statute 
acres, as applotted under the tithe act, of which 2835 
are arable, 324 are pasture, 112 are bog, and 19 wood- 
land. Here are extensive quarries of limestone, of 
which a large quantity is sent into the county of Cavan 
to be burnt for manure. The living is a perpetual cure, 
in the diocese of Meath, and in the patronage of the 
Bishop, to whom the rectory is appropriate ; the tithes 
amount to £207. 6. 5§., which is payable to the Bishop. 
The church is a plain edifice, built in 1805, for the 
repair of which the Ecclesiastical Commissioners have 
lately granted £125. There is a glebe-house, with a 
glebe of ten acres. In the R. C. divisions this parish 
is united to Drumconra : the chapel, a plain building, 
is situated at Ballinavoren. There are three hedge 
schools in the parish. On the townland of Cloughrea 
are the remains of an old castle ■ and at the northern 
extremity of the parish, but principally in the county 
of Monaghan, there is a considerable lake, called 
Rahans. 

ARDAMINE, a parish, in the barony of Ballagh- 
keen, county of Wexford, and province of Leinster, 
3f miles (S. S. E.) from Gorey ; containing 1535 inha- 
bitants. This parish is situated near the coast of the 
Irish sea, and comprises 4078 statute acres, as applotted 
under the tithe act ; the soil is generally a strong marl 
favourable to the growth of wheat, and the system of 
agriculture is improving. A fishery in the bay of 
Ardamine promises to become very valuable when the 
harbour of Courtown, which is now in progress, shall 
be completed. Ardamine, the seat of J. Goddard 
Richards, Esq., is beautifully situated at a short distance 
from the sea; and the grounds have been recently em- 
bellished with thriving plantations and other improve- 
ments. Owenavarra Cottage, the residence of Mrs. 
Richards, sen., is also in the parish. The living is an 
impropriate curacy, in the diocese of Ferns, with that 
of Killenagh episcopally united, and in the patronage 
of the Bishop ; the rectory is impropriate in H. K. G. 
Morgan, Esq. The tithes amount to £190, payable to 
the impropriator, who allows £23. 1.6§. per ann. for 
the performance of the clerical duties of both parishes 
to w'hich has been lately added an annual grant of £25 
from Primate Boulter’s fund. The church is situated 
on the confines of both parishes ; there is neither glebe 
nor glebe-house. In the R. C. divisions the parish is the 
head of a union or district, also called River chapel, 
comprising the parishes of Ardamine and Donaghmore, 
in each of which is a chapel : that in this parish, with a 
comfortable residence for the clergyman adjoining it, 
was erected by subscription, together with a school- 

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house for boys superintended by him, and another for 
girls under the patronage of Mrs. Richards. There is 
also a Sunday school, besides two private pay schools 
in which are about 30 children. Near the demesne of 
Ardemine is a large high tumulus, called the “ Moat of 
Ardemine,” considered to be one of the most perfect of 
its kind in Ireland : it is traditionally said to mark the 
burial-place of a Danish chief. 

ARDARA, a post-town and district parish, in the 
barony of Bannagh, county of Donegal, and province 
of Ulster, miles (N.) from Killybegs, and 134§ 
miles (N. W.) from Dublin ; containing 456 inhabitants. 
This place is situated on the river Awinea, at the bottom 
of Lockrusmore bay on the northern coast, and on the 
road from Narin to Killybegs. The village consists of 
85 houses : it is a constabulary police station, and has a 
fair on the 1st of November ; petty sessions are held at 
irregular intervals. The parochial district was formed by 
act of council in 1829, by disuniting 38 townlands from 
the parish of Killybegs, and 49 from that of Inniskeel. 
The living is a perpetual curacy, in the diocese of Raphoe, 
and in the alternate patronage of the Rectors of Killy- 
begs and Inniskeel. The income of the curate is £90 
per annum, of which £35 is paid by each of the rectors 
of the above-named parishes, and £20 is given from 
Primate Boulter’s augmentation fund. The church is 
situated in the village. The R. C. parochial district is 
co-extensive with that of the Established Church, and 
contains a chapel. The Wesleyan Methodists assemble 
in a school-house once every alternate Sunday. A 
parochial school is aided by an annual grant from Col. 
Robertson’s fund ; and there is a school under the 
Wesleyan Missionary Society. In these schools are 
about 160 boys and 80 girls ; and there are also two 
pay schools, in which are about 70 boys and 20 girls, 
and a Sunday school. On an island in the lake of Kil- 
torus, olf Boylagh, near Mr. Hamilton’s, of Eden, are 
the ruins of an old fortified building, near which were 
formerly some rusty cannon. 

ARDBOE, county of Tyrone. — See ARBOE. 

ARDBRACCAN, a parish, in the barony of Lower 
Navan, county of Meath, and province of Leinster, 
2-§ miles (W.) from Navan ; containing 3798 inhabitants. 
This place derived its name, signifying, in the Irish 
language, “the Hill of Braccan,” from St. Braccan, who 
presided over a monastery here, and died in the year 
650. The establishment subsequently became the seat 
of a small bishoprick, which flourished under a series of 
prelates, many of whom are noticed as eminent eccle- 
siastics, till the twelfth century, when, with several other 
small bishopricks, it was included in the diocese of 
Meath. The monastery was frequently plundered and 
laid waste by the Danes, and repeatedly destroyed by 
fire, from the 9th to the 12th century; and, in 1166, 
Moriertach, King of Ireland, granted to it in perpetuity 
a parcel of land at an annual rent of three ounces of 
gold. The village, which was anciently a place of some 
importance, especially during the existence of the see, 
appears to have declined since the period of the English 
invasion, and is no longer of any note. About one-half 
of the parish is under tillage, two-fifths in pasture, and 
the remainder meadow land. The only remarkable 
elevation is Faughan Hill, the conical summit of which 
being well planted, is conspicuous over the surrounding 
flat districts ; and on the western border of the parish is 
42 


a chain of bogs. Limestone is quarried for building ; 
and at a place called White Quarry is found a particular 
kind of limestone, of which the bishop’s palace is built. 
Limestone, gravel, and marl are also raised for manure. 
The bishop’s palace, one of the most elegant ecclesias- 
tical residences in Ireland, was erected by the late 
Bishop Maxwell : it is beautifully situated, and the 
grounds and gardens are tastefully laid out ; the demesne 
is embellished with forest trees of stately growth, among 
which are some remarkably fine horse-chestnut trees ; 
and there are also two very beautiful cedars of Lebanon, 
planted by the late Bishop Pococke. Oatland House, 
the residence and demesne of Blennerhasset Thompson, 
Esq., is also within the parish ; and Dormerstown Castle 
is an old fortified residence. The weaving of linen cloth 
is carried on to a small extent, and some cotton looms 
are also employed by the inhabitants. 

The living is a rectory, in the diocese of Meath, 
united by act of council, in 177 1, to the rectories of 
Liscarton and Rataine, the chapelry of Churchtown, and 
the vicarage of Martry, and by the same authority, in 
1780, to the rectory of Clonmacduff, which six parishes 
constitute the union of Ardbraccan, in the patronage of 
the Crown. The tithes amount to £433. 16. lOf. : the 
gross amount of tithes payable to the incumbent is 
£820. 15. 5^. The church is a handsome edifice, erected 
in 1777, under the auspices of the late Bishop Maxwell. 
The glebe-house is situated about half a mile from the 
church : the glebe comprises 33 acres of profitable land. 
The R. C. union or district of Ardbraccan, called also 
Bohermein, includes the parishes of Ardbraccan, Martry, 
Rathboyne, and parts of the parishes of Moyagher and 
Liscarton : there are two chapels in Ardbraccan and one 
in Rathboyne. The male and female parochial school 
is principally supported by the rector, and is aided by 
an annual donation from the Bishop of Meath ; and 
there are two free schools at Byerstown and Bohermein, 
supported by bequests from the late Rev. Mr. Bran- 
nigan, P. P., and by annual subscriptions from Earl 
Ludlow and the parishioners. In these schools are 
about 300 boys and 160 girls; and there are also two 
private schools, in which are about 60 children. Dr. 
Chetwood, formerly rector of this parish, left £500, 
and Dr. Sterne, Bishop of Clogher, left £30 per annum, 
for apprenticing the children of Protestant inhabitants 
of the diocese to Protestant, masters and mistresses ; 
about 30 children are annually apprenticed from these 
funds. In the churchyard is a square tower with a spire 
and vane, forming a pleasing object. There is also a 
monument to Bishop Montgomery, who died in London, 
on the 15th of January, 1620, and was buried here ; and 
on the south side of it is a small tablet to the memory 
of that celebrated traveller. Bishop Pococke, who pre- 
sided over the see of Meath, and died in 1765. 

ARDCANDRIDGE, or ARDCANDRISK, a parish, 
in the barony of Shelmalier, county of Wexford, and 
province of Leinster, 3§ miles (V/. by N.) from Wex- 
ford, containing 242 inhabitants. This parish is situated 
on the river Slaney, by which it is bounded on the north, 
and on the road from Wexford along the south bank of 
the river, by way of Clonmore, to Enniscorthy : it com- 
prises 1144 statute acres, as applotted under the tithe 
act, and is chiefly under tillage, which has gradually 
improved since the introduction of the drill system of 
husbandry. Ardcandrisk House, the seat of G. Grogan 


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Morgan, Esq., the proprietor of the soil, was built in 
1833, and is beautifully situated on a wooded eminence 
rising above the Slaney, and commanding a very fine and 
extensive prospect. The Slaney is navigable for lighters 
up to Enniscorthy, affording facility for the conveyance 
of corn and other agricultural produce to Wexford, and 
for bringing coal and other commodities from that port. 
The parish is in the diocese of Ferns, and the rectory 
is one of the sixteen denominations constituting the 
union of St. Patrick’s, Wexford : the tithes amount to 
£48. 18. 6|. In the R. C. divisions it is included in 
the union or district of Glyn, a village in the parish of 
Killurin. 

ARDCANNY, a parish, in the barony of Kenry, 
county of Limerick, and province of Munster, 10 
miles (W. by S.) from Limerick; containing 1318 inhabi- 
tants. This parish is bounded on the north by the 
river Shannon, and on the east by the river Maigue, the 
banks of which are embellished with flourishing plan- 
tations and elegant seats. It comprises 3256 statute 
acres, as applotted under the tithe act : the land is 
remarkably good, being based on a substratum of lime- 
stone ; about one-fourth is under an excellent system of 
tillage, and the remainder is meadow, pasture, and 
demesne, except about 48 acres of woodland, 10 acres of 
bog, and a very small portion of waste. Among the 
principal seats are Cartown, the residence of J. E. Lang- 
ford, Esq. ; Mellon, of M. Westropp, Esq. ; Ballincar- 
riga House, of — Dawson, Esq. ; Rockfield, of E. Fitz- 
gerald, Esq. ; Shannon Grove, the old family mansion 
of the Earls of Charleville, and now the residence of 
Bolton Waller, Esq. ; Mount Pleasant, the residence of 
Mrs. Hill ; Ballystool, of E. Hewson, Esq. ; and Bal- 
lincarreg, of H. Hurst, Esq. ; besides which there are 
many substantial houses. The living is a rectory and 
vicarage, in the diocese of Limerick, forming the corps 
of the prebend of Ardcanny in the cathedral of Limer- 
ick, and in the patronage of the Bishop : the tithes 
amount to £300. The church is a spacious edifice, 
built in 1/38, but in a very dilapidated condition. The 
glebe-house was built in 1791, by aid of a gift of £100 
from the late Board of First Fruits, and has been greatly 
improved by the late and present incumbents : the glebe 
contains 52 statute acres. In the R. C. divisions this 
parish forms part of the union or district of Kildeemo, 
or Kildimo. A male and female parochial school, for 
which a house was built by the rector, has been discon- 
tinued, and the building is now used as a court-house. 
There is a private school, in which are about 90 children. 
In the demesne of Rockfield is a very capacious and 
ancient fortress, constructed of large blocks of stone 
very ingeniously put together without mortar, and 
forming walls of great thickness : there are also nume- 
rous earthworks in the parish. 

ARDCARNE, a parish, in the barony of Boyle, 
county of Roscommon, and province of Connaught, 
3^ miles (E. S. E.) from Boyle, on the road to Carrick- 
on-Shannon ; containing 7673 inhabitants. An abbey 
of Regular canons was founded here, probably in the 
early part of the 6th century, of which, according to the 
Annals of the Four Masters, Beaidh died bishop in 523 : 
its possessions were granted, in the 39th of Elizabeth, 
to the Provost and Fellows of Trinity College, Dublin. 
Here was also a Benedictine nunnery, a cell to the abbey 
of Kilcreunata, in the county of Galway ; and at Knock- 
43 


vicar was a monastery of the third order of Franciscans, 
which at the suppression was granted with other pos- 
sessions on lease to Richard Kendlemarch. The parish 
is situated on the shores of Lough Key : it is partly 
bounded by the Shannon on the east, and comprises 
11,460 statute acres, as applotted under the tithe act. 
The land is principally under an improving system of 
tillage ; there is a considerable extent of reclaimable 
bog, and part of the plains of Boyle is included within 
the parish. Limestone and freestone of the best 
description for architectural purposes abound ; indica- 
tions of coal have been discovered on the lands of 
Ballyfermoyle, the property of W. Mulloy, Esq., where 
shafts have been sunk, but the operations are dis- 
continued. The Boyle river runs through the parish, 
and a project is in contemplation to render it navigable 
from its junction with the Shannon, near Carrick, to 
Lough Gara : this river is crossed by a bridge at Knock- 
vicar, where its banks are adorned with some pleasing 
scenery. Rockingham House, the elegant mansion of 
Viscount Lorton, is beautifully situated on the south- 
east side of Lough Key, in a gently undulating and 
well-wooded demesne of about 2000 statute acres, 
tastefully laid out in lawns and groves descending 
to the water’s edge: it is of Grecian Ionic architecture, 
built externally of marble, with a portico of six Ionic 
columns forming the principal entrance, on each side 
of which are corresponding pillars ornamenting the 
facade, and on the north side is a colonnade supported 
by six Ionic columns : adjoining the house is an exten- 
sive orangery, and numerous improvements have been 
made in the grounds by the present noble proprietor. 
Oakport, the seat of W. Mulloy, Esq., is a large edifice 
in the ancient or Gothic style of architecture, occupying 
a beautiful situation on the margin of a large expanse 
of water formed by the Boyle river : the demesne com- 
prises about 1200 statute acres, beautifully wooded, 
and from the inequality of its surface presents many 
picturesque and commanding views. The other seats 
are Knock vicar, the residence of C. J. Peyton, Esq., and 
Mount Francis, of W. Lloyd O’Brien, Esq. Petty sessions 
are held every Tuesday at Cootehall. That place was 
formerly called Urtaheera, or O’Mulloy’s Hall, and was, 
early in the 17 tli century, together with the manor 
attached to it, the property of William, styled “ the 
Great O’Mulloy but in the war of 1641 it came into 
the possession of the Hon. Chidley Coote, nephew of 
the first Earl of Mountrath, and from that family 
took its present name. The parish is in the diocese 
of Elphin, and the rectory forms part of the union of 
Killuken . the tithes amount to £280. The church 
is an ancient structure, which was enlarged by a grant 
of £600 from the late Board of First Fruits, and 
the Ecclesiastical Commissioners have lately granted 
£234 for its further repair. The glebe-house was built 
by aid of a gift of £100 and a loan of £300 from 
the same Board, in 1807 : the glebe comprises 20 
acres, subject to a rent of £8. In the R. C. divisions 
the parish is also called Crosna, and comprises the 
parish of Ardcarne and part of that of Tumna, con- 
taining two chapels, situated at Cootehall and Crosna. 
The parochial free school is supported by Lord Lorton, 
who built the school-house at an expense of £120 ; 
and a school for girls is supported by Lady Lorton, and 
is remarkably well conducted. At Derrygra is a school 

G 2 


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aided by the Elphin Diocesan Society, to which the 
bishop gave a house and an acre of ground ; and three 
Sunday schools are held in the parish, two under the 
patronage of Lady Lorton, and one under that of the 
Misses Mulloy, of Oakport. A dispensary is maintained 
by Lord Lorton for the benefit of his tenantry ; and 
another has been lately established at Cootehall, by the 
exertions of the Messrs. Mulloy, by whom and the 
other principal landed proprietors it is supported. 

ARDCATH, a parish, in the barony of Upper 
Duleek, county of Meath, and province of Lein- 
ster, 6f miles (S. by W.) from Drogheda, on the road 
from Dublin to Drogheda ; containing 1774 inhabitants. 
About one-half is under an improved system of tillage, 
and the remainder is excellent pasture land ; the 
principal corn crop is wheat. There are about 300 
acres of bog, which is being gradually reclaimed and 
brought into cultivation. On the townland of Cloghan 
is a quarry of excellent slate, but it has not been worked 
for some years. The weaving of linen was formerly 
carried on to a considerable extent : about 200 looms 
are at present employed in weaving cotton for the Dub- 
lin and Drogheda manufacturers ; and there are two 
oatmeal-mills, one worked by wind and the other by 
water. A fair is held on May 8th principally for cattle. 
The parish is in the diocese of Meath ; the rectory is 
impropriate in the Marquess of Drogheda, and the vicar- 
age forms part of the union of Duleek. The tithes 
amount to £265, of which £195 is payable to the im- 
propriator and £70 to the vicar. In the R. C. divisions 
the parish is the head of a union or district which com- 
prises also the parish of Clonalvy and part of Pierce- 
town, and contains two chapels, situated respectively 
at Ardcath and Clonalvy : the former is a neat build- 
ing, erected about 80 years since, and recently much 
enlarged j the additional part stands upon the glebe 
land, by permission of the vicar of Duleek. A school 
at Cloghantown, of 48 boys and 16 girls, is aided by a 
donation of £5 per annum from the Rev. M. Langan, 
P.P. j and there is an evening pay school at Yellow- 
ford. The Rev. John Leonard, late P.P., bequeathed 
the ground on which the residence of the R. C. clergy- 
man is built, and fifteen additional acres of land, to be 
vested in trustees for the use of all future pastors ; 
£10 per annum for the joint use of the three parishes 
of the R. C. union, and one ton of oatmeal to be dis- 
tributed annually in the same district. The ruins of 
the ancient church are extensive, but void of interest- 
ing details ; the belfry remains, and a bell has been pre- 
served in it from time immemorial, at the joint expense 
of the Protestant and R. C. inhabitants, and is used at 
funerals, and by the latter to assemble their congrega- 
tions. 

ARDCAYAN, a parish, in the barony of Shelma- 
lier, county of Wexford, and province of Leinster, 
adjoining the town of Wexford, (with which it is con- 
nected by the bridge), and containing 878 inhabitants. It 
is situated on the eastern shore of the estuary of the 
Slaney, and comprises 2370 statute acres, as applotted 
under the tithe act. Ely House, the property of the 
Marquess of Ely, is situated near the bridge, at the 
southern extremity of the parish, and is the residence of 
R. Hughes, Esq. The parish is in the diocese of Ferns, 
and is an impropriate cure, forming part of the union 
of Ardcolme ; the rectory is impropriate in the Earl 
44 


of Portsmouth. The tithes amount to £139. 18. if., 
of which £73. 1. lOf. is payable to the impropriator, and 
£66. 16. 3. to the curate. In the R. C. divisions it is in- 
cluded in the union or district of Castlebridge, where the 
chapel is situated, and the greater part of which village is 
within its limits. Near the shore of Wexford harbour are 
the ruins of the old church ; and at Ballytramont there 
are considerable remains of the ancient castle of that 
name. An extensive coppice wood, comprising about 65 
statute acres, stretches along the estuary from the 
latter place. 

ARDCLARE, or CLONIGORMICAN, a parish, in 
the half-barony of Ballymoe, county of Roscommon, 
and province of Connaught, 5f miles (N. N. W.) from 
Roscommon, on the road to Castlerea ; containing 2633 
inhabitants. It comprises 8066 statute acres, princi- 
pally under pasture ; there is no waste land, and only 
a small quantity of bog, sufficient for supplying the in- 
habitants with fuel. Limestone of the best description 
abounds, but the quarries are not worked for any par- 
ticular purpose. The principal gentlemen’s seats are 
Runnymead, that of J. Balfe, Esq . ; Ballymacurly, of 
M. Nolan, Esq. ; Briarfield, of C. Hawkes, Esq. ; and 
Faragher Lodge, of the Rev. Lewis Hawkes. Mano- 
rial courts are held in the townland of Farragher three 
times in the year. The living is a vicarage, in the dio- 
cese of Elphin, to which the vicarages of Kilcooley, 
Creeve, Killuken, Shankill, Kilmacumsy, and Tumna 
were episcopally united in 1809, which seven parishes 
constitute the union of Ardclare, in the patronage of 
the Bishop ; the rectory is impropriate in the Earl of 
Essex and Lord De Roos. The tithes amount to 
£1?6. 12., one-half of which is payable to the impropria- 
tors (the Earl of Essex receiving £73. 11. S. and Lord 
De Roos, £14. 14. 4.) and the other half to the vicar ; 
and the gross amount of the tithes of the union payable 
to the incumbent is £491. 11. 10^. The church was 
originally built by Chas. Hawkes, Esq., of Briarfield, 
as a chapel of ease, about the year 1720, and subse- 
quently became the parochial church ; it is a plain edi- 
fice in good repair. There is neither glebe-house nor 
glebe. In the R. C. divisions the parish forms part of 
the union or district of Glinsk and Ballymoe ; the chapel, 
a neat edifice recently erected, is situated on the town- 
land of Ballymacurly. There are three pay schools, in 
which are about 100 boys and 40 girls. 

ARDCLARE, a village, in the parish of Kilmac- 
teigue, barony of Leney, county of Sligo, and province 
of Connaught, 9 miles (N. E.) from Foxford, on the 
road to Ballymote ; containing about 20 houses and 110 
inhabitants. It has a market on Saturday, and is a sta- 
tion of the constabulary police. 

ARDCLINIS, a parish, in the Lower half-barony of 
Glenarm, county of Antrim, and province of Ulster, 
6 miles (N. by W.) from Glenarm ; containing 1 617 in- 
habitants. This parish is situated on Red bay in the 
North Channel, and comprises, according to the 
Ordnance survey, 15,691 statute acres, of which 15,144 
are applotted underthe tithe act and valued at £2055 per 
annum. The surface is hilly and irregular, but the land 
in cultivation is fertile, and the system of agriculture 
is in a very improving state. Much of the waste land 
has been -planted, especially the hills, imparting to the 
coast an interesting and cheerful aspect. The arable and 
inhabited portion of the parish consists of one long strip 


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extending from the village of Carnlough aloDg the sea- 
coast into Red bay, and up one side of the beautiful glen 
of Glenariff. On the land side it is enclosed by a steep 
and lofty mountain, ascended only by narrow paths 
traversing its acclivities, by which the inhabitants con- 
vey their fuel in slide carts. The river Acre rises in the 
neighbouring mountains, and forms a boundary between 
this parish and that of Layde ; it abounds with excel- 
lent trout, and where it empties itself into the sea is a 
salmon fishery. The highest part of the mountains is 
called Carnealapt-Aura, and near Broughshane they 
are mostly covered with heath and abound with moor 
game. Glenariff, one of the seven great glens, is flat in 
the centre ; the river winds through the whole extent of 
it in a serpentine course, and being on a level with the 
sea, whenever a high tide meets a flood, it overflows its 
banks and inundates the glen ; the rise on each side 
towards the rocks assumes an appearance of circular 
rising ground. Three-fourths of the superficial extent 
of the parish are composed of mountainous, marshy, 
boggy, and unprofitable land. Limestone and basalt are 
found in great abundance. The scenery is enlivened 
with several gentlemen’s seats, among which are Drum- 
nasole, the residence of F. Turnley, Esq. ; Knappan, of 
Major Higginson ; and Bay Lodge, of Major Williams. 
Several of the inhabitants are engaged in the fishery 
carried on in the bay, where there is a small but com- 
modious harbour, and vessels from 14 to 20 tons’ bur- 
den can enter the river Acre at high water. Fairs are 
held at Carnlough. The royal military road passes 
through this parish, the most mountainous of all the 
parishes on the coast, notwithstanding which the road 
preserves a perfect level throughout, at an elevation of 
a few feet above high water mark ; the excavations 
round Garron Point will be 360 feet in depth. Garron 
Point is one of the eight coast-guard stations, in the dis- 
trict of Carrickfergus. 

The parish is in the diocese of Connor, and the rectory 
forms part of the union of Agherton and corps of the 
treasurership in the cathedral church of Connor, in the 
patronage of the Bishop : the tithes amount to £150. 
The church has for many years been in ruins, and divine 
service is performed in the school-room at Drumnasole, 
near the centre of the parish. In the R. C. divisions 
it is in the union or district of Layde, or Cushendall ; 
the chapel at Glenariff is a spacious building, in which 
divine service is performed every alternate Sunday. 
There is a place of worship for Methodists, open every 
alternate Thursday. A large school-house was erected at 
Drumnasole, at an expense of £1000, by F. Turnley, 
Esq., and entirely supported by that gentleman till the 
year 1833, when it was placed under the management of 
the National Board of Education: there are also other 
schools, the whole affording instruction to about 230 
boys and 170 girls. On the summit of a headland, near 
Garron Point, are the remains of a large Danish camp, 
called Dunmaul or Doonmul, which, according to tra- 
dition, was occupied by the Danes during their con- 
tinuance in Ireland, and from which they set sail when 
they finally quitted the country. 

ARDCOLLUM.— See KILMURRY, county of Tip- 
perary. 

ARDCOLME, a parish, in the barony of Shel- 
maeier, county of Wexford, and province of Lein- 
ster, miles (N. E. by N.) from Wexford ; containing 
45 


790 inhabitants. This parish is situated on the north 
side of Wexford harbour, and on the road leading from 
Wexford, by way of Oulart, to Dublin : it comprises 
2070 statute acres, as applotted under the tithe act, and 
contains a small part of the village of Castlebridge and 
the island of Beg Erin in Wexford harbour, on which 
are the remains of a very ancient church. The living 
is an impropriate curacy, in the diocese of Ferns, to 
which the rectories of St. Margaret and Artramont, the 
vicarages of Tickillen and Kilpatrick, and the impro- 
priate cures of Ardcavan, Ballyvalloo, Skreen, and St. 
Nicholas were united by act of council in 1/64, and 
formed the union of Ardcolme, which is in the patron- 
age of the Bishop; but by an act of council in 1829, 
the parish of Kilpatrick and eight townlands, consti- 
tuting the greater portion of the adjoining parish of 
Tickillen, were separated from this union and erected 
into a distinct benefice : the rectory of Ardcolme is im- 
propriate in the Earl of Portsmouth. The tithes 
amount to £125. 16. 9., of which £71- 4. 10. is payable 
to the impropriator, and £54. 11. 11. to the incum- 
bent ; and the gross tithes of the benefice payable to 
the incumbent amount to £ 676 . 5. 7- The parochial 
church is situated in the village of Castlebridge, and 
was erected in 1764 on the site of an ancient castle, 
which, with an acre of land, was given for that purpose 
by the Bishop ; the expense was defrayed partly by 
subscription and partly by the parishioners, aided by a 
gift of £ 1 50 from the late Board of First Fruits ; the Ec- 
clesiastical Commissioners have lately granted £310 for 
its repair. It is a neat plain edifice surrounded by some 
fine old elm trees, and contains a neat tablet to Lieut.- 
Col. Jones Watson, who was killed in the disturbances 
of 1798, and interred in the churchyard at Carrick ; 
and another to Edward Turner, Esq., who, with others, 
fell a victim to popular fury on the bridge at Wexford, 
on the 20th of June in the same year. The glebe-house 
is a neat and substantial building, towards the erection 
of which the same Board gave £100, in 1806 : there are 
three glebes in the present union, comprising together 
about 71 acres, of which 32 are in this parish. In the 
R. C. divisions the parish forms part of the union or 
district of Castlebridge, where the chapel is situated. 
The parochial school was established under the auspices 
of the incumbent, tbe Rev. J. W. Stokes, who pays the 
master £20 per annum ; and the school-house, a neat 
building lately erected at his expense, will accommodate 
from 50 to 60 children. The ruins of the old church 
still remain, situated about a mile from the present 
church. 

ARDCRONEY, a parish, in the barony of Lower 
Ormond, county of Tipperary, and province of Mun- 
ster, 2 miles (S.by W.) from Burris- o-kane, on the road 
to Nenagh ; containing 1681 inhabitants. It comprises 
5810 statute acres, as applotted under the tithe act. 
The soil is mostly light ; there are several small bogs in 
the parish, which abounds also with limestone. The 
water of a lake covering about 172 plantation acres was 
drained off by the late Rev. R. Falkiner, of Mount 
Falcon, in 1800, and the land is now highly productive. 
The principal seats are Mount Falcon, the property and 
residence of Mrs. Falkiner ; Beechwood, the property of 
Col. Toler Osborne, but in the occupation of D. Falkiner, 
Esq. ; Conger House, the residence of F. Falkiner, Esq. ; 
Willsborough, the property and residence of J. Falkiner, 


A R D 


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Esq. ; Ballinderry, the property of T. Sadleir, jun., Esq., 
on which a house is about to be erected ; Ballyrickard, 
the residence of N. Falkiner, Esq. ; Woodlands, of R. 
Falkiner, Esq. ; and Whitstone, the property of Elias 
Bowler, Esq. Beechwood was once the residence of the 
late Earl of Norbury, and was originally a castle, of 
which the present house is a part ; on a stone is the 
date 1594, with the initials O. H. The living is a vicar- 
age, in the diocese of Killaloe, and in the patronage of 
the Bishop, to whose mensal the rectory is appropriate : 
the tithes amount to £307. 11. 6f., of which £205. 1. 0§. 
is payable to the Bishop, and £102. 10. 6^. to the vicar. 
The church is a very neat structure, built in 1824. 
There is a glebe of three acres, but no glebe-house. In 
the R. C. divisions this parish forms part of the union 
or district of Modreeny, or Cloghjordan : the chapel is 
a small building on the townland of Ardcroney. There 
is a parochial school, also a private pay school. On an 
eminence near the high road are the remains of the old 
church, forming a conspicuous ruin ; and on the townland 
of Ballyluskey is an ancient castle, consisting of one 
square tower. At the rear of Beechwood House, on an 
eminence, is a large fort or rath, planted with trees, 
the summit of which is encircled by a stone wall. 

ARDEE, an incorporated market and post-town, 
and a parish, in the barony of Areee, county of Louth, 
and province of Leinster, 10 miles (S. W. by S.) from 
Dundalk, and 34| miles (N. N. W.) from Dublin; con- 
taining 6181 inhabitants, of which number, 3975 are in 
the town. This place, anciently called Atherdee or 
Athirdee, derives its name from its situation on the river 
Dee. Though a town of great antiquity, it was chiefly 
indebted for its former prosperity and importance to 
Roger de Pippart, one of the English adventurers, who 
became lord of the surrounding territory, and erected a 
strong castle here, about the beginning of the thirteenth 
century. In the year 1207 he also founded an hospital 
for Crouched friars of the order of St. Augustine, dedi- 
cated to St. John, and endowed it with a caracute of 
land, to which he afterwards added two more, and 
other gifts. Eugene, Archbishop of Armagh, who died 
in 1215, confirmed the charter of this establishment, 
and granted it the privilege of electing its own prior, 
and it attained an eminent degree of wealth and im- 
portance. A Carmelite friary was also founded at an 
early period, to which Ralph de Pippart, in the reign of 
Edw. I., granted certain endowments out of his manor 
of Ardee, and its revenues were further augmented by 
several of the inhabitants. During the invasion of 
Edward Bruce, who laid waste much of the surround- 
ing country, many of the inhabitants assembled for 
protection in this friary, which was attacked by a party 
of Scots and Irish under his command, and reduced to 
ashes. John de Bermingham, after repelling these in- 
vaders, was created Earl of Louth, and had a grant of 
the manor, but was soon afterwards killed in an insur- 
rection of his own people. In 1538, the town was burnt 
by O’Nial and his associates ; and in the following year 
George Dowdall, the last prior of the Augustine monas- 
tery, surrendered that house with all its possessions in 
lands and advowsons, and was allowed a pension of £20 
sterling until he should obtain some ecclesiastical pre- 
ferment. Having been appointed to the archbishoprick 
of Armagh, he received a grant for life of the monastery 
and its appurtenances, in 1554; and in 1612 its pos- 
46 


sessions in and near the town were granted, by Jas. I., 
to Sir Garret Moore, who also subsequently received a 
grant of the remainder. On the breaking out of hos- 
tilities in 1641, SirPhelim O'Nial obtained possession of 
the town, which thence became the head-quarters of the 
Irish army; but Sir Henry Tiehborne advanced against 
it in the same year, with his small force from Drogheda, 
and retook the town and castle, in which a garrison was 
then placed. At a subsequent period the Marquess of 
Ormonde issued orders to the garrison to destroy the 
town, which, from their neglect or disobedience of his 
commands, afterwards fell into the hands of Cromwell. 
Jas. II., after leaving Dundalk, retired with his army 
to this place ; but on the approach of William’s forces, 
previously to the battle of the Boyne, retreated to 
Drogheda. 

The town is situated in a very fertile corn district, 
and consists of one principal street, with lanes branch- 
ing from it ; many of the houses are of respectable 
appearance. Turf is brought for the supply of the in- 
habitants from a large bog about 1§ mile to the west, 
by means of a branch of the river Dee, which has been 
made navigable for boats. Malting is extensively car- 
ried on; and there are a corn-mill and a corn and flour- 
mill. The market is held on Tuesday and is well sup- 
plied : a meat market, or shambles, was erected by the 
corporation in 1796, which cost about £600 ; and a corn 
market about the year 17 10, at an expense of nearly 
£2000, for each of which they pay a ground rent of 
about £10 per annum. Fairs, of which four are held 
under the charter of Queen Anne (in confirmation and 
extension of a patent of Chas. II. in 16S1), and three 
were granted by patent of Geo. III. in 1819, are held on 
March 1st, April 10th, June 6th, July 8th, Aug. 20th, 
Oct. 23rd (a large fair for sheep), and Dec. 17th, prin- 
cipally for live stock, on a plot of ground which has 
been enclosed at a considerable expense by the corpora- 
tion. The tolls were granted by charter to the corpora- 
tion, who, previously to 1823, claimed the right of levy- 
ing toll not only at the market and fairs, but also toll 
thorough and pontage ; but after considerable resistance, 
accompanied by riot and disorder, their claim to the 
latter was negatived at the Dundalk assizes in that year ; 
and the payment of the former has been since also 
resisted, but their right has been confirmed by the as- 
sistant barrister for the county. Here is a chief station 
of the constabulary police. 

A corporation is first mentioned in a charter of the 
51st of Edw. III. (1377), as set forth in a charter of in- 
speximus and confirmation of the 3rd of Rich. II., under 
the style of “ the Provosts (or Portreeves) and Com- 
monalty of the town of Athirde;” and certain customs 
on goods for sale were granted to them for a term of ten 
years, and confirmed by succeeding monarchs, in aid of 
enclosing the town with a stone wall and paving the 
streets. A charter of the 1st of Hen. V. (1414), granted 
cognizance of all pleas, real and personal, and jurisdiction 
of assize, with return of writs and other important privi- 
leges, within the town and precincts ; and by a statute 
in the 33rd of Hen. VI., confirmed by another in the 
following year, it was enacted that the portreeves 
should be justices of the peace. The present governing 
charter was granted in the 11th of Queen Anne, 1713 ; 
under it the corporation is styled “ the Portreeve, 
Burgesses, and Commons of the Corporation of Ather- 


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dee and consists of the portreeve, 23 other burgesses, 
and an unlimited number of freemen, assisted by a 
town-clerk, constable, two serjeants-at-mace, and other 
inferior officers : there is also a select body composed 
of the portreeve, six burgesses, and six common council 
freemen. The portreeve is elected annually out of the 
burgesses on the 23rd of April, by the portreeve, bur- 
gesses, and freemen, and is sworn in on Sept. 29th ; 
the burgesses are elected for life out of the freemen, by 
the corporation at large ; the freemen are created by 
nomination of the common council and subsequent 
election of the corporation at large ; and the members 
of the common council are created for life in the same 
manner as the burgesses. The borough returned to 
the Irish parliament two members, elected by the bur- 
gesses and freemen, until the Union, when, of the 
£15,000 awarded as compensation for the abolition of 
the elective franchise, one-half was paid toWm. Ruxton, 
Esq., and the remainder to Chas. and Wm. Parkinson 
Ruxton, Esqrs. The portreeve under the charter is a 
justice of the peace, coroner, and clerk of the market ; 
but, being usually a justice of peace for the county, and 
the local courts having fallen into disuse, these peculiar 
functions are little exercised, and the corporation is now 
little more than nominal. The county quarter sessions 
for the division of Ardee are held here in January and 
June ; and petty sessions are held every Wednesday, at 
which the portreeve and county magistrates preside. 
The old castle is now used as a court-house ; and at- 
tached to it is a well-regulated county bridewell of 
modern erection. The revenue of the corporation is 
derived from rents of lands and tolls, and amounts 
to about £135 per annum. 

The parish comprises, according to the Ordnance 
survey, 4884^ statute acres. With the exception of 
about 300 acres of bog, it is principally under tillage ; 
the soil is very fertile, and the system of agriculture 
much improved. It contains several quarries of lime- 
stone and greenstone. The surrounding scenery has 
been much improved by extensive planting. Ardee 
House is the seat of Mrs. Ruxton, and Red House, that 
of W. Parkinson Ruxton, Esq. ; a handsome demesne is 
attached to each. The living is a vicarage, in the diocese 
of Armagh, to which the rectory of Kildemock was united 
by act of council in 1700, and subsequently the vicar- 
ages of Shenlis, Smarmore, and Stickillen episcopally, 
forming the union of Ardee, in the patronage of the Lord- 
Primate : the rectory is impropriate in Viscount Ferrard. 
The tithes amount to £392. 13. 11., the whole of which 
is payable to the impropriator, who allows a stipend to 
the incumbent, who, besides a glebe -house and 40 plan- 
tation acres of glebe, valued at £120 per ann., at Kilde- 
mock (nearly in the centre of the union), has a glebe in 
this parish comprising 104 plantation acres and valued 
at £391. 11.5. per ann., fifteen tenements in the town 
let for £107. 2. 2. per ann., and half an acre in Stickillen 
of the annual value of £1. 10. The gross annual value 
of the benefice, tithe and glebe inclusive, is £842. 13. 7. 
The church, which was formerly that of the Augustine 
monastery, is an ancient and spacious structure, sup- 
posed to have been built in 1208, and still in good repair. 
The R. C. district comprises the Protestant union and 
the parish of Maplestown in addition, and contains two 
chapels, situated at Ardee and Kildemock : the former 
stands at the entrance to the town from the south, and 
47 


was built in 1829} it is a handsome and commodious 
edifice faced with hewn stone, 100 feet long by 56 
broad, with a gallery extending round three sides 
of it. 

There are two schools for both sexes on the foundation 
of Erasmus Smith : the boys’ school-room was built in 
1806, and the girls’ in 1 817, at a total expense of £600, 
of which the corporation contributed £450 and about 
three roods of the fair green as a site, and W. P. Ruxton, 
Esq., £150. There are seven private pay schools, also a 
dispensary and a savings’ bank. Of the Augustine 
monastery, with the exception of the church, only the 
eastern wall of the belfry at the west end, and an 
adjoining cell on the north are remaining ; and of 
the Carmelite friary there are no vestiges. Near the 
church are the remains of an old college, which have 
been converted into a thatched dwelling. The ancient 
castle, situated in the middle of the town, and now used 
as a court-house and gaol, is of quadrangular form, with 
a high roof and a rudely pointed gateway ; the east and 
west fronts are defended by projecting towers, which 
rise above the rest of the building. In the centre of the 
town is also another ancient castle, which has long been 
in the possession of the Hatch family ; it was granted 
by Cromwell to Williams, one of their ancestors, and 
has been recently fitted up as a handsome dwelling by 
W. Hatch, Esq., the present proprietor ; it is defended 
by embrasures and a tower on the east side, on which 
have been placed two four-pounders, by permission of 
the lord-lieutenant and council in 1828. Close to the 
town is a fortified mount of great magnitude, anciently 
called Cnuc na Scanghaim, and the seat of the chiefs of 
the district. The Earl of Meath enjoys the inferior title 
of Baron Brabazon, of Ardee, by which his ancestor, Sir 
Edward Brabazon, was elevated to the peerage of Ireland, 
in 1616. 

ARDERA, a townland, in the barony of Iverk, 
county of Kilkenny, and province of Leinster, 3^ 
miles (W. N. W.) from Waterford; containing 334 inha- 
bitants. This townland, which anciently was part of 
the possessions of the abbey of Jerpoint, is bounded on 
the north by the parish of Ullid, and on the south by 
that of Rathkyran, of which latter it is, in the civil divi- 
sions, considered to form a part, and comprises 804 
statute acres. It is in the diocese of Ossory, and is one 
of eighteen denominations constituting the union of 
Burnchurch : the tithes amount to £69. In the R. C. 
divisions it forms part of the union or district of 
Moncoin. 

ARDFERT, a decayed 
borough and market-town, 
and a parish, in the barony 
of Clanmaurice, county 
of Kerry, and province of 
Munster, 5 miles (N.N.W.) 
from Tralee, and 144^ 

(S. W. by W.) from Dublin ; 
containing 3585 inhabitants, 
of which number, 717 are in 
the town. The name of this 
place, sometimes written 
Ardart, signifies, according 
to Sir James Ware, “a won- 
derful place on an eminence,” or, as some interpret it, 
“ the hill of miracles.” Ardart has also been considered 



ARD 


ARD 


a corruption of Ard Ert, “ the high place of Ert.” Mat- 
thew Paris calls it Hertfert, “ the place of miracles of Hert 
or Ert ” and in the Annals of Innisfallen it is mentioned 
under the name of Hyferte, which denotes “ the territory 
of miracles, or of Ert.” It is thought to have been made 
by St. Ert, in the fifth century, the seat of a bishop’s 
see, which comprehended the northern part of the 
county. St. Brendan erected a sumptuous monastery 
here in the sixth century, which, with the town, was 
destroyed by fire in 1089 : it was again reduced to 
ashes by Cormac O’Culen, in 1151, and, with the town, 
suffered a like fate in 1179, on which occasion it is 
supposed to have been entirely demolished. In 1253, 
Thomas, Lord of Kerry, founded a monastery for con- 
ventual Franciscans, probably on the site of the former, 
which was held in high estimation on account of 
numerous miracles said to have been performed in it : 
the founder and several other lords of Kerry, with many 
of their respective families, were interred in this monas- 
tery. A leper-house was founded about 1312 by Nicholas 
Fitz-Maurice, who also erected a castle, of which little 
ife recorded until the reign of Elizabeth, when the town 
was destroyed by a party of the royal forces under 
Maurice Stack, in 1599 ; and in the following year the 
castle was besieged by Sir Charles Wilmot, and, after a 
vigorous defence for nine days, was surrendered by the 
garrison, on some small pieces of ordnance being brought 
against it from an English vessel ; the constable was 
hanged, but the lives of the rest were spared. The 
castle was rebuilt by Patrick, lord of Kerry, in 1637, 
but was demolished by an Irish leader named Lawler, 
in 1641, and there are now no remains. In the same 
year the cathedral was also destroyed, and the south 
transept was afterwards fitted up for divine service. 

This is a declining town, without either trade or 
manufacture, and presents only the appearance of a 
village. The market, which was held on Thursday, was 
granted, with a fair on the festival of St. Peter and St. 
Paul and the following day, and a court of pie poudre 
and the usual tolls, by letters patent bearing date July 
6th, 10th of Jas. I. (1612), to Thomas, lord of Kerry, 
then principal owner of the district. Fairs are held on 
Whit-Monday, July 9th, and Aug. 15tli. The collection 
of tolls is not confined to sales made in the public fair ; 
every person selling in his own house, on the fair day, is 
compelled to pay toll to the collector. A penny post from 
Tralee has been lately established ; and here is a station 
of the constabulary police. 

It has always been considered a borough by prescrip- 
tion, there being no charter of incorporation on record. 
The corporation, under the title of “ The Portreeve, 
Burgesses, and Freemen of the Borough of Ardfert, in 
the county of Kerry,” consisted of a portreeve, twelve 
burgesses, and an unlimited number of freemen. The 
borough returned two members to the Irish parliament 
in 1639, and continued to exercise the franchise till the 
Union, when the £15,000 awarded as compensation for 
the loss of that privilege was paid to the trustees of the 
marriage settlement of the late Earl of Glandore : the 
right of election was vested in the corporation. For 
some years after the Union, corporate meetings took 
place for the election of a portreeve and filling up va- 
cancies among the burgesses, principally with a view to 
preserve the corporate property in the commons from 
encroachment j but the corporation was little more than 
48 


nominal, and its meetings have fallen into total disuse. 
The borough extends towards the east and west a con- 
siderable distance from the town, but on the south-west 
a portion of the town itself is outside the limits, which 
are not accurately defined : it is entirely within the 
parish, and is said to include the Sheep Walk, Grague, 
Killarane, Brandon Well, Kilquane, Laragh, Gortaspi- 
dale, and the commons. The above grant of Jas. I., in 
1612, conferred on Thomas, lord of Kerry, the privilege 
of holding courts baron and courts leet, with other 
manorial rights. The Earl of Listowel is now lord of 
the manor, and appoints a seneschal, who holds, in 
what was probably the old borough bridewell, a manor 
court once in three weeks, for the trial of actions of debt 
amounting to 40s. late currency, of which the jurisdic- 
tion extends about 2§ miles round the town ; all trials 
are by jury, the jurors being summoned from the tenants 
of the manor, who are bound by their leases to serve, 
or are otherwise liable to a fine ; but the business in 
this court is decreasing, from the holding of petty ses- 
sions in the town every alternate week, and of the 
county quarter sessions before the assistant barrister at 
Tralee. The only property now admitted to belong to 
the corporation is the commons adjoining the town, com- 
prising about 200 acres, and valued at £70 per annum, 
on which the inhabitants exercise a right of commonage ; 
they were formerly very extensive, but encroachments 
have been made from time to time, which have been a 
source of constant disputes, and there are now on them 
about 100 houses or cabins, valued with the land at 
about £200 per annum ; the occupants are free from 
rent, and formerly escaped all county rates, but the 
latter have of late been levied. 

The Diocese of Ardfert and Aghadoe consists of a 
union of two ancient sees, which from time immemorial 
have been incorporated. The see of Ardfert, or Ardart, 
was anciently called Kiaragi or Kerrigia, also the bishop- 
rick of Iar-Muan, or West Munster ; and from history 
and public records it appears that the bishops of Ardfert 
were likewise denominated bishops of Kerry, which title 
is still retained in the R. C. divisions. On the transla- 
tion of Thomas Fulwar (the last bishop of Ardfert) to 
Cashel, in 1660, this see was held in commendam with 
that of Limerick, of which latter Edward Singe was in 
that year consecrated bishop ; and on his translation to 
Cork, in 1663, Ardfert was permanently united to 
Limerick, under the prelacy of Wm. Fuller. The ancient 
diocese of Aghadoe can now only be traced in its arch- 
deaconry, which is annexed to the chapter of Ardfert, 
and in the remains of its ancient cathedral. The dio- 
cese is one of the eleven constituting the ecclesiastical 
province of Cashel, and comprehends the entire county 
of Kerry and a small portion of that of Cork : it extends 
about 66 British miles in length and 61 in breadth, and 
comprises by estimation a superficial area of 676,450 
plantation acres, of which 647,650 are in Kerry, and 
28,800 in Cork. The chapter consists of the dean, 
chancellor, treasurer, precentor, and archdeacon : there 
are no prebendaries or vicars choral attached to the 
cathedral the only other endowed office is a minor 
canonry, which does not exist in connection with any 
other cathedral in Ireland, except that of St. Patrick, 
Dublin. The see lands and gross annual revenue of the 
diocese are included in the return for the diocese of 
Limerick. Of the cathedral, dedicated to St. Brendan, 


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a portion of the remains has been fitted up as the paro- 
chial church, which was repaired in 1831 by subscription 
of the bishop and dignitaries : there is no economy fund. 
The consistorial court consists of a vicar-general, surro- 
gate, registrar, deputy-registrar, and proctor : there is 
also a diocesan schoolmaster. The diocese comprehends 
89 parishes, forming 51 benefices, of which 9, including 
the deanery, are in the gift, of the crown ; 21, including 
the other dignities, are in the patronage of the bishop, 
and the remaining 21 in lay patronage. The number of 
churches is 35, besides 8 other buildings in which divine 
service is performed ; and of glebe-houses, 20. In the 
R. C. divisions the diocese (which retains its ancient 
name of Kerry) extends, with the exception of a small 
part of one of the northern parishes, over the whole of 
that of the Established Church, and also includes the 
parishes of Kilcaskin, Kilcatern, Kilaconenagh, and 
Kilnamanagh, in the Protestant diocese of Ross, and is 
suffragan to that of Cashel. It comprehends 43 paro- 
chial unions or districts, and contains 88 chapels, served 
by 43 parish priests and 34 coadjutors or curates : the 
bishop’s district is that of Killarney. 

The parish lies on the western coast, and contains 
6013 statute acres, as ap plotted under the tithe act, ex- 
clusively of a considerable extent of sand-hills, marsh, 
and bog. Within its limits is the creek or harbour 
of Barra, where a pier was some years since con- 
structed by the late Fishery Board, which from its posi- 
tion has hitherto been of no avail : the entrance is 
flanked by rocks rising to the height of nearly 100 
feet, and was formerly defended by a castle, of which 
a considerable part remains, and from which, according 
to tradition, a chain was thrown across to the opposite 
rock, to prevent the sudden entry of hostile vessels ; 
further in, on theFenit side, are the remains of another old 
castle. The pasture farms are extensive ; the tillage farms 
average from 20 to 30 acres. The principal seat is Ardfert 
Abbey, subsequently noticed. About a mile to the east 
of the town is Tubrid, a seat belonging to J. O’Connell, 
Esq. Sackville House, lately in the occupation of the Rev. 
R. Maunsell, is the property of the Crosbie family ; and 
Barra, on the north shore of the creek of that name, is 
the residence of T. Collis, Esq. Within a short distance 
of the town are the ruins of a castle, called Rahanane, 
formerly the residence of the Bishops of Ardfert, and 
still attached to the see, but held on lease by Capt. Wil- 
low. The living is a rectory, in the diocese of Ardfert 
and Aghadoe, and is divided into five equal portions, 
held respectively by the dean, precentor, chancellor, 
treasurer, and perpetual curate : the portion attached 
to the deanery was united, at a period prior to any 
existing records, to the rectories of Ratass and Killa- 
near, constituting the corps of the deanery of Ardfert, in 
the patronage of the Crown : the tithes of the parish 
amount to £253. 16. 11., and of the decanal union to 
£479- 19. 8|., to which being added the value of the 
glebe-lands, lying in Ardfert and Ratass, the gross in- 
come of the dean, according to the Commissioners of 
Ecclesiastical Inquiry, is £549- 9. The church consists 
of the south transept of the old cathedral : it is served 
by a perpetual curate, whose stipend, payable by the 
dignitaries, has been recently augmented by one-fifth of 
the rectory, and a portion of the glebe, which formerly 
constituted part of the endowment of the archdeaconry. 
There is no glebe-house : the glebe lands comprise 

Vol. 1.-49 


280a. lr. 20 p., plantation measure, of which 3 7a. 1 r. 8 p. 
belong to the dean, Jla. Or. 12p. to the precentor, 45 a. 
to the treasurer, 15a. to the perpetual curate, and 112a. 
to the minor canon, who has also other lands, amounting 
in the whole to about 180 acres, let on lease at an aggre- 
gate rental of £205. 12. In the R. C. divisions this 
place is the head of a union or district, which comprises 
the parishes of Ardfert, Kilmoiley, Ballynahaglish, and 
Fenit, and contains three chapels, situated respectively 
at Ardfert, Chapeltown, and Lerrigs : the first, erected 
in 1783, at an expense of £300, is a neat slated building, 
with a sacristy, and over the altar is a painting of the 
Crucifixion. There are two free schools ; one, a thatched 
stone building adapted to the reception of 140 children, 
but in which at present about 45 are taught, was erected 
by Mrs. Crosbie, at an expense of £120, and is sup- 
ported by her and the dignitaries of the cathedral ; the 
other, in which are 150 boys and 90 girls, is a slated 
building near the R. C. chapel, erected at an expense of 
£90 by the Rev. J. O’Sullivan, P. P., by whom it is 
chiefly supported. Here is also a dispensary. 

The cathedral, dedicated to St. Brandon or Brendan, 
occupied an eminence on the northside of the town, and is 
said to have been destroyed in the war of 1641. The re- 
mains consist of the walls of the nave and choir, which are 
perfect : the east window has three lofty lancet-shaped 
compartments, ornamented internally with light and ele- 
gant clustered pilaster columns ; on each side is a niche, 
in one of which stands the figure of a bishop, rudely 
sculptured, but in excellent preservation, lately found in 
sinking a vault, and called and venerated as the effigy 
of St. Brandon ■, near it, in the choir, is another of much 
superior workmanship. On the south side, near the altar, 
are nine windows ornamented with pilaster columns ter- 
minating in a trefoil arch ; at the west end, on the north 
side, are two square windows, opposite which are three 
bold arches resting on square pillars, which led from 
the cathedral probably into a chapel, and there were also 
two other entrances into this part of the building, the 
principal at the north-west corner. Four rude Norman 
arches still remain, of which the centre is the largest and 
was the doorway. A doorway at the north-west led into 
a later addition, part of which only remains, and in 1668 
was purchased for her tomb by the Dowager Countess of 
Kerry, and has since been the family vault of the Crosbies. 
To the west of the cathedral are two detached buildings, 
one having the Norman and the other the pointed arch. 
An ancient round tower, which formerly stood near the 
cathedral, fell about 60 years since. Within half a mile 
to the east, in a beautiful park of the late Earl of Glan- 
dore’s, are the cruciform ruins of the Franciscan abbey, 
consisting of the nave and choir, with a lofty tower on the 
west, a chapel on the south, and the refectory on the 
north, adjoining which are two sides of the cloisters, the 
whole principally in the pointed style. The great east 
window has five divisions, and is of bold design. On 
the south side the choir was lighted by nine windows, 
under which are five arches in the wall, differing in style 
and elevation, and probably intended as monumental re- 
cesses for abbots ; in the second is an altar-tomb of the 
last Earl and Countess of Glandore. The south chapel, 
of which the great window is perfect and its details hand- 
some, was connected with the nave by three noble pointed 
arches resting on massive, but peculiarly elegant, circular 
columns. A stone in the buttress of the arch nearest the 

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tower bears a rude inscription, which, from the difficulty 
of decyphering it, has given rise to various opinions, 
but, on lately removing the moss and dirt, proves to be 
in Latin, and purports that Donald Fitz Bohen, who 
sleeps here, caused this work (probably the chapel) to be 
done in 1453. In the choir are several very ancient 
tombstones, one bearing the effigy of an abbot. Near 
these ruins stands Ardfert Abbey, the mansion of the 
Crosbie family, who have resided here since the reign of 
Elizabeth, when Dr. John Crosbie, of Maryborough, 
Queen’s county, was preferred to the bishoprick, and his 
descendants successively attained the honours of Baron 
Branden, Viscount Crosbie, and Earl of Glandore, now 
extinct. Col. David Crosbie, son of the bishop, who 
distinguished himself in the service of Chas. I., men- 
tions, in his claims to Cromwell in 1653, that the Irish 
had burnt his house at Ardfert, which had cost him more 
than £1000 in building • (it appears, from an inscription 
still remaining, to have been completed in 1635;) and 
the original order by Col. Fitz Morice, for its destruction, 
is among the MSS. in the library. The succeeding 
mansion was modernised by the first Lord Branden in 
1720, and has been greatly improved by its present oc- 
cupant, Mrs. Crosbie : it contains an extensive library 
of choice works and numerous family MSS., and in the 
dining and drawing-rooms is a variety of paintings, 
mostly family portraits. The park is well stocked with 
deer ; the gardens are extensive, and open into several 
fine avenues of elm, lime, and beech trees. 

ARDFIELD, aparish, in the barony of Ibane and Bar- 
ry hoe, county of Cork, and province of Munster,5 miles 
(S. by E.) from Clonakilty, containing 2023 inhabitants. 
This parish is situated on the south coast, and is bounded 
on the east by the bay of Clonakilty ; it comprises 23 13 sta- 
tute acres, as applotted under the tithe act, and valued 
at £2053 per annum. About four-fifths are under culti- 
vation : there is very little waste land and no bog ; the 
poor bring the turf from Clonakilty. The soil, though 
light and in some places very stony, generally produces 
good crops. There are about 800 acres of land, called 
the commons, wholly in the occupation of poor people 
who have enclosed it ; some of it is remarkably good, 
and the whole is under cultivation. Indications of cop- 
per ore appear at Duneen, and many excellent specimens 
have been found : attempts to raise it were made several 
years since, but the design was abandoned. There are 
several large and handsome houses in the parish : the 
principal are Dunmore, the seat of J. Beamish, Esq. ; 
Dunowen House, of G. Sandes, Esq.; the Tower, of Lieut. 
Speck, R. N. ; Greenfield, of H. Galway, Esq. ; and Bal- 
liva, of M. Galway, Esq. At its southern extremity 
is Dunowen Head, off which lie the Shanbuee rocks ; 
and in the parish is Dunny Cove, w r here is stationed 
the western coast-guard detachment within the district 
of Kinsale. The living is a vicarage, in the diocese of 
Ross, and in the patronage of the Bishop : the rectory 
is impropriate in M. Roberts and T. W. Foot, Esqrs. 
The tithes amount to £203. 1 . 6^., of which £110. 15. 4f. 
is payable to the impropriators, and the remainder to 
the vicar. The church is in ruins ; but divine service 
is performed in a house fitted up for that purpose at 
Dunny Cove. The glebe comprises eleven acres of ex- 
cellent land, but there is no glebe-house. In the R. C. 
divisions this parish is the head of a union or district, 
comprising the parishes of Ardfield and Rathbarry, in 
50 


each of which is a chapel; that of Ardfield is alow, plain, 
but commodious edifice, situated on the commons. There 
are schools in which 140 boys and 170 girls are taught, 
also a school at Dunny Cove, a Sunday school un- 
der the superintendence of the vicar, and one or two 
hedge schools. The ruins of the old church are situated 
on the highest point of land in the parish ; and near 
them is a building which during the war was used as a 
signal tower, but is now the residence of Lieut. Speck, 
who commands the coast-guard at Dunny Cove. Close 
to the Cove are the ruins of a castle. 

ARDFINNAN, a parish, in the barony of Iffa and 
OffaWest, county of Tipperary, and province of Mun- 
ster, 4 miles (S. S. E.) from Cahir ; containing 878 in- 
habitants. The village extends into the parish of Bally- 
bacon, and contains 316 inhabitants. The place derives 
its name, signifying “the hill of Finian,’’ from an emi- 
nence on which its castle was built, and from St. Finian 
the Leper, who flourished in the latter part of the sixth 
century, and founded here an abbey of Regular Canons, 
to which, about the year 903, Cormac Mac Cuillenan, the 
celebrated monarch and archbishop of Munster, be- 
queathed one ounce of gold and one of silver, with his 
horse and arms : it was plundered and burnt by the 
English forces, in 1178. Here was also at an early 
period a monastery for Conventual Franciscans, con- 
cerning which there are no particulars on record. The 
village is situated on both banks of the river Suir, which 
is here crossed by a bridge of fourteen arches, and on 
the mail coach road from Dublin to Cork, by way of 
Clonmel. Within half a mile above the bridge, accord- 
ing to M'Curtin’s annals, Terlogh O’Brien, King of Mun- 
ster, routed Terlogh O’Connor, Monarch of Ireland, in 
1150, when O’Hyne, Prince of Fiaelira, and O’Fflahertie, 
Prince of West Connaught, were slain, with the greater 
part of the monarch’s army. The castle was erected by 
King John, when Earl of Morton and Lord of Ireland, 
in 1181 : it was a large rectangular pile strengthened 
by square towers at the corners, and belonged to the 
Knights Templars, on the suppression of which order 
it was granted to the Knights of St. John of Jerusalem, 
and subsequently to the Bishop of Waterford; its ruins 
occupy a picturesque and elevated site on a rock over- 
looking the river, and consist of the gateway and greater 
part of the walls. From public records it appears that 
this place had anciently a corporation : in 1311, 4th o. 
Edw. II., a grant of “ pontage for three years” was 
made to “ the Bailiffs and good men of Ardfynan,” at 
the request of the Bishop of Limerick. In 1399, John, 
Earl of Desmond, was drowned in crossing the ford here 
with his followers, on returning from an incursion into 
the territory of the Earl of Ormonde. The parish com- 
prises 1081 statute acres, as applotted under the tithe 
act : there are some limestone quarries, the produce 01 
which is chiefly burnt for manure. A fair, chiefly for 
the sale of pigs, is held at the village on Feb. 2nd, and 
it has a patent for tw'o other fairs on May 17th and Nov. 
19th. Petty sessions are held once a fortnight, and a 
manorial court six times in the year ; and here is a 
station of the constabulary police. The living is a rec- 
tory, in the diocese of Lismore, with the vicarage of 
Neddins and the rectory of Rochestown episcopally 
united, forming the union of Ardfinnan, in the patronage 
of the Archbishop of Cashel : the tithes are £1701, and 
the gross tithes of the benefice amount to £345. The 


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church is a plain modern edifice. The glebe-house 
was built by a gift of £100 and a loan of £1200, from 
the late Board of First Fruits, in 1818 5 the glebe com- 
prises 20a. 2r. lip. In the R. C. divisions this parish 
is the head of a district, which comprises also Neddins, 
Rochestown, Ballybacon, and Tulloghmelan, and con- 
tains three chapels, at Ardfinnan, Ballybacon, and Grange. 
There are two private schools. Dr. Downes bequeathed 
£8. 6. 8. per ann., late currency, for apprenticing Pro- 
testant children. 

ARDGLASS, a sea-port, post-town, and parish, in 
the barony of Lecale, county of Down, and province 
of Ulster, 5§ miles (S. E. by E.) from Downpatrick, 
and 80f- miles (N. N. E.) from Dublin ; containing 2300 
inhabitants, of which number, 1162 are in the town. 
This place derives its name, signifying in the Irish lan- 
guage “ the High Green,” from a lofty green hill of 
conical form, called the Ward, and situated to the west 
of the town : from the remains of several castles it ap- 
pears to have been formerly a place of some importance. 
Jordan’s Castle is memorable for the gallant and pro- 
tracted defence that it made during the insurrection of 
the Earl of Tyrone, in the reign of Elizabeth, and de- 
rived its present name from its loyal and intrepid pro- 
prietor, Simon Jordan, who for three years sustained 
the continued assaults of the besiegers, till he was at 
length relieved by the Lord-Deputy Mountjoy, who sailed 
with a fleet from Dublin and landed here on the 17th 
of June, I6ll ; and after relieving the garrison, pursued 
the insurgents to Dunsford, where a battle took place, 
in which they were nearly annihilated ; and Jordan was 
rewarded for his services by a concordatum from the 
Queen. The port of Ardglass appears to have been in 
a flourishing condition from a very early period ; a tra- 
ding company from London settled here in the reign 
of Hen. IV., and in the reign of Hen. VI. it had an ex- 
tensive foreign trade and was superior to any other port 
in the province of Ulster. At that time the town had 
received a charter of incorporation, was governed by a 
mayor, and had a port-admiral and revenue officers. 
Hen. VIII. granted the customs of the port, then worth 
£5000 per annum, to Gerald Fitzgerald, Earl of Kil- 
dare, in whose family they remained till 1637, when, 
with certain privileges enjoyed by the port of Carrick- 
fergus, they were purchased by the crown, and the 
whole was transferred to Newry and Belfast, from 
which time the trade of Ardglass began to decline and 
the town ultimately became only a residence for fisher- 
men. It was formerly the property of a branch of the 
Leinster family, of whom the last resident. Lord Lecale, 
sold the manor to W. Ogilvie, Esq., who had married 
the Dowager Duchess of Leinster, and under whose 
auspices the town recovered its former importance ; at 
his decease it descended to his heir. Major Aubrey W. 
Beauclerc, its present proprietor. 

The town is pleasantly and advantageously situated 
on the eastern coast, and on the side of a hill over- 
looking the sea, and is well known to mariners by two 
conspicuous hills, one on the west, called the Ward of 
Ardglass, and the other on the east, called the Ward of 
Ardtole. Mr. Ogilvie, on its coming into his possession 
in the year 1812, built entire streets, a church and 
school-house, and an elegant hotel ; he also constructed 
hot, cold, and vapour baths; built and furnished lodg- 
ing-houses for the accommodation of visiters, and ren- 
51 


dered it one of the most fashionable watering-places in 
the North of Ireland. The town in its present state 
consists of one long street, nearly of semicircular form, 
from which several smaller streets branch off : in front 
of the inner bay is a range of excellent houses, called 
the Crescent ; and there are many good houses in front 
of the harbour, adjoining which is a long range of 
building in the castellated style, called the New Works, 
although they are so old that nothing is known either 
of the time or the purpose of their erection. They form 
together a line of fortifications, 250 feet in length from 
east to west, and 24 feet in breadth, close to the shore ; 
the walls are three feet in thickness and strengthened 
with three towers, one in the centre and one at each 
extremity. These buildings were originally divided into 
thirty-six apartments, eighteen on the ground floor and 
eighteen above, with a staircase in the centre ; each of 
the lower apartments had a small arched door and a 
large square window, which renders it probable that 
they had been shops occupied by merchants at some 
very early period, possibly by the company of traders 
that settled here in the reign of Hen. IV. About the 
year 1789, Lord Chas. Fitzgerald, son of the Duke of 
Leinster, who was then proprietor, caused that portion 
of the building between the central and the western 
tower to be enlarged in the rear, and raised to the height 
of three stories in the castellated style ; and from that 
time it has been called Ardglass Castle, and has been 
the residence of the proprietor of the estate. It was 
formerly called Horn Castle, either from a great quantity 
of horns found on the spot, or from a high pillar which 
stood on its summit previously to its being roofed ; and 
near it is another castle, called Cow’d Castle, signifying 
the want of horns, from a word in the Scottish dialect, 
of which many phrases are still in use in the province. 
In a direct line with Ardglass Castle, and due west of 
it, are Cow’d Castle above noticed, and Margaret’s Castle, 
both square ancient structures having the lower stories 
arched with stone ; and on the north-west side of the 
town, on a considerable elevation, are two other castles, 
about 20 feet distant from each other, the larger of which 
is called King’s Castle and the smaller the Tower ; they 
have been partly rebuilt and connected with a handsome 
pile of building in the castellated style. Jordan’s Castle, 
previously noticed, is an elegant building, 70 feet high, 
standing in the centre of the town, and having at 
the entrance a well of excellent water. The surround- 
ing scenery is beautiful, and the air salubrious ; the 
green banks of Ardtole and Ringfad, on the north and 
south sides of the bay, overhang the sea, where ships of 
the largest burden can approach within an oar’s length 
of the bold and precipitous rocks that line the coast. 
From the Ward of Ardglass is a delightful prospect ex- 
tending from 30 to 40 miles over a fertile country : on 
the south-west, beyond Killough and the beautiful bay 
of Dundrum, are seen the lofty mountains of Mourne 
rising in sublime grandeur ; on the east, the Isle of 
Man, and on the north-east, the Ayrshire mountains 
of Scotland, in distant perspective, appearing to rise 
from the ocean, and embracing with their extended 
arch more than one half of the horizon. During the 
fishing season the view of the sea from this place is 
rendered peculiarly striking and animated by the daily 
arrival and departure of vessels, and the numerous 
shoals of mackarel, pollock, and other fish visible on 

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the surface of the water for miles. There are no manu- 
factures ; the labouring classes being wholly employed 
in the fisheries off the north-east coast, of which this 
place is the common centre. During the season there 
are frequently in the harbour, at one time, from 300 to 
400 vessels from Donaghadee, Carlingford, Skerries, 
Dublin, Arklow, and the Isle of Man, but principally 
from Penzance, on the coast of Cornwall. The boats 
come regularly into the harbour to dispose of their fish, 
which is quickly purchased by carriers, who take it into 
the interior of the country, and by merchants who cure 
it ; but chiefly by masters of sloops and small craft, 
who wait in the harbour for the arrival of the fishing 
boats, and proceed directly to Dublin or Liverpool to 
dispose of the herrings fresh. These sloops usually per- 
form two trips in the week, and the masters frequently 
make from £20 to £50 by each cargo. The harbour 
is admirably adapted for trade and steam navigation ; 
and, since the erection of the new pier, is sufficient to 
accommodate steamers of any tonnage, and there is suf- 
ficient depth of water for vessels of 500 tons burden, 
which can enter at any state of the tide. There is an 
inner harbour, where a quay and pier have been erected 
for the accommodation of the fishing vessels ; it is called 
Kimmersport, and is capable of accommodating a great 
number of fishing-boats, exclusively of other vessels of 
100 tons burden ; but the sea recedes from it at low 
water. On the quay are capacious stores for corn, in 
which an extensive trade is carried on. Adjoining the 
outer harbour a pier was completed, in 1814, at an ex- 
pense of £14,000. The new pier was constructed in 
1834, at an expense of £25,000, by Mr. Ogilvie, under 
the superintendence of Sir John Rennie : it extends 300 
feet from the extremity of the old pier into deep water, 
aud is 20 feet broad ; it is built of large blocks of stone 
from the Isle of Man, hewn and dressed, forming a 
breakwater, and affording a beautiful promenade em- 
bracing fine views of the Isle and Calf of Man. A hand- 
some lighthouse is now being erected on the pier, which 
is connected with the land by a very capacious wharf 
covering nearly an acre of ground, with a basin of semi- 
circular form, beyond which are the quays for the 
colliers. The harbour is situated in lat. 54° 15' 20" (N.), 
and Ion. 5° 35' 20" (W.) ; and the trade of the port is 
rapidly increasing. There is a patent for a market and 
four fairs. A constabulary police force, and a coast-guard 
station, forming one of the seven that constitute the dis- 
trict of Newcastle, have been established here. A manorial 
court is held for debts and pleas to the amount of £100. 

By an order in council, dated Oct. 19th, 1834, the 
townlands of Jordan’s Crew and Kildare’s Crew, for- 
merly belonging to the parish of Bailee, and the town- 
land of Ross, formerly in the parish of Kilclief, were 
permanently united to this parish, which now comprises 
1137? statute acres, according to the Ordnance survey. 
The lands, which are all arable, are very fertile and in 
a profitable state of cultivation ; there is not a rood of 
waste land or bog. At a short distance from the town, 
and near the shore, are extensive quarries of good rubble 
stone, from which w r ere raised the materials used in the 
construction of the numerous buildings lately erected in 
the parish, and partly in the building of the pier, for 
the easier conveyance of which a rail-road, a quarter of 
a mile in length, was laid down. The living was for- 
merly a perpetual curacy, and the rectory formed part 
52 


of the union of Ballyphilip and corps of the chancellor- 
ship of Down, which union was lately dissolved on the 
recommendation of the Ecclesiastical Commissioners, 
and Ardglass is now an independent rectory and bene- 
fice, in the diocese of Down, and in the patronage of the 
Bishop 5 the tithes aipount to £130. The church was 
built on the site of an ancient edifice, the late Board of 
First Fruits having granted £800 as a gift and £400 
as a loan, in 1813 : it is a handsome edifice, with a 
tower and spire 90 feet high. In digging the founda- 
tion, an oblong stone, broader at the top than at the 
bottom, was found near the place of the ancient altar, 
and is still in the churchyard : it has at the top a dove 
sculptured in relief ; in the centre the crucifixion ; 
and on each side a shield of arms. Underneath are 
some lines in curiously raised letters of the old English 
character, from which, though rendered almost unintel- 
ligible by intricate literal combinations, it appears to 
have been dedicated to the memory of Mrs. Jane 
O’Birne, in 1573. The Ecclesiastical Commissioners 
have lately granted £130 for the repair of this church. 
The glebe-house was built in 1815, a quarter of a mile 
from the church, at an expense of £500, of which £450 
was a gift and £50 a loan from the late Board of First 
Fruits. The glebe contains three plantation acres. In the 
R. C. divisions this parish is united with Dunsford, by 
which latter name the union is generally known. Each 
has a chapel ; that of Ardglass is a very neat edifice, built 
in 1829 on a spacious site given by Mr. Ogilvie. There 
is a school under the Trustees of Erasmus Smith’s 
Charity, in which are about 90 boys and 80 girls ; also 
four private schools, in which are about 60 boys and 
50 girls, and a dispensary. 

About half a mile to the north-east of the town, on 
a hill in the townland of Ardtole, are the ruins of an 
ancient place of worship, called the old church of Ardtole, 
of which the eastern gable, with a large arched opening, 
and the two side walls, more than three feet in thick- 
ness, are remaining, and are of strong but very rude 
masonry. In Ardtole creek, on the north-east side of 
the bay, is a natural cavern with a large entrance, which 
gradually contracts into a narrow fissure in the rock, 
scarcely admitting one person to creep through it ; the 
elevation is very great, from which circumstance the 
townland probably derived its name Ardtole, signifying 
“high hole some persons have penetrated a consider- 
able way into this cavern, but no one has explored it 
fully. Ardglass formerly gave the title of Earl to the 
family of Cromwell, and subsequently that of Viscount 
to the Barringtons. 

ARDGUIN, or ARDQUIN, a parish, in the barony 
of Ardes, county of Down, and province of Ulster, 
on Lough Strangford, and on the road from Porta- 
ferry to Belfast ; containing, with part of the post-town 
of Portaferry, 994 inhabitants. There appears to have 
been a monastery at this place, founded at a very early 
period : according to Harris’ History of Down it was 
the priory of Eynes, which, on the authority of a patent 
roll among the public records, was seized by the crown 
during the war between England and France, and was 
granted, in 1411, by Hen. IV. to Thomas Cherele. It 
afterwards became the chief residence of the bishops of 
Down, of whom the last that resided here was Dr. Echlin, 
who was consecrated to the see in 16 14. According to 
the Ordnance survey the parish comprises 3043 statute 


ARD 


ARD 


acres, of which 80 are under water. The soil, though 
in some parts interspersed with rocks which rise above 
the surface, is in general fertile ; the lands are in a good 
state of cultivation ; there is neither waste nor bog. 
Clay- slate is raised for building, and for mending the 
roads. Portaferry House, the splendid mansion of Col. 
A. Nugent, is situated in a richly planted demesne, 
with an extensive park ornamented with stately timber. 
Here are several mills for flour and oatmeal, and for 
dressing flax ; the situation of the parish on Strangford 
Lough affords great facility of conveyance by water. A 
manorial court is held for the recovery of debts not 
exceeding five marks, with jurisdiction over the whole 
of the parish. The living is a rectory, in the diocese of 
Down, held by the bishop, who appoints a curate, for 
whose stipend he has set apart certain lands belonging 
to the see. No church appears to have existed here 
from a period long prior to the Reformation till the year 
1829, when the present edifice was erected by Dr. Mant, 
the present bishop ; it is a neat small building with a 
square tower, and occupies a picturesque situation on 
an eminence between Lough Strangford and Lough 
Cowie, which latter is a fresh-water lake of considerable 
extent. There is neither glebe nor glebe-house ; the 
lands appear to have been granted as mensal lands to 
the see, and consequently to have been tithe-free ; but 
their exemption is at present a subject of dispute, and 
the tithes are returned under the composition act as 
amounting to £289. 19- 7\., payable to the bishop. In 
the R. C. divisions the parish forms part of the union 
or district of Upper Ardes. There is a Sunday school ; 
also a pay school, in which are about 42 boys and 32 
girls. There are considerable remains of the monastery 
and episcopal palace, which shew that the buildings were 
originally of very great extent. — See Portaferry. 

ARDKEEN, a parish, in the barony of Ardes, 
county of Down, and province of Ulster, 3 miles 
(N. by E.) from Portaferry; containing 21/6 inhabitants. 
This place derives its name, originally Ard- Coyne, from 
its situation on the shores of a lake, which was formerly 
called Lough Coyne. It was one of the most important 
strong holds of the ancient Irish, who made it a place of 
refuge from the violence and rapacity of the Danes, and 
had a large and well-fortified camp protected on three 
sides by the sea, with extensive pastures in the rear for 
their cattle. On this point of land, jutting into the 
lough and forming a fertile peninsula nearly surrounded 
by every tide, Raymond Savage, one of the followers 
of De Courcy, erected a strong castle in 1196, which 
became the chief residence of that family, whose de- 
scendants throughout the whole of the insurrection re- 
mained firmly attached to the English monarchs. In 
1567, Shane O’Nial, who had overrun and destroyed 
the neighbouring country on every side, besieged this 
castle, but was so vigorously repulsed that he retreated 
with great loss and never penetrated farther southward 
into the Ardes. The parish comprises, according to the 
Ordnance survey, 4S00^ statute acres, of which 169 are 
islands, and 114 are covered with water. The living 
was formerly a perpetual curacy, in the diocese of 
Down, and the rectory formed part of the union of Inch 
and the corps of the prebend of St. Andrew’s in the cathe- 
dral of Down ; but the Ecclesiastical Commissioners 
having recommended the dissolution . of the union on the 
next avoidance of the prebend. Ardkeen and the northern 
53 


part of Witter were constituted a distinct rectory, in 
the patronage of the Bishop, in 1834, by consent of the 
prebendary, and the perpetual curate was made rector : 
the tithes amount to £ 464. 18. 9. The church is situ- 
ated on the peninsula and at the extreme western boun- 
dary of the parish ; it is a small ancient edifice, and 
contains several monuments to the family of Savage, its 
original founders. The glebe-house was built at an 
expense of £500, of which £450 was a gift and £50 
a loan from the late Board of First Fruits, in 1816 : the 
glebe comprises 1.2| Cunningham acres, valued at £l 
per acre and subject to a rent of £4 per annum. In the 
R. C. divisions this parish is included within the unions 
or districts of Upper and Lower Ardes : the chapel at 
Lisbawn is connected with that of Ballygelgat, in the 
parish of Witter. A school of 76 boys and 84 girls is 
supported by Col. and Lady H. Forde, who contribute 
£50 per annum ; there are also a Sunday school and a 
private school. The only remains of the castle are the 
foundations ; the fosses are tolerably perfect, and some 
of the gardens and orchards may be traced. 

ARDKILL, a parish, in the barony of Carbery, 
county of Kildare, and province of Leinster, 4 miles 
(E.) from Edenderry, on the road from Mullingar to 
Naas and Kildare ; containing 864 inhabitants. It 
is a rectory, in the diocese of Kildare, wholly impro- 
priate in the Marquess of Downshire ; the tithes amount 
to £ 1 68 . 17. 5^. In the R. C. divisions it forms part 
of the union of Carbery. At Dimtura is a school under 
the patronage of Viscount Harberton. 

ARDMAYLE, a parish, in the barony of Middle- 
third, county of Tipperary, and province of Munster, 
3 miles (N.) from Cashel ; containing 1914 inhabitants. 
This appears to have been formerly a place of some 
importance ; in many parts foundations of ancient 
houses have been discovered, and there are also remains 
of several castles. Of the latter, the castle of Sinone, 
consisting of a circular tower, is the most ancient ; it 
is called in the Irish language Farrin-a-Urrigh, and it 
is said that many of Strongbow’s forces, on their 
retreat from Cashel, were slain and interred here : 
human bones are frequently dug up near the spot, and 
within the last few years a very large helmet was dis- 
covered. The castle at Castlemoyle, at present con- 
sisting only of a square tower, was anciently the resi- 
dence of the Butlers, and subsequently of the Cootes. 
Cromwell is said to have attacked it, and after gaining 
possession, to have hanged the proprietor : it still retains 
vestiges of its original extent, and appears to have been 
handsomely built. There are also some remains of 
another castle near the bridge. The parish is situated 
near the main road from Cashel to Thurles, and on the 
river Suir, over which is a bridge of stone ; it comprises 
4772 statute acres, as applotted under the tithe act, and 
valued at £6225 per annum. The land is principally 
under an improved system of tillage ; there is neither 
bog nor waste land. Limestone abounds and is quarried 
for building, and for burning into lime. Ardmayle House 
is the residence of T. Price, Esq. ; Longfield, situated in 
a well-planted demesne, of R Long, Esq.; Fort Ed- 
ward, of E. Long, Esq. ; and Noddstown, of R. Arm- 
strong, Esq., closely adjoining to which is a square 
tower. Here is a station of the constabulary police. 
The living is a perpetual curacy, in the diocese of Cashel, 
and in the patronage of the Archbishop ; the rectory is 


A R D 


A R D 


impropriate in the Rev. W. Sutton and the vicars choral 
of the cathedral of Cashel : the tithes amount to 
£312. 9. 2., the whole payable to the impropriators, 
who pay the perpetual curate a stipend of £30, to 
which the Ecclesiastical Commissioners add £70. The 
church, with the exception of the old tower crowned 
with an embattled turret, was rebuilt by aid of a gift 
of £800 and a loan of £150 from the late Board of First 
Fruits, in 1815. The glebe-house was erected by aid of 
a gift of £450 and a loan of £50 from the same Board. 
In the R. C. divisions this parish is the head of a union 
or district, called Bohirlahan, comprising Ardmayle and 
Ballysheehan, each of which has a chapel ; the chapel 
for Ardmayle is situated at Bohirlahan, and is of re- 
cent erection. A school of 5 6 boys and 22 girls is 
aided by Mr. Beasley, who erected the school-house, 
and the Rev. Wm. Kirwan, P. P., who supplies books 
and stationery. 

ARDMORE, a parish, in the barony of Dectes- 
within-DRUM, county of Waterford, and province of 
Munster, 5 miles (E. N. E.) from Youghal ; containing 
7318 inhabitants, of which number, 414 are in the village. 
This place, which is situated on the bay of Ardmore in 
St. George’s channel, derived its name, signifying “ a 
great promontory or eminence,” from the Drumfineen 
mountain, an extensive and elevated range forming its 
northern barrier, and of which Slieve Grine constitutes a 
very considerable portion. In the infancy of Christianity 
in Ireland, St. Declan, a native of this country and a 
member of the tribe of the Decii, founded a religious 
establishment here, which became an episcopal see, 
over which he was confirmed bishop by St. Patrick in 
448. The see of Ardmore continued to flourish as a 
separate bishoprick under a succession of prelates, of 
whom the next after the founder was St. Ultan, till the 
time of the English invasion, soon after which it was 
incorporated with the diocese of Lismore. The parish, 
which includes the principal portion of the barony, com- 
prises 28,135 statute acres, as applotted under the tithe 
act ; the mountainous portion affords tolerable pasturage 
and is well stocked with black cattle ; and the lands be- 
tween the mountains and the sea are fertile and in a 
good state of cultivation. Crushea, the seat of Mrs. Gun 
Paul, is a handsome modern residence pleasantly situ- 
ated on the north side of the bay, and commanding a 
fine view of the sea. Ards, the residence of P. Lawlor, 
Esq., is a castellated mansion situated about a mile 
from the village, near the sea, and commanding an ex- 
tensive and interesting prospect. Loscairne, the ex- 
tremely neat modern residence of W. J. Carew, Esq., 
is pleasantly situated at the eastern verge of the parish, 
adjoining the new public road from Dungarvan to 
Youghal, by way of Ring. Glenanna Cottage, the 
marine residence of H. Winston Barron, Esq., is situated 
near Ballymacart. A new line of road has been made 
within the last few years from Dungarvan, through 
Ring, to Youghal, by which the distance to the Ferry 
point is 17 miles, and the construction of which has 
given a great impulse to agricultural improvement, by 
providing a convenient outlet for the produce of the 
district. It intersects the parish from N. E. to S. W. ; 
and another road, in a N. W. direction, commencing at 
the upper bridge of Killongford, is now in progress, 
which will pass through the townlands of Ballyharrahan 
and Killongford, and over Slieve Grine mountain, and in 
54 


its course will be shorter, by 2f miles, than the old road : 
the Slieve Grine mountain is principally the property of 
H. Villiers Stuart, Esq., of Dromana. The village is 
situated on the shore of a bay open to the east and 
protected on the south by Ardmore Head ; the beach is 
of great extent and smoothness, and there is an interest- 
ing view of St. George’s channel. ' Its situation, and the 
beauty of the surrounding scenery, make it a desirable 
place of resort for sea-bathing. Copper and lead mines 
were formerly worked, and, from the specimens still 
found, the ores appear to have been of rich quality. At 
Minehead, so called from the adjacent works, and near 
the village, iron ore of very good quality was also pro- 
cured. A constabulary police force, and one of the five 
coast-guard stations which constitute the district of 
Youghal, have been established here. 

The living is a vicarage, with that of Ballymacart 
united, in the diocese of Lismore, and in the patronage 
of the Bishop ; the rectory constitutes the corps of the 
precentorship in the cathedral of Lismore. The tithes 
amount to £650, of which £433. 6. 8. is payable to the 
precentor, and £216. 13. 4. to the vicar ; and the gross 
tithes of the benefice amount to £258. The church and 
glebe-house are annexed to the vicarage : the glebe 
belonging to the precentor consists of the lands of 
Ardocharty, in this parish, comprising 68a. 5 p., and 
48^a. in the parish of Lismore ; and the vicarial glebe 
comprises 20a. lr. dp. In the R. C. divisions this parish 
is the head of a union or district, comprising the 
parishes of Ardmore, Ballymacart, and Lisginan, in each 
of which is a chapel ; the chapel of Ardmore is situated 
in the village, and is a commodious edifice of recent 
erection. There are a Sunday school and five pay 
schools, in the latter of which are about 240 children. 
Some remains exist of the ancient church, consisting 
chiefly of the chancel, part of which, till the recent 
erection of the present edifice, was used as the parish 
church - ; it was a fine building, richly decorated with 
sculpture, and still displays traces of its former magni- 
ficence. To the south-east of the church is a small, low, 
and plain building, called the Dormitory of St. Declan, 
and held in great veneration by the inhabitants of the 
neighbourhood ; it was repaired and roofed about a 
century since by Bishop Willis. In the churchyard is 
one of the ancient round towers, a fine specimen of 
those monuments of remote antiquity. On Ardmore 
Head are some slight remains of an ancient church, but 
in a state of such dilapidation that few traces either of 
its original architecture or embellishment can be distin- 
guished. Near it is St. Declan’s well, which is held in 
veneration by the people of the neighbourhood ; and 
on the beach is St. Declan’s stone, resting on a ledge of 
rock, by which it is raised a little from the ground, and at 
which, on July 24th, the festival of the saint, numbers of 
people assemble for devotional purposes. Several cir- 
cular intrenchments may be traced in various parts of 
the parish. Near Ardmore Head is a large and curious 
cavern, called the “ Parlour and on the coast, which 
is precipitously rocky, are several other caverns. 

ARDMORE, county of Armagh. — See MOYN • 
TAGHS. 

ARDMOY.— See ARMOY. 

ARDMULCHAN, a parish, in the barony of Skreen, 
county of Meath, and province of Leinster, 2§ miles 
(N. E.) from Navan ; containing 1061 inhabitants. This 


ARD 


ARD 


parish is situated on the high road from Navan to Drog- 
heda, and the new road from Trim to Duleek runs 
through the southern part of it : its northern part is 
intersected by the Boyne navigation. It comprises 3347 
statute acres, as applotted under the tithe act : about 
two-thirds are under tillage, and the remainder is good 
grazing land ; there is no waste or bog. Limestone 
abounds, and there is a good quarry of stone for build- 
ing. Ardmulchan House is the seat of R. Taaffe, Esq. ; 
and Hayes, a handsome residence, of R. Bourke, Esq. 
The parish is in the diocese of Meath, and the rectory is 
united to Painstown : the tithes amount to £253. 16. 10^. 
In the R. C. divisions also it is part of the union or district 
of Black Lion or Painstown. There is a free school for 
boys and girls at Hayes, under the patronage of R.Bourke, 
Esq., who built the school-house, gave an acre of land 
rent-free, and allows £24 per ann. for its support ; the 
girls’ school is principally supported by Mrs. Bourke. 

ARDNAGEEHY, a parish, in the barony of Barry- 
more, county of Cork, and province of Munster, 5 
miles (S. W.) from Rathcormac, on the mail coach road 
from Cork to that place ; containing 3715 inhabitants. 
It comprises 15,546 statute acres, as applotted under 
the tithe act, and valued at £5708 per annum. The 
Nagle mountains and Leppers Hill form a tract of nearly 
6000 acres, and on the south side of the river Bride are 
nearly 2000 acres of waste land : these lands are 
generally rough pasture, affording but a very scanty 
supply of herbage for cattle. Of the lands under cul- 
tivation, the greater portion is in tillage, and the system 
of agriculture is improving. There are about 400 acres 
of bog, but it is not worked. The substratum of the 
soil is clay-slate ; a coarse heavy kind of slate is quar- 
ried for roofing, and flag- stones are found in abundance, 
but neither are worked to any extent. There are several 
large and handsome houses in the parish, the principal 
of which are Bridestown, the residence of E. Morgan, 
Esq. ; Mount Pleasant, of the Rev. E. G. Hudson ; 
Kiluntin, of R. Roche, Esq. ; Glanassack, of Mrs. 
Wallis; and Westmount, of M. Westropp, Esq. A 
small paper-mill is worked at Glenville, where fairs for 
cattle, sheep, and pigs are held on the 4th of May and 
the 3rd of November. There are constabulary police 
stations at Glenville and Watergrass-hill. Petty sessions 
are held at the latter place every alternate Tuesday. 
The living is a rectory and vicarage, in the diocese of 
Cork, and in the patronage of the Bishop ; the tithes 
amount to £438. 9- 3. The church is a neat modern 
edifice, situated at Glenville, for the erection of which 
the late Board of First Fruits gave £500 in 1798. 
There is no glebe-house ; and the glebe, comprising 40 
acres purchased by the same Board, has been lost 
through some defect in the title. In the R. C. divisions 
the parish is the head of a union or district, also called 
Watergrass-hill, which comprises the parishes of Ard- 
nageehy and Ballynaultig, and parts of those of Dun- 
bollogue and Kilquane ; there are chapels at Glenville 
and Watergrass-hill, both small plain buildings. The 
parochial male and female schools at Glenville are sup- 
ported chiefly by the rector, and there is another school 
for boys and girls on the demesne of Glenville, for 
which the proprietor built a school-house in 1821 : about 
200 children are taught in these schools, and there are 
six hedge schools, in which are about 300 children, and 
a Sunday school. About two miles to the south of the 
55 


church are the ruins of the old parish church, roman- 
tically situated among the hills. 

ARDNAREE, a village, in that part of the parish 
of Kilmoremoy which is in the barony of Tyreragh, 
county of Sligo, and province of Connaught, adjacent 
to Ballina, and containing 2482 inhabitants. This place, 
which may be considered as a suburb to Ballina, is con- 
nected with that town by a bridge over the river Moy ; 
and consists of one principal street, from which several 
lanes diverge, containing altogether 312 houses. In 1427 
a monastery for Eremites of the order of St. Augustine 
was founded here, but by whom is not known ; there 
are some slight remains, consisting of a beautiful arched 
doorway and several windows. The environs are re- 
markably pleasant, and a new bridge of four arches has 
been recently erected. Fairs are held on June 20th, 
Oct. 10th, and Dec. 13th ; and here is a constabulary 
police station. The parish church, a plain edifice with 
a tower and spire, is situated in the village ; and a R. C. 
chapel, a handsome structure in the later English style, 
and ornamented with minarets, has been erected at an 
expense of £9000, and to which it is contemplated to 
add a tower and spire ; when completed, it will be a 
great ornament to the town and suburb of Ballina ; it is 
the cathedral church of the R. C. see of Killala, the 
bishop of which resides here. — See Kilmoremoy. 

ARDNORCHER, otherwise HORSELEAP, a parish, 
partly in the barony of Kilcoursey, King’s county, 
but chiefly in that of Moycashel, county of West- 
meath, and province of Leinster, 3 miles (W. N. W.) 
from Kilbeggan, on the river Brosna, and on the mail 
coach road from Dublin to Galway; containing 3701 in- 
habitants. It contains 10,826 statute acres, of which 
10,673 are applotted under the tithe act; there is a con- 
siderable tract of bog, but no mountain or waste land. 
The principal proprietor is Lord Maryborough. Lime- 
stone abounds in the parish, but there are no quarries of 
note. The principal seats are Bracca Castle, the resi- 
dence of S. Handy, Esq. ; Gageborough, of J. C. Judge. 
Esq. ; Ballard, of R. Bolger, Esq. ; and Temple-Maca- 
teer, of M. Kelly, Esq. The living is a vicarage, in the 
diocese of Meath, with the vicarages of Kilcumreagh, 
Kilmanaghan, Kilbride-Langan, and Rahue, and in the 
patronage of the Crown ; the rectory is impropriate in 
the Marquess of Downshire. The tithes amount to 
£327- 13. 9^., of which £189- 4. 7. is payable to the 
impropriator, and the remainder to the vicar ; and 
the gross annual value of the five parishes which consti- 
tute the union of Ardnorcher, including tithe and glebe, 
is £S27- 0. 9., out of which the vicar pays the perpetual 
curate of Kilmanaghan and Kilbride-Langan £60 per 
ann., to which is added £40 per ann. from the augmen- 
tation fund. The church, to which a spire was added in 
1822, is an ancient building in good repair : it stands on 
an eminence above the village of Horseleap. The glebe - 
house was built by aid of a gift of £100 and a loan of 
£1150, in 1815, from the late Board of First Fruits; 
the glebe comprises 45 plantation acres, valued at £94 
per annum. In the R. C. divisions this parish is the 
head of a union or district called Clara, comprising the 
parishes of Ardnorcher and Kilbride-Langan, in both of 
which are chapels ; that of Ardnorcher is a large build- 
ing in the village of Horseleap, erected in 1809- Besides 
the parochial school, in which ten boys and fifteen girls 
are taught, there are seven private pay schools, in 


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which are about 120 boys and 60 girls. The lands 
of Moycashel, which give name to the barony, are 
situated in this parish. Anciently here were several 
castles, now mostly in ruins ; that of Donour is still 
preserved in good repair by Sir Richard Nagle, Bart., 
and there is another at Bracca. The fort of Ardnorcher, 
or Ard-an-orchor, literally translated “the fort of 
slaughter,” was one of the frontier forts of the English 
pale, and for some centuries past has been vulgarly 
called “ Horseleap,” on account of an extraordinary leap 
which is said to have been formerly made into it over 
the drawbridge by an English knight, in escaping from 
a close pursuit : this ancient doon or moat formed a 
strong link in the chain of forts and castles constructed 
along that part of the county of Meath which was 
within the English pale, to protect the new settlers and 
check the inroads of the Irish. At Temple-Maccateer 
are the remains of a monastery, said to have been 
founded in 440 by St. Kiaran ; and at Gageborough was 
a nunnery, founded by Matilda de Lacey in the 13th 
century ; many coins have been dug up at tbe former 
place. A holy well, dedicated to St. David, was formerly 
much resorted to on the patron day, the 27th of June, 
but the custom has nearly fallen into disuse. 

ARDPATRICK, formerly a parish, now forming part 
of the parish of Kilquane, in the barony of Costlea, 
county of Limerick, and province of Munster, 4^ 
miles (S. E.) from Kilmallock ; containing, with Kilquane 
and the parish of Farticles, 2735 inhabitants. An 
abbey is said to have been founded here by St. Patrick, 
of which circumstance, though no historical record 
exists, there is yet sufficient evidence that a religious 
foundation was established here in the earliest ages 
of Christianity. By an inquisition of the 39th of Eliza- 
beth, it was found that the hill of Ardpatrick w'as 
anciently granted to the corbeship founded in the 
church of Ardpatrick, a small sum out of the proceeds 
being paid annually to the bishop ; and that the office of 
corbe had from time immemorial been continued by 
succession in the sept of the Langanes, by one of whom 
it was then held. Near the confines of this townland is 
Sunville, the ancient residence of the Godsall family. 
In the ecclesiastical divisions it is unknown as a parish, 
and in ancient records was supposed to be part of that 
of Donoughmore, in the county of Clare, forming a 
portion of the estate belonging to the see, and held 
under lease from the Bishop of Limerick ; but for many 
years it has been united to the parish of Kilquane. 
The tithes amount to £33. 13. 10. In the R. C. divi- 
sions it forms part of the union or district of Kilfinnan; 
a large and handsome chapel has been lately erected at 
the foot of Ardpatrick hill. On the summit of this hill 
are the ruins of the ancient monastery ; and near the 
north-west angle are the remains of an ancient round 
tower, the greater portion of which fell down a few years 
since. Gold ore has been found here, also the fossil 
remains of an elk, or moose deer, which are now in the 
possession of G. Russell, Esq., of Charleville. — See 
Kilquane. 

ARDQUIN.— See ARDGUIN. 

ARDRAHAN, a parish and post-town, partly in the 
barony of Kiltartan and partly in that of Lough- 
rea, but chiefly in the barony of Dunkellin, county 
of Galway, and province of Connaught, 15 miles 
(S. E. by E.) from Galway, and 97 (W. by S.) from 
56 


Dublin, on the road from Limerick to Galway ; contain- 
ing 3805 inhabitants. It comprises 12,950 statute acres, 
as applotted under the tithe act, a large portion of which 
is irreclaimable waste, though at the eastern extremity 
of the parish is a range of peat mountain, which is pro- 
fitable as affording pasture for numerous black cattle. 
Flannel is rather extensively made by hand-spinning, 
for which a ready sale is found at Oranmore market, 12 
miles distant. The principal residences are Cregclare, 
that of J. S. Lambert, Esq. ; Castle Taylor, of Gen. Sir 
J. Taylor ; Tillyra, of J. Martyn, Esq. ; Castle Daly, 
of J. Daly, Esq. ; and Rahenc, of J. O’Hara, Esq. A 
constabulary police force is stationed here, and petty 
sessions are held once a fortnight. 

The living is a vicarage with a portion of the rectory, 
and with the rectory of Beagh forms the union of Ard- 
rahan, in the diocese of Kilmacduagh, and in the patron- 
age of the Marquess of Clanricarde. The tithes amount 
to £463, of which £84 is payable to the bishop, £23 to 
the archdeacon, and £356 to the incumbent ; and the 
gross tithes of the benefice amount to £535. 6. If. The 
church was erected about 30 years since, by aid of a 
loan from the late Board of First Fruits, but was so in- 
differently built as to require a new roof, and has recently 
been repaired by the Ecclesiastical Commissioners. The 
glebe-house was also erected by a gift of £400 and a 
loan of £400 from the Board of First Fruits. The glebe 
comprises twelve acres. Tbe R. C. parish is co-exten- 
sive with that of the Established Church, and there is 
a chapel at Labane ; divine service is also performed 
occasionally by the parish priest at Tyllira castle. A 
national school is about to be established, and there are 
several pay schools in the parish. Here is a dispensary 
for Ardrahan and Gort. Along the mountain’s side 
are several mineral springs, and where there are strong 
indications of iron ore. 

ARDRESS, a village, in the parish of Killaghton, 
barony of Kilconnell, county of Galway, and province 
of Connaught, 5f miles (S. W.) from Ballinasloe ; con- 
taining 136 inhabitants. 

ARDREYAN, county of Carlow. — See FENNAGII. 

ARDRIE, (LITTLE) a parish, in the barony of 
Kilkea and Moone, county of Kildare, and province 
of Leinster, f a mile (S. by E.) from Athy ; containing 
302 inhabitants. This place, which is situated on the 
road from Athy to Carlow, and comprises only 295 
statute acres, anciently belonged to the monastery of St. 
Thomas, near Dublin, and was assigned to the precen- 
torship in the cathedral church of St. Patrick, Dublin, on 
the institution of that dignity in 1219- It is a rectory, 
in the diocese of Dublin, partly appropriate to the pre- 
centorship, partly impropriate in Michael Goold Adams, 
Esq., and partly forming a portion of the union of St. 
Michael’s Athy. The tithes amount to £24, of which 
£16 is payable to the impropriator, and £8 to the in- 
cumbent of St. Michael’s ; the portion appropriated to 
the precentorship is 154«. 2r. 8 p., let on lease at an 
annual rent of £12. 

ARDRISTIN, a parish, in the barony of Rathvilly, 
county of Carlow, and province of Leinster, if mile 
(S. W. by W.) from Tullow, on the road to Clonegal ; 
containing 543 inhabitants. It comprises 1525 statute 
acres, as applotted under the tithe act ; and within its 
limits is a part of the suburbs of the town of Tullow, 
called the Green and Tullow-beg. Except one townland 


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entirely surrounded by the parish of Aghade, it is 
bounded on the east and south-east by the river Slaney. 
More than one -half of its surface consists of meadow 
and pasture land ; the rest, with the exception of a 
small tract of bog, is arable. It formerly constituted 
part of the union of Aghade : the living is now a dis- 
tinct impropriate curacy, in the diocese of Leighlin, and 
in the patronage of the Bishop ; the tithes amount to 
£145. The ruins of the church, situated on the town- 
land of Ardristin, are divided by a pointed arch and are 
63 feet in length. In the R. C. divisions it forms part 
of the union or district of Tullow. 

ARDSALLAGH, a parish, in the barony of Lower 
Navan, county of Meath, and province of Leinster, 
2§ miles (S. S. E.) from Navan; containing 289 inhabi- 
tants. It is bounded on the east by the river Boyne, 
and comprises 1032 statute acres, principally under 
tillage, as applotted under the tithe act, and has neither 
waste land nor bog : the prevailing substratum is lime- 
stone. The banks of the river are adorned with the 
mansion and demesne of Ardsallagh, the property of 
Earl Ludlow, whose ancestor, in 1755, was raised to the 
peerage of Ireland by the title of Baron Ludlow, of Ard- 
sallagh, and in 1760 advanced to the dignities of Viscount 
Preston, of Ardsallagh, and Earl Ludlow. It is a 
rectory, in the diocese of Meath, and forms part of the 
union of Navan: the tithes amount to £150. In the 
R. C. divisions also it is included in the union or 
district of Navan. At Cannistown is a public school for 
boys and girls. There are some remains of the walls of 
the old church, with a burial-ground attached. Ac- 
cording to Archdall, St. Finian of Clonard founded 
a monastery here near the river, of which no vestiges 
can be traced. 

ARDSALL1S, a village, in the parish of Tomfin- 
lough, barony of Bunratty, county of Clare, and 
province of Munster, 5| miles (N.W.) from Six-mile- 
bridge, on the road from Newmarket-on-Fergus to Quin : 
the population is returned with the parish. Nearly 
adjoining it is a good race-course, which was formerly 
much frequented, but the races have been for many 
years discontinued. Fairs are held on the 12th of May 
and the 12th of August, chiefly for cattle, and were 
formerly well attended. 

ARDSKEAGH, a parish, in the barony of Condons 
and Clongibbons, county of Cork, and province of 
Munster, 2 miles (S. by E.) from Charleville ; containing 
302 inhabitants. This parish, called also Ardskreagh, 
is separated from the main body of the barony in which 
it is included by the intervention of the northern part 
of the barony of Fermoy. It comprises 1993| statute 
acres, as applotted for the county cess, and valued at 
£1420 per annum. The land under tillage is tolerably 
fertile, but a large portion of the parish is mountain 
pasture ; the system of agriculture is gradually im- 
proving. The living is a rectory, in the diocese of 
Cloyne, and in the patronage of the Bishop : the tithes 
amount to £S8. 11. 9- There is neither church nor 
glebe-house ; the occasional duties are performed by the 
clergyman of the adjoining parish. The glebe, near the 
site of the old church (some remains of which still exist 
in the burial-ground), comprises four acres. In the R. 
C. divisions the parish is partly in the union or district 
of Charleville, but chiefly in that of Ballyhea. A school 
is held in the old chapel at Newtown. 

Vol. I. — 57 


ARDSTRAW, or ARDSRATH, a parish, partly in 
the barony of Omagh, but chiefly in that of Strabane, 
county of Tyrone, and province of Ulster ; containing, 
with the post-town of Newtown- Stewart, 21,212 inhabi- 
tants. This place was distinguished, under the name of 
Ardsrath, as the seat of an ancient bishoprick, over 
which St. Eugene, or Oen, presided about the year 540. 
At a very early period a small stone church or chapel 
existed here ; and the names are recorded of several 
bishops who presided over the see, which, in 597, was 
removed to Maghera, and finally to Derry, in 1158. 
This place suffered repeatedly by fire, and appears to 
have been destroyed about the close of the twelfth 
century. The parish, which is situated on the road from 
Dublin to Londonderry, comprises, according to the 
Ordnance survey, 44,974^ statute acres, of which 537^ 
are covered with water. The surface is pleasingly diver- 
sified with hill and dale, and enlivened by the rivers 
Struell, Glenelly, and Derg, which, after flowing through 
the parish, unite in forming the river Morne, which 
abounds with trout and salmon ; and also with several 
large and beautiful lakes, of which three are within the 
demesne of Baron’s Court. The land is chiefly arable, 
with pasture intermixed ; and the soil in the valleys is 
fertile ; but there are considerable tracts of mountain 
and several extensive bogs. Limestone is found in 
several places at the base of the mountain called Bessy 
Bell, the whole of the upper portion of which is clay- 
slate ; on the summit of another mountain, called Mary 
Gray, it is found with clay-slate at the base ; and round 
the southern base of the former are detached blocks of 
freestone scattered in every direction. There are also 
some quarries of limestone at Cavandaragh ; the stone 
is raised in blocks, or lamina, from a quarter of an inch 
to three feet in thickness. The mountains within and 
forming a portion of the boundary of the parish are 
Bessy Bell, Douglas, and Mary Gray, which present 
beautiful and romantic scenery, particularly in the 
neighbourhood of Newtown-Stewart ; and the view from 
the high grounds, including the lakes and rivers by 
which the parish is diversified, is truly picturesque. 
There are five bridges ; one at Moyle, of three elliptic 
arches ; a very ancient bridge at Newtown-Stewart, of 
six arches ; another of six arches at Ardstraw, and a 
modern bridge of three arches on the Derry road. The 
principal seats are Baron’s Court, the residence of the 
Marquess of Abercorn ; Castlemoyle, of the Rev. R. H. 
Nash, D.D. ; Woodbrook, of R. M. Tagert, Esq.; Newtown- 
Stewart Castle, of Major Crawford ; Coosh, of A. Col- 
houn. Esq. ; and Spa Mount, of E. Sproule, Esq. There 
were formerly several bleach-greens in the parish, but 
at present there is only one in operation, which is at 
Spa Mount, on the river Derg, and in which about 
16,000 pieces are annually bleached and finished, prin- 
cipally for the London market. 

The living is a rectory, in the diocese of Derry, and 
in the patronage of the Provost and Fellows of Trinity 
College, Dublin: the tithes amount to £1094. The 
church is a large and beautiful edifice with a handsome 
spire, and is situated in the town of Newtown-Stewart ; a 
grant of £478 for its repair has been lately made by the 
Ecclesiastical Commissioners. Anew church, or chapel 
of ease, is about to be built at Baron’s Court, or Magh- 
eracreegan, for which the late Board of First Fruits 
granted £600, now in the hands of the Ecclesiastical 

I 


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Commissioners. The glebe-house has a glebe of 681 
acres attached to it, of which 46 if are in a state of 
cultivation. The R. C. parish is co-extensive with that 
of the Established Church, but is divided into East and 
West Ardstraw; there are chapels at Newtown- Stewart, 
Dragish, and Cairncorn. There are five places of wor- 
ship for Presbyterians in connection with the Synod of 
Ulster, at Ardstraw, Newtown-Stewart, Douglas Bridge, 
Clady, and Garvetagh ; that of Ardstraw is aided by a 
second class grant, and those of Newtown-Stewart, 
Douglas-Bridge, and Clady have each a third class 
grant. There are also two places of worship for Presby- 
terians of the Seceding Synod, one at Drumligagh of the 
first class, and the other at Newtown-Stewart of the 
second class ; and there are a meeting-house for Pri- 
mitive and two for Wesleyan Methodists. The paro- 
chial school at Newtown-Stewart is aided by an annual 
donation from the rector ; and there are fifteen other 
public schools in different parts of the parish, and 
seventeen private schools ; in the former are 1600, and 
in the latter about 780, children : and thirty-five Sunday 
schools. The poor are supported by voluntary contri- 
butions, aided by the interest of £100 in the 3^ per cents., 
being a sum due to the parish, which was recovered 
about twenty years since by process of law, and by act 
of vestry added to the poor fund. There are numerous 
interesting remains of antiquity in the parish, the most 
ancient of which are those of the monastery and cathe- 
dral of Ardsrath, near the village, consisting chiefly of 
the foundations of that part of the building which was 
formerly used as the parish church, the remains of 
some very beautiful crosses of elaborate workmanship, 
and several upright stones and columns richly fluted ; 
but the churchyard, which was very extensive, has been 
contracted by the passing of the public road, in the 
formation of which many remains of antiquity were 
destroyed. Nearly adjoining is a ruin which tradition 
points out as the bishop’s palace, and which was occu- 
pied as an inn when the Dublin road passed this way. 
About three miles above Ardstraw Bridge, and situated 
on a gentle eminence, are the picturesque ruins of Scar- 
vaherin abbey, founded by Turloch Mac Dolagh, in 
1456, for Franciscan friars of the third order, and on its 
dissolution granted by Queen Elizabeth to Sir Henry 
Piers ; and near Newtown-Stewart is the site of the 
friary of Pubble, which appears to have been an appen- 
dage to Scarvaherin, and was granted at the same time 
to Sir Henry Piers ; of the latter, nothing but the ceme- 
tery remains. In Newtown-Stewart are the extensive 
and beautiful remains of the castle built by Sii^JRobert 
Newcomen, in 1 6 1 9 ; it is in the Elizabethan style, with 
gables and clustered chimneys. Jas. II. lodged in this 
castle, on his return from Lifford in 1589, and by his 
orders it was dismantled on the day following ; with the 
exception of the roof, it is nearly perfect. At the foot 
of the mountain called Bessy Bell are the ruins of an 
ancient building called Harry Ouree’s Castle, concerning 
which some remarkable legends are preserved by the 
country people ; they consist of two circular towers, 
with a gateway between them, and some side walls, 
which overhang their base more than 8 feet. Near the 
end of the bridge at Newtown-Stewart is a large mound 
of earth, evidently thrown up to protect the ford, which 
in early times must have been of importance as the only 
pass through the vast range of the Munterlony moun- 
58 


tains. There was a similar fort on the ford of Glenelly, 
near Moyle Castle, and another at the old ford at the 
village of Ardstraw. On the summit of Bessy Bell, or 
Boase-Baal, on which in pagan times sacrifice is sup- 
posed to have been offered to Baal or Bel, is a large and 
curious cairn; there are also cairns on the summit of Mary 
Gray, and more than thirty forts in the parish, nearly 
in a line from east to west, which were designed to 
guard the passes on the rivers of Glenelly and Derg. 
About a mile below Newtown-Stewart, in the bed of 
the river, is a single upright stone, called the “Giant’s 
Finger,” and lately “ Flinn’s rock,” respecting which 
many strange traditions are preserved in the neigh- 
bourhood. — See Newtown-Stewart. 

ARDSTRAW-BRIDGE, a village, in the parish of 
Ardstraw, barony of Strabane, county of Tyrone, 
and province of Uester, 3 miles (W. N. W.) from New- 
town-Stewart : the population is returned with the 
parish. This place, formerly Ardsrath, is of high anti- 
quity, and was distinguished for its ancient and greatly 
celebrated abbey, noticed in the preceding description 
of the parish of Ardstraw. The village is situated on 
the river Derg, which is here wide and rapid, and 
is crossed by an ancient stone bridge of six arches, over 
which the old road from Londonderry to Dublin for- 
merly passed : it contains 32 houses, some of which are 
well built, but several of them are old and in a neglected 
state. There were formerly six fairs held in the village, 
which were large and well attended, but they have been 
discontinued for some time. There is a place of worship 
for Presbyterians in connection with the Synod of Ulster, 
and a public school. 

ARDTRAMONT.— See ARTRAMONT. 

ARDTREA, or ARTREA, a parish, partly in the 
barony of Dungannon, county of Tyrone, and partly 
in the barony of Loughinsholin, county of London- 
derry, and province of Ulster ; containing, with the 
district or perpetual curacy of Woods-chapel, and the 
greater part of the market and post-town of Money- 
more, 12,390 inhabitants, of which number, 74/1 are in 
the disti'ict of Woods-chapel. During the rebellion of 
the Earl of Tyrone, in the reign of Elizabeth, this place 
was the scene of numerous conflicts ; and in the par- 
liamentary war, in 1641, it was involved in many of the 
military transactions of that pex-iod. In 1688-9, a sangui- 
nary battle took place here between the adherents of Jas. 
II., who were in possessioxx of the forts of Charlemont and 
Mountjoy, and the forces of Wm. III., commanded by 
Lord Blayney, who, having possessioix of Armagh, was 
desirous of assisting the garrisons of Inniskillen and 
Derry, and for this purpose determined to force a pas- 
sage to Coleraine, wlxiclx he accomplished, after defeat- 
ing a detachment of the enemy’s forces at the bridge of 
Ardtx’ea. The parish, which is also called Ardtraglx, is 
situated partly on Lough Beg, but chiefly on Lough 
Neagh, and is intersected by the Ballinderry river and 
by numerous roads, of which the principal are those 
leading x'espectively fx’om Armagh to Coleraine, from 
Omagh to Belfast, and from Stewarts-town to Money- 
more. It contains, accox-ding to the Ordnance survey, 
20,962f statute acres, of which 18,679^ are in the 
county of Londonderry, inclxxding 2181^ ixx Lough 
Neagh, 317| in Lough Beg, and 26| in the river Bann. 
The soil is very various ; the land is chiefly arable, and 
is fertile and well cultivated, especially around Money- 


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more, on the estate belonging to the Drapers’ Company, 
and on that belonging to the Salters’ Company round 
Ballyronan. There are several extensive tracts of bog 
in various parts, amounting in the whole to nearly 3000 
acres, and affording an ample supply of fuel. Freestone 
of every variety, colour and quality, is found here in 
abundance ; and there is plenty of limestone. At a 
short distance from the church, on the road to Cooks- 
town, is an extraordinary whin-dyke, which rises near 
Ballycastle in the county of Antrim, passes under 
Lough Neagh, and on emerging thence near Stewart 
Hall, passes through this parish and into the mountain 
of Slievegallion, near Moneymore. Spring Hill, the 
pleasant seat of W. Lenox Conyngham, Esq., is an ele- 
gant and antique mansion, situated in a rich and highly 
improved demesne, embellished with some of the finest 
timber in the country. The other principal seats are 
Lakeview, the residence of D. Gaussen, Esq. ; War- 
wick Lodge, of W. Bell, Esq. ; and Ardtrea House, of 
the Rev. J. Kennedy Bailie, D.D. The farm-houses are 
generally large and well built ; and most of the farmers, 
in addition to their agricultural pursuits, carry on the 
weaving of linen cloth for the adjoining markets. There 
is an extensive bleach-green, which, after having been 
discontinued for some years, has been repaired and is 
now in operation. The primate’s court for the manor 
of Ardtrea is held at Cookstown monthly, for the re- 
covery of debts under £5 ; and its jurisdiction extends 
over such lands in the parishes of Lissan, Derryloran, 
Kildress, Arboe, Desertcreight, Ardtrea, Cionoe, Tam- 
laght, Ballinderry, and Donaghendrie, as are held under 
the see. 

The living is a rectory, in the diocese of Armagh, 
and in the patronage of the Provost and Fellows of 
Trinity College, Dublin : the tithes amount to £738. 9. 3f. 
The church, an elegant edifice in the later English style, 
was erected in 1830, near the site of the ancient church ; 
the principal entrance is a composition of very elegant 
design, and, from its elevated site, the church forms a 
very pleasing object in the landscape. The glebe- 
house is a large and handsome residence, built of hewn 
freestone by the late Dr. Elrington, then rector of the 
parish and subsequently Bishop of Ferns, aided by a 
gift of £100, and a loan of £1050, from the late Board 
of First Fruits : the glebe comprises 115^ acres. The 
district church, called Woods-chapel, is situated at a 
distance of 10 miles from the mother church : the liv- 
ing is a perpetual curacy, in the patronage of the Rec- 
tor. In the R. C. divisions the parish is the head of 
a union or district, called Moneymore, which comprises 
this parish and part of that of Desertlyn, and contains 
three chapels, one at Moneymore, one at Ballvnenagh, 
and a third at Derrygaroe. There are two places of 
worship for Presbyterians at Moneymore, one for those 
in connection with the Synod of Ulster, of the first class, 
built by the Drapers’ Company at an expense of £4000 ; 
and one for those in connection with the Seceding Synod, 
of the second class, built by subscription on a site given 
by the Drapers’ Company, who also contributed £250 
towards its erection. There are three schools aided by 
the Drapers’ Company, and one at Ballymulderg, the 
whole affording instruction to about 170 boys and 170 
girls ; and there are also two pay schools. An an- 
cient urn very elaborately ornamented was found in a 
kistvaen, on opening a tumulus in the townland of 
59 


Knockarron, in 1800, and is now in the possession of 
John Lindesay, Esq., of Loughry. — See Moneymore, 
and Woods-chapel. 

ARKLOW, a sea-port, market and post-town, and 
a parish, in the barony of Aeklow, county of Wick- 
low, and province of Leinster, 12 miles (S.) from 
Wicklow, and 40 miles (S. by E.) from Dublin ; con- 
taining 6309 inhabitants, of which number, 4383 are 
in the town. This place, formerly called Arclogh and 
Alercomshed, appears to have been occupied as a fishing 
station from time immemorial. It was included in 
one of those grants of territory for which Hen. II., in 
1172, caused service to be done at Wexford ; and by 
an original charter, preserved among the rolls of Kil- 
kenny Castle, it appears that John, Lord of Ireland, 
granted and confirmed the castle and town of Arclogh, 
with all their appurtenances, to Theobald Fitzwalter, 
hereditary lord-butler of Ireland. Fitzwalter founded 
here a monastery, which he dedicated to the Blessed 
Virgin, for monks of the Cistertian order, whom he 
brought from the abbey of Furness, in Lancashire. The 
barony, which with the chief butlery always descended 
to the next heir male, was inherited by Theobald, the 
third of that name, who died here on the 26th of Sep- 
tember, 1285, and was buried in the abbey church, 
under a tomb ornamented with his effigy. In 1281, a 
battle was fought near this place between the English 
and the Irish, in which the latter were totally defeated 
by Stephen de Fulborne, Bishop of Waterford and Lord 
Justiciary of Ireland; and in 1316, the O’Tooles and 
O’Byrnes, who had risen in arms and burnt Arklow, 
Bray, and Newcastle, with all the neighbouring villages, 
were defeated on the 16th of April by Edward le Bote- 
ler. In 1331, the castle was taken by the O’Tooles, 
but was retaken by Lord de Birmingham ; and in the 
year following it was again taken by the Irish, who 
were finally repulsed by Sir Anthony Lucy, who repair- 
ed the fortifications and strengthened the garrison. In 
1641, the castle was surprised by a party of insurgents, 
and the garrison put to the sword ; and being after- 
wards held for the royalists, it was, in 1649, assaulted 
by Oliver Cromwell in his victorious march southward, 
and on its surrender was totally demolished. During 
the disturbances of 1798, a battle was fought near Ark- 
low bridge, between the king’s troops, under the com- 
mand of Gen. Needham, and the insurgents, in which the 
latter were defeated and their leader shot ; among the 
slain on the side of the royal forces was Thomas Grogan 
Knox, Esq., of Castletown, cornet of the 5th dragoon 
guards, to whose memory a neat marble tablet has been 
placed in the church. 

The town is situated on the acclivity of a hill ex- 
tending along the right bank of the river Ovoca, and on 
the mail coach road from Dublin to Wexford. The 
Ovoca, after winding through the beautiful and roman- 
tic vale to which it gives name, passes under a bridge of 
nineteen arches at this place, and discharges itself into 
the sea, about 500 yards below the town. It is divided 
into the Upper and Lower Towns, which latter is called 
the “Fishery;” and in 1831 it contained 702 houses. 
The houses in the Upper Town, which consists of one 
principal street, are neatly built ; those in the Lower 
Town, which is chiefly inhabited by fishermen, are mostly 
thatched cabins. The inhabitants are amply supplied 
with water from numerous excellent springs, but no 

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works have been established to convey it to their houses ; 
and the only improvement that has recently taken place 
is the Macadamising of the principal street, and the 
laying down of foot pavements. On the site of the ancient 
castle are barracks for two companies of infantry. The 
principal trade is the fishery, which was formerly very 
lucrative, having two seasons in the year ; one in May, 
which has lately ceased ; and the other in November, 
which, though still continued, has become so unproduc- 
tive as scarcely to remunerate the persons employed in 
it. The fishery, in 1835, employed about 200 boats in 
the herring fishery and in dredging for oysters, of 
the latter of which great quantities are taken off the 
coast in some years, and sent to different parts of 
Ireland and to England. Formerly much of the copper 
ore from the Wicklow mines, which are situated nearly 
midway between this town and Rathdrum, was shipped 
from this port during the summer season ; and some 
trade is still carried on in the importation of coal. The 
want of a safe harbour in which the fishermen might 
shelter during bad weather, which for two or three 
seasons has prevailed on this coast, has been severely 
felt, there being no port between Kingstown and Water- 
ford into which they can run for shelter, and many 
lives are annually lost. The harbour is accessible 
only for small boats, as the passage is sinuous and 
subject to shifting sands. The market is on Thurs- 
day ; and fairs are held on Jan. 11th, March 22nd, 
April 19th, May 14th, June 28th, Aug. 9th, Sep. 25th, 
and Nov. 15th, chiefly for the sale of woollen cloth, cat- 
tle, sheep, and pigs. A constabulary police station 
has been established here ; and on the north side of 
the river, in the parish of Kilbride, is a coast-guard sta- 
tion belonging to the Gorey district. The petty sessions 
for the barony of Arklow are held every Thursday, in a 
neat court-house rented by the magistrates for that pur- 
pose, and of which the lower part is appropriated to 
the use of the savings’ bank. 

The parish, which is situated at the south-eastern 
extremity of the county, and intersected by the river 
Ovoca, comprises 5851 statute acres, as applotted under 
the tithe act. The surface is broken, abrupt, and moun- 
tainous ; the soil towards the coast, and in the inlets 
between the hills is rich, and abounds with excellent 
marl, which, together with lime, is used for manure. 
The system of agriculture has been greatly improved, 
under the auspices of the Agricultural Society ; the drill 
husbandry is practised where the soil will admit of it, 
and green crops have been partially introduced. The 
mountain of Croghan Kinshela, towards the close of 
the last century, became an object of intense interest from 
its supposed production of native gold ; a peasant fishing 
in one of the streams which descended from it disco- 
vered, at different times, small particles of gold, which 
for about 12 years he continued to sell privately to a 
goldsmith, till, in September 1796, the discovery became 
known, and thousands of persons engaged in the search 
for this precious metal. Several masses of extraordinary 
size were found, one of which weighed nine, another 
eighteen, and a third twenty-two ounces ; and so great 
was the number of the peasantry allured to the spot by 
the hope of enriching themselves, that in the short 
space of six or seven weeks, during which the washing 
of the sands was continued, not less than 2666 ounces 
of pure gold were obtained, which were sold for £10,000. 

60 


After the people had continued their searches for a 
little more than six weeks. Government took possession 
of the mine, and stationed a party of the Kildare militia 
to prevent further encroachment ■, an act of parliament 
was passed for working it, and Messrs. Weaver, Mills, 
and King were appointed directors of the operations. 
Steam-works were established on several rivulets which 
descended from the mountain ; and from this time till 
May 1798, when the works were destroyed in the insur- 
rection of that disturbed period, the total quantity of 
gold found was 944 oz., 4 dwts., and 15 grs., which was 
sold for £3675. 8. 0. In 1801 the mining operations 
were resumed, and on the representation of the directors. 
Government was induced to extend the search upon a 
more systematic principle : the stream-works were con- 
tinued to the heads of the several streams, and the solid 
mass of the mountain was more minutely examined, by 
cutting trenches in every direction down to the firm 
rock. The veins already known, and such as were 
afterwards discovered by the process of trenching, were 
more extensively explored and their depth minutely as- 
certained, by means of a gallery, or level, driven into the 
mountain at right angles to the general range of their 
direction. The mineral substances thus obtained were 
subjected to a rigid chymical analysis, but in no instance 
was a single particle of gold discovered ; the result of 
these operations convinced Government that no gold 
existed as an inherent ingredient in any of the veins 
which traversed the mountain, and the works were con- 
sequently abandoned. 

The environs of Arklow are much admired for the 
beauty, richness, and variety of their scenery ; the 
banks of the Ovoca are embellished with handsome 
seats, and the sides of the vale with woods of luxuriant 
growth. Shelton Abbey, the seat of the Earl of Wicklow, 
though in the parish of Kilbride, forms a conspicuous 
and interesting feature in the scenery of this parish ■, 
it is beautifully situated on the north bank of the river, 
and at the base of a range of hills of gentle elevation, 
richly wooded with oak and birch. The mansion, which 
was remodelled some years since by the Messrs. Mor- 
rison, is a low quadrilateral edifice with two principal 
fronts, richly embellished with decorated pinnacles, and 
resembling an ecclesiastical structure of the 14th cen- 
tury, converted into a baronial residence at a subsequent 
period ; the entrance-hall is wainscoted with carved 
oak, and the ceiling delicately enriched with fan tracery, 
of which the pendants are gilt ; the great hall, gallery, 
and state apartments, are all in a style of corresponding 
richness and elegance ; the library contains an exceed- 
ingly valuable collection of works made by a learned 
member of the family ; and the cloisters are in a style 
of appropriate beauty. The demesne, which comprises 
more than 1000 statute acres, is ornamented with some 
of the most stately beech and chestnut trees in the 
island ; and the whole forms one of the most delightful 
retreats in this romantic part of the country. During 
the temporary sequestration of the family estates at the 
time of the Revolution, Jas. II., on his flight to Water- 
ford, after the battle of the Boyne, was entertained at 
Shelton Abbey by the party then in possession ; and 
there is still a road within the demesne which is called 
King James’s road. Glenart, a castellated mansion 
belonging to the Earl of Carysfort, and at present oc- 
cupied by his lordship’s brother, the Hon. Capt. Proby, 


ARK 


ARM 


R. N., is situated on the south bank of the Ovoca, nearly 
opposite to the abbey, on a gentle slope in a veiy retired 
spot, commanding from the high grounds some fine 
views of the sea and of the richly wooded hills of Shel- 
ton Abbey and Bally-Arthur. Ballyrane, the seat of 
the Rev. T. Quin, is a handsome modern house, plea- 
santly situated within a mile of the town, of which it 
commands a fine view, and also of the sea. Lambarton, 
the seat of Capt. Hore, R.N., is beautifully situated in 
the midst of fine plantations, and commands delightful 
views of the sea and the demesnes of Shelton and Bally- 
Arthur, terminating in the magnificent range of moun- 
tains in the neighbourhood of Lugna-quilla. Emma 
Vale, the seat of D. Wright, Esq., is situated about a mile 
to the south-west of the town; the house has been 
enlarged and improved, the plantations are tastefully 
laid out, and the prospect comprehends a fine view of 
Glenart woods and mansion, Bally Arthur and the dis- 
tant part of Shelton demesne, and an extensive range 
of mountain scenery. Elton, about half a mile to the 
south, is a commodious house occupying a healthful 
situation. 

The living is a vicarage, in the diocese of Dublin 
and Glendalough, to which the greater portion of the 
rectory, which formerly belonged to the abbey of 
Woney, was united in the year 1673, subject to a re- 
served rent of £3. 12. ; and to which also the vicarage 
of Enorily and the perpetual curacies of Killahurler, 
Kilbride, and Templemichael, and part of the rectory of 
Kilgorman, were united from time immemorial till 1833, 
when they were, with the exception of Killahurler and 
Kilgorman, separated from it by act of council and 
made a distinct benefice ; leaving only Arklow and Kil- 
lahurler, with part of Kilgorman, to constitute the 
vicarial union, which is in the patronage of the Arch- 
bishop. The other portion of the rectory is impropriate 
in W. Johnson and D. Howell, Esqrs. The tithes 
amount to £230. 15. 4f., of which £46. 8. 7§. is payable 
to the lay impropriators, and the remainder to the in- 
cumbent ; and the gross tithes of the union payable to 
the incumbent amount to £250. 8. 8. The church, 
situated in the principal street of the town, was erected 
in 1823, at an expense of £2000, of which sum £1100 
was granted on loan by the late Board of First Fruits ; 
and in 1829 it was enlarged, at an expense of £1200, 
granted by the same Board, in consideration of which 
grant the additional sittings are free. It was built after 
a design by Mr. Johnson, and is in the later English 
style, with a square tower. A grant of £249 has been 
lately made by the Ecclesiastical Commissioners for its 
repair. In the R. C. divisions this parish is the head of 
a union or district, which comprehends the parishes of 
Arklow, Killahurler, and Ballintemple, in the county of 
Wicklow, and of Inch and Kilgorman in the county of 
Wexford. The chapel is a handsome modern structure, 
situated opposite to the remains of the ancient castle ; 
and there are chapels also at Johnstown, Castletown, 
and Ballycowgue, to all of which schools are attached. 
There is a small place of worship for Wesleyan Metho- 
dists. About 320 children are instructed in the several 
public schools, of which a boys’ school is supported by 
the Trustees of Erasmus Smith’s charity, two for girls 
are aided by Mrs. Proby, and an infants’ school is main- 
tained by voluntary contributions ; and there are six 
private schools, in which are about 240 children, and two 
61 


Sunrtay schools. A fever hospital and dispensary was 
erected in 1821, at an expense of £550, of which sum 
£400 was presented by the grand jury, and the re- 
mainder was raised by subscription : it is a neat square 
building, in a healthy situation just without the town, 
and is supported equally by grand jury presentments and 
private subscriptions. The only relic of the ancient 
castle is a small fragment mantled with ivy, situated on 
an eminence above the river and adjoining the barracks. 
The cemetery of the Cistertian abbey is still used as a 
burying-place by the Roman Catholics. Arklow gives 
the title of baron in the peerage of Ireland, by creation, 
to his Royal Highness the Duke of Sussex, and by 
tenure to the noble family of Butler, Marquesses of Or- 
monde, the representative of which family is hereditary 
chief butler of Ireland, under a grant by Hen. II., in 
1177, to Theobald Walter, who accompanied that 
monarch in his first expedition into Ireland in 
1172. 

ARLES, a village, in that part of the parish of Kil- 
leban which is in the barony of Slieumargue, Queen’s 
county, and province of Leinster, 5 miles (N. W. by N.) 
from Carlow ; containing 205 inhabitants. This place, 
which contains about 40 houses, is situated on the road 
from Carlow to Maryborough. The manufacture of tiles 
of excellent quality for roofing and flooring, and which 
were sent to Dublin and other places, where they were 
in much request, formerly prevailed here, but has been 
in a great degree superseded by the use of slates, and is 
now nearly extinct ; the manufacture of yarn and linen 
is carried on to a small extent. There is a Roman Ca- 
tholic chapel in the village, belonging to the union or 
district of Killeban ; and in the chapel-yard is a neat 
mausoleum belonging to the Grace family : it is 21 feet 
in length and 16 feet in breadth, with a gabled roof, 
terminating at each corner with crocketed pinnacles : it 
was erected in 181S, and the prevailing character is that 
of the later English style. Near the chapel a building 
has been lately erected for a school, now in connection 
with the National Board of Education. 

ARMAGH (County of), an inland county, in the 
province of Ulster, bounded on the north by Lough 
Neagh, on the east by the county of Down, on the 
south-east by that of Louth, on the south-west by 
Monaghan, and on the west and north-west by Tyrone : 
it is situated between 54° 3' and 54° 31' (N. Lat), and 
between 6° 14' and 6° 45' (W. Lon.) ; and comprises, 
according to the Ordnance survey, 328,076 statute acres, 
of which 267,317 acres are tillable, 17,941 are covered 
with water, and the remainder is mountain and bog. 
The population, in 1821, was 197,427 ; and, in 1831, 
220,134. 

This tract is supposed to have been part of that 
named by Ptolemy as the territories of the Vinderii and 
Voluntii : it afterwards formed part of the district called 
Orgial, which also comprised the counties of Louth and 
Monaghan. The formation of this part of Ireland into 
a separate dominion is said to have taken place so early 
as the year 332, after the battle of Achaiglileth-derg, in 
Fermoy, in which, as recorded by Tigernach, abbot of 
Clonmacnois, who died in 1068, Fergus Feagha, son of 
Froechair the Brave, the. last of the Ultonian kings who 
resided in Eamania, was killed by the three Collas, who 
then expelled the Ultonians from that part of the pro- 
vince to the south of Lough Neagh, and formed it into 


ARM 


ARM 


an independent state, to which they gave the name of 
Orgial, afterwards corrupted into Oriel or Uriel, names 
by which it was distinguished to the beginning of the 
seventeenth century. 

The county was made shire ground, under its pre- 
sent name, in 1586, by the lord-deputy, Sir John Per- 
rott, who, not relying with confidence on the vigilance 
and care of Henry O’Nial and Sir Henry Bagnell, to 
whom the government of Ulster had been entrusted, 
projected the division of the greater part of that pro- 
vince into seven counties, of which Armagh was one, 
and took its name from the chief town in it. For each 
of these counties he appointed sheriffs, commissioners 
of the peace, coroners, and other officers. Previously 
to this arrangement, the chief part of the property of 
the county had centred in the families of the O’Nials, 
the Mac Cahans, and the O’Hanlons. At the commence- 
ment of the seventeenth century, it was principally 
vested in those of Mac Henry, Acheson, O’Nial, Brown- 
low, and O’Hanlon, exclusively of the great territories 
settled on Moharty, which the Mac Cahans had forfeited 
in rebellion, and a large tract of country called Oirther, 
afterwards Orior, a district in the southern part, which 
also escheated to the crown by rebellion of a branch of 
the O’Hanlons. According to a project for planting, by 
Jas. I., the whole of the arable and pasture land, 
amounting to 77,580 acres, was to be allotted in 61 
proportions of three classes of 2000, 1500, and 1000 
acres each, among the English and Scottish undertakers, 
the servitors, and the Irish natives. A portion was also 
assigned to the primate, another for glebes for the in- 
cumbents (of whom there was to be one for each pro- 
portion), another for the four corporate towns of Armagh, 
Mountnorris, Charlemont, and Tanderagee, and a fourth 
for a free grammar school. The native Irish were to be 
distributed among a few of the several proportions, with 
the exception of the swordsmen, who were to migrate 
into waste lands in Connaught and Munster. The 
project, which was but partially effected, was not acted 
upon until 1609, when a royal commission was issued 
to inquire into the king’s title to the escheated and 
forfeited lands in Ulster, with a view to the plantation 
there. Inquisitions were consequently held, the return 
of which for Armagh, made in August of the same year, 
states that the county was then divided into the 
five baronies of Armagh e, Toaghriny, Orier, Fuighes, 
and Onylane or O’Nealane, and enumerates with great 
particularity the names and tenures of the proprietors. 
In 1618, a second commission was issued to Captain 
Pynnar and others, to ascertain how far the settlers 
located there in the intervening period had fulfilled the 
terms of their agreement. It is somewhat remarkable 
that, although the inquisition names five baronies, three 
only are noticed in Pynnar’s survey ; those of Armaghe 
and Toaghriny being omitted, probably because they 
contained no forfeited property. The number of the 
proportions specified in the survey are but 22, eleven of 
which, situated in O’Neylan, were in the hands of English 
undertakers ; five in the Fuighes, in those of Scottish 
undertakers ; and seven in Orier were allotted to servi- 
tors and natives. The number of tenants and men 
capable of bearing arms in the two first proportions 
amounted to 319 of the former, and 679 of the latter ; 
the number in Orier is not given. 

The county is partly in the diocese of Dromore, 
62 


but chiefly in that of Armagh. For civil purposes it 
is now divided into the baronies of Armagh, Turaney, 
O’Neilland East, O’Neilland West, Upper Fews, Lower 
Fews, Upper Orior, and Lower Orior. It contains the 
city and borough of Armagh •, part of the borough, sea- 
port, and market-town of Newry ; the market and post- 
towns of Lurgan, Portadown, Tanderagee, Market-hill, 
and Newtown-Hamilton ; the disfranchised borough of 
Charlemont ; the post-towns of Richhill, Ready, Black - 
watertown, Loughgall, Tynan, Forkhill, and Flurry- 
Bridge j and the market-towns of Middleton and Cross- 
meglan, which, with Killylea, have each a penny post. 
Prior to the Union it sent six members to the Irish 
parliament, two for the county at large, and two for each 
of the boroughs 5 but at present its representation con- 
sists of three members in the Imperial parliament, two 
for the county at large, and one for the borough of Ar- 
magh. The election takes place at Armagh ; and the 
constituency, as registered in Oct. 1836, consisted of 
384 £50, 324 £20, and 2384 £10 freeholders ; 5 £50 
and 19 £20 rent-chargers; and 122 £20 and 573 £10 
leaseholders ; making a total of 3S11. It is in the 
north-east circuit : the assizes are held at Armagh, 
where the county court-house and gaol are situated ; and 
quarter sessions at Armagh, Lurgan, Market hill, and 
Ballybott, of which the three last have each a court- 
house and bridewell. The number of persons charged 
with criminal offences and committed to the county gaol, 
in 1835, was 385, and of civil bill commitments. 111. 
The local government is vested in a lieutenant, vice- 
lieutenant, 13 deputy-lieutenants, and 63 other magis- 
trates ; besides whom there are the usual county officers, 
including three coroners. There are 17 constabulary 
police stations, having in the whole a force of a stipen- 
diary magistrate, sub-inspector, paymaster, 5 chief and 
19 subordinate constables, and 99 men, with 5 horses, 
maintained equally by Grand Jury presentments and by 
Government. The amount of Grand Jury presentments, 
for 1835, was £27,259. 2. 3\., of which £4704. 0. 3. 
was for the public roads of the county at large ; 
£9974. 1. for the public roads, being the baronial 
charge j £1475. 11. 4. in repayment of loans advanced 
by Government ; £2279. 10. 7. for the police, and 
£8825. 18. 6. for public establishments, officers’ salaries, 
buildings, & c. The public charitable institutions are a 
district lunatic asylum, and the county infirmary and 
fever hospital at Armagh 5 and dispensaries at Cross- 
meglin, Forkhill, Market-hill, Jonesborough, Ready, 
Blackwatertown, Seagoe, Loughgall, Richhill, Lurgan, 
Newtown-Hamilton, Poyntz-Pass, Tynan, Portadown, 
Tanderagee and Ballybott, supported by equal Grand 
Jury presentments and private subscriptions. There 
are also dispensaries at Tanderagee, Portadown, and 
Tullyhappy, built and supported by the Earl and 
Countess of Mandeville ; and a fever hospital at Mid- 
dleton, built and supported by the Trustees of Bishop 
Sterne’s munificent bequest. In the military arrange- 
ments this county is within the northern district, of 
which Armagh is the head-quarters, where there are 
an ordnance-depot and an infantry barrack constructed 
to accommodate 12 officers, 174 men, and 5 horses : 
at Charlemont there is a fort, with an artillery barrack 
for 5 officers, 151 men, and 79 horses, to which is at- 
tached an hospital for 22 patients. 

The northern verge of the county, near Lough Neagh, 


A R M 


ARM 


the north-western adjoining Tyrone, and the neighbour- 
hoods of Armagh, Market-hill, and Tanderagee, are 
level ; the remainder is hilly, rising in the southern 
parts into mountains of considerable elevation. The 
highest is Slieve Gullion, rising, according to the 
Ordnance survey, 1893 feet above the level of the sea ; 
it is about seven miles from the southern border, and 
is considered to be the loftiest point of land in Ulster, 
except Slieve Donard, in the neighbouring county of 
Down. Slieve Gullion sinks on the east into the Fathom 
Hills, which skirt the Newry water. One of the finest 
and most extensive prospects in Ulster is obtained from 
its summit, which commands the bay of Dundalk ; and 
the bold and picturesque features of mountain scenery 
are confined to this immediate vicinity, including the 
Doobrin mountains and the neighbourhood of Forkhill. 
Westward to the Fews the country exhibits a chain of 
abrupt hills, the greater part of which can never be 
reduced to a state of profitable cultivation. Further 
west are the Fews mountains, a subordinate range, 
lying in a direction from south-east to north-west. 
The fertility of the more level districts towards the 
eastern, northern, and north-western confines is very 
remarkable, especially in the views from Richhill, the 
numerous demesnes being sufficiently wooded to orna- 
ment the whole country, and the surface generally varied 
by pleasing undulations. From the shores of Lough 
Neagh, however, extend considerable tracts of low, 
marshy, and boggy land. The other lakes are few and 
small : that of Camlough, romantically situated on the 
northern verge of Slieve Gullion, is the largest. Lough 
Clay, in the western part of the county, which gives 
rise to one of the branches of the Callen river, is the 
next in size ; but neither of them would be noticed for 
extent or beauty if situated in some of the neighbouring 
counties. A chain of small lakes occupying the south- 
western boundary of the county is valuable from the 
supply of water afforded by them to the mills in their 
neighbourhood. Coney Island, near the southern shore 
of Lough Neagh, and between the mouths of the Black- 
water and Bann rivers, is the only island in the county ; 
it is uninhabited. The climate is more genial than most 
of the other counties in Ulster, as is evinced by the 
greater forwardness of the harvests : this advantage has 
been attributed to the nature of the soil and subsoil, 
the gentle undulation of the surface, the absence of 
moor or marshy land, and the protection by mountains 
from the cooling breezes of the sea. 

The soil is generally very fertile, especially in the 
northern part, the surface of which is a rich brown loam, 
tolerably deep, on a substratum of clay or gravel. There 
is an abundance of limestone in the vicinity of Armagh, 
and in Kilmore and other places; and there are quarries 
near Lough Neagh, but the stone lies so deep, and they 
are subject to such a flow of water, as to be of little 
practical use. Towards Charlemont there is much bog, 
which yields red ashes, and is easily reclaimable ; the 
substratum of this is a rich limestone. The eastern part 
of the county consists of a light friable soil. In the 
south the country is rocky and barren : huge rocks of 
granite are found on the surface promiscuously mixed 
with blocks of limestone, as if thrown together by some 
convulsion of nature. All the limestone districts make 
good tillage and meadow ground : the natural meadow 
tound on the banks of the rivers, and formed of a very 
63 


deep brown loam, yields great crops without manure. 
The hilly district is general^ of a deep retentive soil on 
a gravelly but not calcareous substratum : a decayed 
freestone gravel, highly tinged with ferruginous ore, is 
partially found here: the subsoil is sometimes clay- slate. 
In these districts heath is peculiarly vigorous, except 
where the judicious application of lime has compelled it 
to give place to a more productive vegetation. Except 
near Newtown-Hamilton, there is but little bog among 
these hills. The valleys which lie between them have a 
rich and loamy soil, which yields much grain, and does 
not abound in aquatic plants, although the poa Jluitans 
grows in them in great luxuriance. The general inequa- 
lity of surface which pervades the county affords great 
facilities for drainage. 

In consequence of the dense population the farms 
are generally very small, and much land is tilled with 
the spade. Wheat is a very general crop in the baronies 
of Armagh, the O’Neillands, and Turaney ; the main 
crops in the other baronies are oats, flax, and potatoes. 
In the smaller farms potatoes constitute the first and 
second crops, sometimes even a third ; and afterwards 
flax occupies a portion of the potatoe plot, and barley 
the remainder, if the soil be dry and fine, but if other- 
wise, crops of oats are taken in succession. The treat- 
ment of the wheat crop consists of one harrowing and 
one ploughing, to level the potatoe furrows ; if two crops 
of potatoes have preceded, a small quantity of ashes is 
scattered over the surface. The seed most in use is the 
red Lammas wheat, and the quantity sown is about 
three bushels to the acre. Potatoe oats are commonly 
sown on the best lands ; black oats, and sometimes 
white oats, on land manured with lime, in the moun- 
tainous districts ; this latter species, when sown on 
mountain land not previously manured and drained, 
will degenerate into a black grain in two or three sea- 
sons. Flax is invariably sown on potatoe ground, 
the plot being tilled with the spade, but not rolled : 
Dutch seed is sown on heavy soils, American on light 
soils. The seed is not saved, and therefore the plant is 
pulled just before it changes colour, from an opinion 
that when thus prepared it makes finer yarn. More 
seed was sown in 1835 than was ever before known t in 
consequence of the increased demand from the spinners 
in England and Ireland. The pasturage is abundant 
and nutritious ; and though there are no extensive 
dairies, cows are kept by all the small farmers of the 
rich northern districts, whence much butter is sent to 
the Belfast market • a considerable quantity of butter, 
generally made up in small firkins, is also sent to 
Armagh and Newry for exportation. The state of agri- 
culture in modern times has very much improved ; gen- 
tlemen and large farmers have introduced all the im- 
proved agricultural implements, with the practice of 
drainage, irrigation, and rotation crops. Mangel-wurzel, 
turnips, clover, and all other green crops are now gene- 
rally cultivated even upon the smallest farms, particu- 
larly around Market-hill, Tanderagee, Banagher, and 
other places, where the greatest encouragement is given 
by Lords Gosford, Mandeville, and Charlemont, and by 
Col. Close and other resident gentlemen, who have 
established farming societies and expend large sums 
annually in premiums. The Durham, Hereford, North 
Devon, Leicester, Ayrshire, and other breeds of cattle 
have been introduced, and by judicious crosses a very 


A R M 


ARM 


superior stock has been raised : some farmers on good 
soils have also brought over the Alderney breed, which 
thrives remarkably well ; but in some of the mountain 
districts the old long-horned breed of the country is 
still preferred, and a cross between it and the old Lei- 
cester appeals to suit both soil and climate, as they 
grow to a large size, give great quantities of milk, and 
fatten rapidly. The breed of sheep and horses has also 
been greatly improved; the former kind of stock is 
chiefly in the possession of gentlemen and large farmers. 
The horses used in farming are mostly a light active 
kind ; but the best hunters and saddle horses are brought 
hither by dealers from other counties. Numerous herds 
of young cattle are reared on the Fews mountains, which 
are the only part of the county where grass farms are 
extensive. Goats are numerous, and are allowed to 
graze at liberty in the mountainous districts. Hogs are 
fattened in great numbers ; the gentry prefer the Chinese 
breed, tut the Berkshire is preferred by the country 
people, as being equally prolific and mere profitable. 
Lime and dung are the general manures ; the former is 
usually mixed with clay for the culture of potatoes, and 
is also applied to grass lands as a surface dressing pre- 
paratory to tillage, sometimes even three years before 
the sod is broken, as being deemed more effective than 
manuring the broken ground ; the average quantity of 
lime laid on an acre is from 30 to 40 barrels. Thorn 
hedges well kept are the common fences in the richer 
districts, and with scattered timber trees and numerous 
orchards give them a rich woody appearance. In the 
mountainous district, too, the same fences are rising in 
every direction. Many parts of the county, particularly in 
the barony of Armagh, are decorated with both old and 
new timber : and in comparison with neighbouring dis- 
tricts it has a well-wooded appearance; but there are no 
extensive woodlands, although there is, near Armagh, 
a large public nursery of forest trees. 

The geological features of the county are various 
and interesting. The mountain of Slieve Gullion, in its 
south-eastern extremity, is an offset of the granite dis- 
trict of Down, and is remarkable for the varieties of 
which it is composed. It is in the form of a truncated 
cone, and presents on some sides mural precipices seve- 
ral hundred feet in height, from which it acquires an 
appearance of greater elevation than it really attains : 
the summit is flat, and on it is a lake of considerable 
extent. The granite of this mountain, particularly that 
procured near the summit, is frequently used for mill- 
stones, being extremely hard and fine-grained, and com- 
posed of quartz, feldspar, mica, and hornblende. This, 
indeed, is here the common composition of this primitive 
rock, the feldspar being grey and the mica black. Some- 
times the hornblende is absent, in which case the rock is 
found to be a pure granite ; and at others it graduates 
into a beautiful sienite composed of flesh-coloured 
feldspar and hornblende. Flesh-coloured veins of quartz 
are also found to variegate the granite, in a beautiful 
manner, in several places. On the south, towards 
Jonesborough, the sienite succeeds to the granite, and 
afterwards passes into porphyry, which is succeeded by 
silicious slate. The Newry mountains and the Fathom 
bills are composed of granite. Around Camlough mica 
slate is found in vast beds. Westward the granite 
district of Slieve Gullion extends to the hill above 
Larkin-mill, on the western declivity of which the 
64 


granite basis is covered by almost vertical strata, com- 
posed first of an aggregation of quartz and mica with 
steatite, which in the distance of about a quarter of a 
mile is occasionally interstratified with greenish grey 
clay-slate, of which the strata still further west are 
wholly composed. Several slate quarries have here been 
opened and partially worked, but none with spirit or 
skill : the principal are at Dorcy, Newtown-Hamilton, 
Cregan-Duff, and in the vicinity of Crossmeglan. Fur- 
ther distant this becomes grauwacke slate, by being in- 
terstratified with grauwacke. In the neighbourhood of 
Market-hill the strata comprise also hornblende slate 
and greenstone porphyry. Sandstone is also connected 
with this district ; there is a quarry of remarkably fine 
freestone at Grange ; and on the surface of the southern 
confines is seen the intermixture of grit and limestone 
rocks above noticed. Trap rocks, forming a hard stone 
varying in hue between dark green and blue, here called 
whin, are found in various places in huge blocks and 
boulders, or long narrow stones. The substratum of 
the eastern portion of the county varies between a 
silicious schistus and an argillaceous deposit, forming a 
grauwacke district, which extends across to the western 
confines of the county. The west and middle of the 
county is limestone, which is generally white, except in 
the vicinity of the city of Armagh, where it assumes 
a red tinge, exhibiting that colour more distinctly as it 
approaches the town, improving also in quality, and 
increasing in the varieties of its shades. The minerals, 
as connected with metallurgy, are so few as scarcely to 
deserve notice, lead only excepted, a mine of which was 
worked in the vicinity of Keady, on a property held by 
the Earl of Farnham, under Dublin College ; but after 
much expenditure the operations w'ere discontinued in 
consequence of the loss incurred, which, however, has 
been attributed to the want of skilful or honest super- 
intendence. Lead ore has also been found near Mar- 
ket-hill, in several places near Newtown-Hamilton, on 
the demesne of Ballymoyer, near Hockley, in Slieve 
Cross, near Forkhill, and in the parish of Middleton. 
Some indications of iron, imperfect lead, regulus of 
manganese, and antimony, have been found in a few 
spots. The other mineral substances found here are 
potters’ clay and a variety of ochres. Various kinds of 
timber, particularly oak, pine, and yew, have been raised 
out of the bogs ; petrified wood is found on the shores 
of Lough Neagh ; and fern, spleenwort, and mosses 
have been discovered in the heart of slaty stones. 

The woollen trade flourished extensively in this 
county until interrupted by the legislative measures 
enacted by William III., and cloth of every description 
was manufactured. The linen manufacture is now pur- 
sued in all its branches, the finest goods being produced 
in the northern parts. The extent of the manufacture 
cannot easily be ascertained, because much comes in 
from the outskirts of the neighbouring counties, though 
the excess thus arising is most probably counterbalanced 
by the goods sent out of Armagh to the markets in the 
adjoining counties. At the commencement of the pre- 
sent century, the value of its produce annually was esti- 
mated at £ 300,000, and at present exceeds £500,000. 
Large capitals are employed by bleachers, who purchase 
linen and bleach it on their own account ; the principal 
district is on the river Callan, at Keady. Considerable 
sums are also employed in the purchase of yarn, which 


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is given out to the weaver to manufacture. Woollen 
goods are made solely for home consumption, and in 
only small quantities. Manufactories for the necessa- 
ries of life in greatest demand, such as candles, leather, 
soap, beer, &c. are numerous ; and there are mills for 
dressing flax and spinning linen yarn, and numerous 
large flour-mills. 

The two principal rivers are the Blackwater and the 
Bann, which chiefly flow along the north-eastern and 
north-western boundaries of the county, the former dis- 
charging itself into the western side of Lough Neagh, 
and the latter into the southern part of the same lake, 
at Bann-foot ferry. The Newry water, after flowing 
through a narrow valley between the counties of Down 
and Armagh, empties itself into the bay of Carlingford, 
below Newry. The Callan joins the Blackwater below 
Charlemont : the Cusheir falls into the Bann at its junc- 
tion with the Newry canal ; and the Camlough, flowing 
from the lake of the same name, discharges itself into 
the Newry water. This last named river, during its 
short course of five miles, supplies numerous bleach- 
works, and corn, flour, and flax mills : its falls are so 
rapid that the tail race of the higher mill forms the head 
water of the next lower. The Newtown-Hamilton river 
is joined by the Tara, and flows into Dundalk bay, into 
which also the Flurry or Fleury, and the Fane, empty 
themselves. The total number of main and branch 
streams is eighteen, and the combined lengths of all are 
165 miles. The mouths of those which flow into Lough 
Neagh have a fine kind of salmon trout, frequently 30lb. 
in weight : the common trout is abundant and large, as 
are also pike, eels, bream, and roach. An inland navi- 
gation along the border of the counties of Armagh and 
Down, from Newry to Lough Neagh, by the aid of the 
Bann and the Newry water, was the first line of canal 
executed in Ireland. Commencing at the tideway at 
Fathom, it proceeds to Newry, and admits vessels draw- 
ing nine or ten feet of water, having at each end a sea 
lock. From Newry to the point where the Bann is 
navigable, a distance of fifteen miles, is a canal for 
barges of from 40 to 60 tons, chiefly fed from Lough 
Brickland and Lough Shark, in the county of Down. 
The river Bann, from its junction with the canal to 
Lough Neagh, a distance of eleven miles and a half, 
completes the navigation, opening a communication 
with Belfast by the Lagan navigation, and with the 
Tyrone collieries by the Coal Island or Blackwater 
navigation. The chief trade on this canal arises from 
the import of bleaching materials, flax-seed, iron, tim- 
ber, coal, and foreign produce from Newry ; and from 
the export of agricultural produce, yarn, linen, fire- 
bricks, pottery, &c. The canal from Lough Erne to 
Lough Neagh, now in progress, enters this county near 
Tynan, and passes by Caledon, Blackwatertown, and 
Charlemont to its junction with the river Blackwater 
above Yerner’s bridge, and finally with Lough Neagh. 
A line of railway from Dublin to Armagh, and thence to 
Belfast, and another from Armagh to Coleraine, have 
been projected. The roads are generally well laid out, 
and many of them of late have been much improved. 

Among the relics of antiquity are the remains of the 
fortress of Eamania, near Armagh, once the royal seat 
of the kings of Ulster. The Danes’ Cast is an extensive 
line of fortification in the south-eastern part of the county, 
and stretching into the county of Down. The tumulus 
Von. I.— 65 


said to mark the burial-place of “ Nial of the hundred 
battles” is still visible on the banks of the Callan. The 
Yicar’s Cairn, or Cairn-na-Managhan, is situated near 
the city of Armagh. Cairn Bann is in Orior barony, 
near Newry. A tumulus in Killevy parish contains an 
artificial cavern. Two ancient brazen weapons were 
found in a bog near Carrick, where a battle is said to 
have been fought in 941. Spears, battle-axes, skeyns, 
swords, the golden torques, and collars, rings, amulets, 
and medals of gold, also various ornaments of silver, 
jet, amber, &c., have been found in different places, and 
are mostly preserved. Near Hamilton’s Bawn, in 1816, 
was found the entire skeleton of an elk, of which the 
head and horns were placed in the hall of the Infirmary 
at Armagh ; and in the same year also the body of a 
trooper was discovered in a bog near Charlemont, of 
which the dress and armour appeared to be of the reign 
of Elizabeth. The religious houses, besides those of the 
city of Armagh, of which any memorial has been handed 
down to us were Clonfeacle, Killevey or Kilsleve, Kilmore, 
Stradhailloyse, and Tahellen. The most remarkable 
military remains are Tyrone’s ditches, near Poyntz Pass, 
Navan fort, the castles of Criff-Keirn and Argonell, the 
castle in the pass of Moyrath, and Castle Roe. 

The peasantry are in possession of superior comforts 
in their habitations as well as in food and clothing, which 
cannot be attributed solely to the linen manufacture, as 
their neighbours of the same trade in the adjoining 
counties of Cavan and Monaghan are far behind them 
in this respect. The county possesses sufficient fuel for 
domestic consumption ; but coal is imported from Eng- 
land by the Newry canal, and from the county of Tyrone 
by the Blackwater. In no other county do the working 
classes consume so much animal food. The general 
diffusion of the population is neither the result of a pre- 
determined plan, nor of mere accident : it arises from 
the nature of the linen manufacture, which does not 
require those employed in it to be collected into over- 
grown cities, or congregated in crowded factories. En- 
gaged alternately at their loom and in their farm, they 
derive both health and recreation from the alternation. 
Green lawns, clear streams, pure springs, and the open 
atmosphere, are necessary for bleaching : hence it is 
that so many eminent bleachers reside in the country, 
and hence also the towns are small, and every hill 
and valley abounds with rural and comfortable habi- 
tations. 

In the mountainous districts are several springs 
slightly impregnated with sulphur and iron. The bor- 
ders of the bogs sometimes also exhibit ferruginous 
oozings, one of which in the Fews mountains is said to 
be useful in scrofulous complaints. The same effect was 
also formerly attributed to the waters of Lough Neagh, 
in the north-western limits of this county. Boate states, 
in addition to this, that the temperature of the sand at 
the bottom of the bay in which this sanative quality is 
perceived, alternates frequently between cold and warmth. 
A petrifying quality, such as that said to exist in some 
parts of Lough Neagh, has been discovered at Rose- 
brook, near Armagh, the mansion-house of which was 
built, in a great measure, of petrifactions raised from 
a small lake there. Petrified branches of hawthorn 
have been found near the city of Armagh ; and fossil 
remains of several animals have also been discovered in 
the limestone rocks in the same vicinity. Petrifactions 

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of the muscle, oyster, leech, together with dendrites, 
belemnites, and madreporites, are also found ; and in 
the mountain streams are pure quartz crystals, of which 
a valuable specimen, found near Ready, is in the pos- 
session of Dr. Colvan, of Armagh. 

ARMAGH, a city, market 
and post-town, and a pa- 
rish, partly in the barony of 
O’Neilland West, but 
chiefly in that of Armagh, 
county of Armagh (of which 
it is the capital), and province 
of Ulster, 31 miles (S. W. 
by W.) from Belfast, and 65f 
(N. N. W.) from Dublin j con- 
taining 1 0,5 1 8 inhabitants, of 
which number, 9470 are with- 
in the limits of the borough. 
The past importance of this ancient city is noticed 
by several early historians, who describe it as the chief 
city in Ireland. St. Fiech, who flourished in the sixth 
century, calls it the seat of empire ; Giraldus Cam- 
brensis, the metropolis 5 and, even so lately as 1580, 
Cluverius styles it the head of the kingdom, adding 
that Dublin was then next in rank to it. The original 
name was Druim-sailech, “ the hill of sallows,” which 
was afterwards changed to Ard-sailecli, “ the height of 
sallows,” and, still later, to Ard-macha, either from 
Eamhuin-macha, the regal residence of the kings of 
Ulster, which stood in its vicinity, or, as is more pro- 
bable, from its characteristic situation, Ard-macha, sig- 
nifying “ the high place or field.” 

Armagh is the head of the primacy of all Ireland, 
and is indebted for its origin, and ecclesiastical pre- 
eminence, to St. Patrick, by whom it was built, in 445. 
He also founded, near his own mansion, the monastery 
of St. Peter and St. Paul, for Canons Regular of the 
order of St. Augustine, which was rebuilt by Imar 
O’Hoedegan, and was the most distinguished of the 
religious establishments which existed here, having ma- 
terially contributed to the early importance of the place. 
This institution received numerous grants of endow- 
ment from the native kings, the last of whom, Roderick 
O’Connor, made a grant to its professors, in 1169 ; in- 
somuch that its landed possessions became very exten- 
sive, as appears from an inquisition taken on its sup- 
pression. Attached to it was a school or college, which 
long continued one of the most celebrated seminaries in 
Europe, and from which many learned men, not only of 
the Irish nation, but from all parts of Christendom, were 
despatched to diffuse knowledge throughout Europe. 
It is said that 7000 students were congregated in it, in 
the pursuit of learning, at one period ; and the annals 
of Ulster relate that, at a synod held by Gelasius at 
Claonadh, in 1162, it was decreed that no person should 
lecture publicly on theology, except such as had studied 
at Armagh. The city was destroyed by accidental con- 
flagrations in the year 67 0, 687, and 770, and also 
sustained considerable injury in the last-mentioned year 
by lightning. In subsequent periods it suffered severely 
and repeatedly from the Danes, a band of whom having 
landed at Newry, in 830, penetrated into the interior, 
and having stormed Armagh established their head- 
quarters in it for one month, and on being driven out, 
plundered and reduced it to ashes. In 836, Tergesius 
66 


or Thorgis, a Danish chieftain, equally celebrated for 
his courage and ferocity, after having laid waste Con- 
naught and a great part of Meath and Leinster, turned 
his arms against Ulster, which he devastated as far as 
Lough Neagh, and then advancing against Armagh, 
took it with little difficulty. His first act, after secur- 
ing possession of the place, was the expulsion of the 
Bishop Farannan, with all the students of the college, 
and the whole body of the religious, of whom the bishop 
and clergy sought refuge in Cashel. The numerous 
atrocities perpetrated by the invaders at length excited 
a combined effort against them. Nial the Third collected 
a large army, and after having defeated the Danes in a 
pitched battle in Tyrconnel, advanced upon Armagh, 
where, after a second successful engagement, and while 
preparing to force his victorious way into the city, the 
main position of the enemy in these parts, he was 
drowned in the river Callan, in an attempt to save the 
life of one of his followers. Malachy, his successor, 
obtained possession of the city, in which a public as- 
sembly of the princes and chieftains of Ireland was 
held, in 849, to devise the means of driving their fero- 
cious enemies out of the island. In their first efforts 
the Danes suffered several defeats ; but, having con- 
centrated their forces, and being supported by a rein- 
forcement of their countrymen, they again marched 
against Armagh, and took and plundered it about the 
year 852. 

The subsequent annals of Armagh, to the com- 
mencement of the 11th century, are little more than a 
reiteration of invasions and conquests by the Danes, 
and of successful but brief insurrections of the natives, 
in all of which this devoted city became in turn the 
prize of each contending army, and suffered all the 
horrors of savage warfare. In 1004, the celebrated 
Brian Boru entered Armagh, where he presented at the 
great altar of the church a collar of gold weighing 20 
ounces 3 and after his death at the battle of Clontarf, 
in 1014, his remains were deposited here, according to 
his dying request, with those of his son Murchard, who 
fell in the same battle. From this period to the English 
invasion the history of Armagh exhibits a series of 
calamitous incidents either by hostile inroads or ac- 
cidental fires. Its annals, however, evince no further 
relation to the events of that momentous period than 
the fact of a synod of the Irish clergy having been held 
in it by Gelasius, in 1170, in which that assembly came 
to the conclusion that the foreign invasion and internal 
distractions of the country were a visitation of divine 
retribution, as a punishment for the inhuman practice 
of purchasing Englishmen from pirates and selling them 
as slaves ; and it was therefore decreed that every 
English captive should be liberated. The city suffered 
severely from the calamities consequent on the invasion 
of Edward Bruce, in 1315, during which the entire see 
was lamentably wasted, and the archbishop was reduced 
to a state of extreme destitution, by the reiterated incur- 
sions of the Scottish army. 

During the local wars in Ulster, at the close of the 
15th and the beginning of the 16th centuries, this city 
was reduced to a state of great wretchedness ; and in 
the insurrection of Shane O’Nial or O’Neal, Lord 
Sussex, then lord-lieutenant, marched into Ulster to 
oppose him ; and having attacked him successfully at 
Dundalk, forced him to retire upon Armagh, which the 



ARM 


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ford-lieutenant entered in Oct. 1557, and wasted with 
fire and sword, sparing only the cathedral. In 1566, 
O’Nial, to revenge himself on Archbishop Loftus, who 
had transmitted information of his hostile intentions to 
Government, even before the Irish chieftains and the 
lord-deputy had preferred their complaint against him, 
resolved on a special expedition against this city, and 
on this occasion committed dreadful havoc, not even spar- 
ing the cathedral. In the year 1575, Sydney, the lord- 
deputy, marched into Ulster against Turlogh O’Nial, 
and fixed his head- quarters at Armagh, whither that 
chieftain, after some ineffectual negociations through 
the agency of his wife, proceeded, and having surren- 
dered himself, was permitted to return home without 
molestation. In the short but sanguinary war carried 
on between the English Government and Hugh O’Nial, 
Earl of Tyrone, towards the close of the reign of 
Elizabeth, the earl obtained possession of this place by 
stratagem ; but unfavourable events in other parts soon 
obliged him to evacuate the place. In the course of 
the same war, Armagh was again invested, in 1598, by 
this chieftain, who hoped to reduce it a second time by 
famine, but was baffled by the treachery of his illegiti- 
mate son, Con O’Nial, who, having deserted to the 
English, discovered a private road by which Sir Henry 
Bagnall, the British commander, was enabled to send in 
such a supply of men and provisions as completely 
frustrated the earl’s efforts. Soon after, the English 
were utterly defeated, and their commander killed, in a 
desperate attempt to force O’Nial’s intrenchments, the 
immediate consequence of which was their evacuation 
of Armagh, which, however, was retaken in 1601, by 
Lord Mountjoy, who made it one of his principal posi- 
tions in his Ulster expedition, and occupied it with a 
garrison of 900 men. In the early part of the 17th 
century, a colony of Scottish Presbyterians settled here, 
from which it is supposed Scotch-street, near the eastern 
entrance of the town, took its name. 

At the commencement of the war in 1641, Armagh 
fell into the hands of Sir Phelim O’Nial, who, on being 
soon after forced to evacuate it, set fire to the cathe- 
dral, and put to death many of the inhabitants. On 
the breaking out of the war between James II. and 
William, Prince of Orange, the Earl of Tyrconnel, then 
lord-lieutenant under the former sovereign, took the 
charter from the corporation, and placed a strong 
body of troops in the town ; but they were surprised 
and disarmed by the people of the surrounding country, 
who had risen in favour of the new dynasty : the garrison 
was permitted to retreat without further injury to 
Louth, and Lord Blayney, having taken possession of 
the town, immediately proclaimed King William. This 
nobleman, however, was soon afterwards compelled to 
evacuate it, and retreat with his forces to Londonderry, 
at that period the last refuge of the Protestants. James, 
in his progress through the north to and from the 
siege of Derry, rested for a few days at Armagh, which 
he describes as having been pillaged by the enemy, and 
very inconvenient both for himself and his suite. In 
1690, Duke Schomberg took possession of it, and 
formed a depot of provisions here. No important event 
occurred after the Revolution until the year 1769, 
when this city furnished a well-appointed troop of 
cavalry to oppose Thurot at Carriekfergus. In 1778, 
on the apprehension of an invasion from France and of 
67 


civil disturbances, several of the inhabitants again 
formed themselves into a volunteer company, and 
offered the command to the Earl of Charlemont, by 
whom, after some deliberation, it was accepted. In 
1781, an artillery company was formed; and in the fol- 
lowing year, a troop of volunteer cavalry, of which the 
Earl of Charlemont was also captain. In 1796, this 
nobleman, in pursuance of the wishes of Government, 
formed an infantry company and a cavalry troop of 
yeomanry in the town, whose numbers were afterwards 
augmented to 200 : they were serviceable in perform- 
ing garrison duty during the temporary absence of the 
regular troops in the disturbances of 1798, but in 1812 
were disbanded by order of the lord-lieutenant.. 

The city, which is large, handsome, and well built, 
is delightfully situated on the declivity of a lofty emi- 
nence, round the western base of which the river Callan 
winds in its progress to the Blackwater. It is chiefly 
indebted for its present high state of improvement to 
the attention bestowed on it by several primates since 
the Reformation, especially by Primate Boulter, and, 
still more so, by Primate Robinson, all of whom have 
made it their place of residence. The approaches on 
every side embrace interesting objects. On the east 
are the rural village and post-town of Rich -hill, and the 
demesne of Castle-Dillon, in which the late proprietor 
erected an obelisk on a lofty hill in memory of the 
volunteers of Ireland. The western approach exhibits 
the demesnes of Caledon, Glasslougli, Woodpark, Elm 
Park, and Knappagh ; those fromDungannon and Lough- 
gall pass through a rich and well- wooded country; that 
from the south, descending through the fertile, well- 
cultivated, and busy vale of the Callan, the banks of 
which are adorned with several seats and extensive plan- 
tations, interspersed with numerous bleach-greens and 
mills, is extremely pleasing; and that from the south- 
east, though less attractive, is marked by the classical 
feature of Hamilton’s Bawn, immortalised by the sar- 
castic pen of Swift. Many of the streets converge 
towards the cathedral, the most central point and the 
most conspicuous object in the city, and are connected 
by cross streets winding around the declivity ; they 
have flagged pathways, are Macadamised, and are light- 
ed with oil gas from works erected in Callan -street, by 
a joint stock company, in the year 1827, but will shortly 
be lighted with coal . gas, the gasometer for which is 
now in progress of erection ; and since 1833 have been 
also cleansed and watched under the provisions of the 
general act of the 9th of Geo. IV., cap. 82, by which a 
cess is applotted and levied on the inhabitants. A 
copious supply of fresh water has been procured under 
the authority of two general acts passed in 1789 and 
1794. Metal pipes have been carried through all the 
main streets, by which a plentiful supply of good water 
is brought from a small lake or basin nearly midway 
between Armagh and Hamilton’s Bawn, in consideration 
of a small rate on each house ; and fountains have also 
been erected in different parts of the town occupied by 
the poorer class of the inhabitants. The city is plen- 
tifully supplied with turf, and coal of good quality is 
brought from the Drumglass and Coal Island collieries, 
1 1 miles distant. A public walk, called the Mall, has 
been formed by subscription, out of ground granted on 
lease to the corporation, originally in 1797> by the pri- 
mate, being a part of the town commons, which were 

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ARM 


vested in the latter for useful purposes by an act of the 
13th and 14th of Geo. III. : the enclosed area, on the 
eastern side of which are many superior houses, com- 
prehends nearly eight acres, kept in excellent condition. 
In addition to this, the primate’s demesne is open to 
respectable persons ; and his laudable example has been 
followed by two opulent citizens, who have thrown open 
their grounds in the vicinity for the recreation of the 
inhabitants. The Tontine Buildings, erected as a pri- 
vate speculation by a few individuals, contain a large 
assembly-room having a suite of apartments connected 
with it, a public news’-room, and a savings’ bank. 
Dramatic performances occasionally take place in this 
edifice, from the want of a special building for their 
exhibition. The public library was founded by Primate 
Robinson, who bequeathed for the free use of the pub- 
lic his valuable collection of books, and endowed it with 
lands at Knockhamill and houses in Armagh yielding 
a clear rental of £339. He also erected the building, 
which is a handsome edifice in the Grecian style, situated 
to the north-west of the cathedral, and completed in 
1771, as appears by the date in front, above which is the 
appropriate inscription “ TO THS "FYXHE IATPEION.” 
The room in which the books are deposited is light, 
airy and commodious, and has a gallery : there are also 
apartments for a resident librarian. In 1820, an ad- 
ditional staircase was erected, as an entrance at the west 
end, which has in a great measure destroyed the unifor- 
mity and impaired the beauty of the building. The 
collection consists of about 20,000 volumes, and com- 
prises many valuable works on theology, the classics, 
and antiquities, to which have been added several modern 
publications. In the record-room of the diocesan regis- 
try are writings and books bequeathed by Primate 
Robinson to the governors and librarian, in trust, for 
the sole use of the primate for the time being. The 
primate, and the dean and chapter, by an act of the 
13th and 14th of Geo. III., are trustees of the library, 
with liberal powers. The observatory, beautifully situ- 
ated on a gentle eminence a little to the north-east of 
the city, was also erected by Primate Robinson, about 
the year 1788, on a plot of 15 acres of land : the build- 
ing is of hewn limestone, and has on its front the in- 
scription, “The Heavens declare the glory of God it 
comprises two lofty domes for the observatory, and a 
good house for the residence of the astronomer. The 
munificent founder also provided for the maintenance 
of the astronomer, and gave the impropriate tithes of 
Carlingford for the support of an assistant astronomer 
and the maintenance of the observatory, vesting the 
management in the primate for the time being and twelve 
governors, of whom the chapter are eight, and the 
remaining four are elected by them as vacancies occur. 
Primate Robinson dying before the internal arrange- 
ments were completed, the establishment remained in 
an unfinished state till 1825, when the Right Hon. and 
Most Rev. Lord J. G. De La Poer Beresford, D.D., 
the present primate, furnished the necessary instru- 
ments, &c., at a cost of nearly £3000. This city is 
usually the station of a regiment of infantry : the bar- 
racks occupy an elevated and healthy situation, and 
are capable of accommodating 800 men. In the imme- 
diate vicinity is the archiepiscopal palace, erected in 
1770 by Primate Robinson, who also, in 178I, built a 
beautiful chapel of Grecian architecture nearly adjacent, 
68 


and embellished the grounds, which comprise about 
800 acres, with plantations tastefully arranged. 

Though an increasing place, Armagh has now no 
manufactures, and but little trade, except in grain, of 
which a great quantity is sent to Portadown and Newry 
for exportation : much of the flour made in the neigh- 
bourhood is conveyed to the county of Tyrone. After 
the introduction of the linen manufacture into the North 
of Ireland, Armagh became the grand mart for the sale 
of cloth produced in the surrounding district. From a 
return of six market days in the spring of 1835, the 
average number of brown webs sold in the open market 
was 4292, and in private warehouses 3412, making a 
total of 7704 webs weekly, the value of which, at £1. 1 1. 
each, amounts to £620,942. 8. per annum. But this 
does not afford a just criterion of the present state of 
the trade, in which a great change has taken place within 
the last 20 years ; the quantity now bleached annually 
in this neighbourhood is nearly double that of any for- 
mer period, but only a portion of it is brought into the 
market of Armagh. The linen-hall is a large and com- 
modious building, erected by Leonard Dobbin, Esq., 
M.P. for the borough : it is open for the sale of webs 
from ten to eleven o’clock every Tuesday. A yarn 
market is held, in which the weekly sales amount to 
£3450, or £179,400 per annum. There are two ex- 
tensive distilleries, in which upwards of 25,000 tons of 
grain are annually consumed ; an ale brewery, consum- 
ing 3800 barrels of malt annually ; several extensive 
tanneries ; and numerous flour and corn mills, some of 
which are worked by steam. The amount of excise 
duties collected within the district for the year 1835 
was £69,076. 5. 8^. The Blackwater, within four miles 
of the city, affords a navigable communication with 
Lough Neagh, from which, by the Lagan canal, the line 
of navigation is extended to Belfast ; and to the east is 
the navigable river Bann, which is connected with the 
Newry canal. A canal is also in progress of formation 
from the Blackwater, to continue inland navigation from 
Lough Neagh to Lough Erne, which will pass within 
one mile of the city. The markets are abundantly sup- 
plied ; they are held on Tuesday, for linen cloth and yarn, 
pigs, horned cattle, provisions of all kinds, vast quanti- 
ties of flax, and flax-seed during the season ; and on 
Saturday, for grain and provisions. Fairs are held on 
the Tuesday after Michaelmas, and a week before 
Christmas, and a large cattle market has been establish- 
ed on the first Saturday in every month. By a local act 
obtained in 1774, a parcel of waste land adjoining the 
city, and containing about 9^ plantation acres, was 
vested in the archbishop and his successors, to be par- 
celled into divisions for holding the fairs and markets, 
but only the fairs are now held on it. The market-house, 
an elegant and commodious building of hewn stone, 
erected by Archbishop Stuart, at an expense of £3000, 
occupies a central situation at the lower extremity of 
Market-street ; the old shambles, built previously by 
Primate Robinson, have been taken down, and a more 
extensive and convenient range, with markets for grain, 
stores, weigh-house, &c., attached, was erected in 1829 
by the committee of tolls : the supply of butchers’ 
meat of very good quality is abundant, and the veal of Ar- 
magh is held in high estimation : there is also a plenti- 
ful supply of sea and fresli-water fish. Several of the 
inhabitants, in 1821, raised a subscription, by shares 


A RM 


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(on debentures or receipts) of £25 each, amounting to 
£1700, and purchased the lessee’s interest in the tolls, 
of which a renewal for 21 years was obtained in 1829 : 
eight resident shareholders, elected annually, and called 
the “Armagh Toll Committee,” have now the entire 
regulation and management of the tolls and customs 
of the borough, consisting of market-house, street, and 
shambles’ customs, in which they have made consi- 
derable reductions, and the proceeds of which, after 
deducting the expenses of management and five per 
cent, interest for the proprietors of the debentures, are 
applied partly as a sinking fund for liquidating the 
principal sum of £1700, and partly towards the im- 
provement of the city and the places for holding the 
fairs and markets. The Bank of Ireland and the Pro- 
vincial Bank have each a branch establishment here ; 
and there are also branches of the Northern and Belfast 
banking companies. The post is daily : the post-office 
revenue, according to the last return to Parliament, 
amounted to £1418. 4. 0|. 

The inhabitants were incorporated under the title 
of the “ Sovereign, Free Burgesses, and Commonalty 
of the Borough of Ardmagh,” in 1613, by charter of 
Jas. I., which was taken from them by Jas. II., who 
granted one conferring more extensive privileges ; but 
Wm. III. restored the original charter, under which the 
corporation consists of a sovereign, twelve free bur- 
gesses, and an unlimited number of freemen, of whom 
there are at present only two ; a town-clerk and regis- 
trar, and two serjeants-at-mace are also appointed. 
The sovereign is, by the charter, eligible by the free bur- 
gesses from among themselves, annually on the festival 
of the Nativity of St. John the Baptist (June 24th) ; the 
power of filling a vacancy in the number of free burgesses 
is vested in the sovereign and remaining free burgesses ; 
the freemen are admitted by the sovereign and free 
burgesses ; and the appointment of the inferior officers 
is vested in the corporation at large. By charter of 
King James, the borough was empowered to send two 
representatives to the Irish parliament, but the right of 
election was confined to the sovereign and twelve bur- 
gesses, who continued to return two members till the 
union, when the number was reduced to one. The 
nature of the franchise continued the same until the 
2nd of Wm. IV., when the free burgesses not resident 
within seven miles of the borough were disfranchised, 
and the privilege of election was extended to the £10 
householders ; and as the limits of the district called 
“the corporation” comprehend 1147 statute acres un- 
connected with the franchise, a new electoral boundary 
l which is minutely described in the Appendix) was 
formed close round the town, comprising only 277 acres: 
the number of voters registered, according to the latest 
classified general return made to Parliament, amounted 
to 454, of whom 443 were £10 householders and 11 
burgesses ; the number of electors qualified to vote at 
the last election was 541, of whom 360 polled; the 
sovereign is the returning officer. The seneschal of the 
manor of Armagh, who is appointed by the primate, 
holds his court here, and exercises jurisdiction, both by 
attachment of goods and by civil bill process, in all 
causes of action arising within the manor and not ex- 
ceeding £10 : the greater part of the city is comprised 
within this manor, the remainder being in that of 
Mountnorris adjoining. The assizes and general quarter 
69 


sessions are held twice a year ; a court for the relief of 
insolvent debtors is held three times in the year ; and 
the county magistrates resident in the city and its 
neighbourhood hold a petty session every Saturday. 
The corporation grand jury consisted of a foreman and 
other jurors, usually not exceeding 23 in number, chosen 
from among the most respectable inhabitants by the 
sovereign, generally within a month after entering upon 
his office, and continued to act until the ensuing 29th of 
September ; but its dissolution took place at the close 
of the year 1832, when a new grand jury having been 
formed amidst much political excitement, they deter- 
mined, under an impression that the inhabitants would 
resist any assessment which they might make, to abro- 
gate their functions, and the system appears to be 
abandoned. The inconvenience which resulted from the 
dissolution of the corporation grand jury induced the 
inhabitants to adopt measures for carrying into effect 
the provisions of the act of the 9th of Geo. IV., cap. 82, 
previously noticed. The sessions-house, built in 1809, is 
situated at the northern extremity of the Mall : it has 
an elegant portico in front, and affords every accom- 
modation necessary for holding the courts, &c. At the 
opposite end of the Mall stands the county gaol, a neat 
and substantial building, with two enclosed yards in 
which the prisoners may take exercise, and an infirmary 
containing two wards for males and two for females : 
there is also a tread-wheel. It is constructed on the 
old plan, and does not afford convenience for the clas- 
sification of prisoners, but is well ventilated, clean, and 
healthy. The females are instructed by the matron in 
spelling and reading. In 1835, the average daily number 
of prisoners was 85 ; and the total net expense amounted 
to £1564. 14. 6. Armagh is a chief or baronial con- 
stabulary police station, of which the force consists of 
one chief officer, four constables, and twelve men. 

The See of Armagh, ac- 
cording to the common opi- 
nion of native historians, was 
founded by St. Patrick, who 
in that city huilt the cathed- 
ral and some other religious 
edifices, in 445. Three years 
after, he held a synod there, 
the canons of which are still 
in existence ; and in 454 he 
resigned the charge of the 
see (to which, on his recom- 
mendation, St. Binen was 
appointed), and spent the remainder of a life protracted 
to the patriarchal period of 120 years, in visiting and 
confirming the various churches which he had founded, 
and in forming others. Prior to the year 799, the 
bishop of Armagh and his suffragan bishops were 
obliged to attend the royal army during the military 
expeditions of the king of Ireland ; but on a remon- 
strance made by Conmach, then archbishop, the custom 
was discontinued. A tumult which broke out in the 
city, during the celebration of the feast of Pentecost, 
in 889, between the septs of Cinel-Eoghain, of Tyrone, 
and Ulidia, of Down, affords an instance of the great 
power exercised by the archbishops at this period. 
Moelbrigid, having succeeded in quelling the disturb- 
ance, mulcted each of the offending parties in a fine ot 
200 oxen, exacted hostages for their future good con- 



Arms of the Archbislioprick. 


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duct, and caused six of the ringleaders on each side to 
be executed on a gallows. The commencement of the 
twelfth century was marked by a contest as to the right 
of the primacy, which had been monopolised during 
fifteen episcopal successions by a single princely tribe, 
as an hereditary right. “Eight married men,” says St. 
Bernard, “ literate indeed, but not ordained, had been 
predecessors to Celsus, on whose demise the election of 
Malachy O’Morgair to the primatial dignity, by the 
united voice of the clergy and people, put an end to the 
contest, though not without some struggles.” Malachy 
resigned the primacy in 1137, and in lieu of it accepted 
the bishoprick of Down, which see he afterwards di- 
vided into two, reserving one to himself. His object 
seems to have resulted from a wish to procure leisure 
for a journey to Rome, with a view to prevail upon the 
pope to grant palls to the archbishops of Armagh and 
Cashel ; but in this he was, on his first journey, disap- 
pointed, by being informed that so important a measure 
could only be conceded in pursuance of the suffrage of 
an Irish council. On making a second journey for the 
same purpose, he fell sick on the road, and died at the 
abbey of Clarevall, in the arms of his friend, St. Ber- 
nard. Nevertheless, this object was soon after accom- 
plished, even to a greater extent than he had proposed. 
In 1152, Cardinal Paparo arrived in Ireland as legate 
from Pope Eugene III., with four palls for the four 
archbishops, to whom the other Irish bishops were 
subjected as suffragans. The following sees, several of 
which are now unknown even by name, were then placed 
under the provincial jurisdiction of the archbishop of 
Armagh ; viz., Connor, Dumdaleghlas (now Down), 
Lugud, Cluainiard or Clonard, Connanas, Ardachad, 
(now Ardagh), Rathboth (now Raphoe), Rathlurig or 
Rathlure, Damliag, and Darrick (now Derry). 

The origin of a dispute between the Archbishops of 
Armagh and Dublin, regarding their respective claims 
to the primatial authority of Ireland, may be traced to 
this period, in consequence of a papal bull of 1182, 
which ordained that no archbishop or bishop should 
hold any assembly or hear ecclesiastical causes in the 
diocese of Dublin, unless authorised by the pope or his 
legate : but it was not until the following century that 
this dispute acquired a character of importance. The 
rank of the former of the e prelates among the bishops 
of Christendom was determined at the council of Lyons, 
where, in the order of subscription to the acts, the name 
“ Albertus Armaehanus” preceded those of all the 
bishops of France, Italy, and Spain. In 1247, Archbishop 
Reginald or Rayner separated the county of Louth from 
the diocese of Clogher, and annexed it to Armagh. 
Indeed, before this act, the inadequacy of the revenue to 
maintain the dignity of the see occasioned Hen. III. to 
issue a mandate to the lord justice of Ireland, to cause 
liberty of seisin to be given to the Archbishop of Armagh 
of all the lands belonging to the see of Clogher : but 
this writ was not carried into effect. In 1263, Pope 
Urban addressed a bull to Archbishop O’Scanlain, con- 
firming him in the dignity of primate of all Ireland ; 
but the authenticity of the document has been disputed. 
This bull did not put an end to the contest about 
precedency with the Archbishop of Dublin, which was 
renewed between Lech, Archbishop of Dublin, and 
Walter Jorse or Joyce, then primate, whose brother 
and successor, Rowland, persevering in the claim, was 
70 


resisted by Bicknor, Archbishop of Dublin, and vio- 
lently driven out of Leinster, in 1313. Again, in 1337, 
Primate David O’Hiraghty was obstructed in his at- 
tendance on parliament by Bicknor and his clergy, who 
would not permit him to have his crosier borne erect 
before him in the diocese of Dublin, although the king 
had expressly forbidden Bicknor to offer him any oppo- 
sition. In 1349 Bicknor once more contested the point 
with Fitz- Ralph, Archbishop of Armagh ; and, not- 
withstanding the king’s confirmation of the right of the 
latter to erect his crosier in any part of Ireland, the lord 
justice and the prior of Kilmainham, being bribed, as 
is supposed, by Bicknor, combined with that prelate in 
opposing the claims of the primate, who thereupon ex- 
communicated the resisting parties. Shortly after both 
Bicknor and the prior died 5 and the latter, on his 
death-bed, solicited Fitz-Ralph’s forgiveness through a 
special messenger. After his decease, his body was 
refused Christian burial, until absolved by the primate 
in consequence of his contrition. In 1350, the lung, 
through partiality to John de St. Paul, then Archbishop 
of Dublin, revoked his letter to Fitz- Ralph, and prohibited 
him from exercising his episcopal functions in the pro- 
vince of Dublin ; and, in 1353, Pope Innocent VI. de- 
cided that Armagh and Dublin should be both primatial 
sees ; the occupant of the former to be styled Primate 
of all Ireland, and of the latter. Primate of Ireland. In 
1365, the Archbishops Milo Sweetman and Thomas 
Minot renewed the controversy, which, after that pe- 
riod, was suffered to lie dormant till Richard Talbot, 
Archbishop of Dublin, prevented Primate Swain from 
attending his duty in five successive parliaments held 
in 1429, 1435, and the three following years. Primates 
Mey and Prene experienced similar opposition ; but 
after the decease of Talbot, in 1449, their successors 
enjoyed their rights undisturbed till 1533, when John 
Alen, Archbishop of Dublin, revived the contest with 
Primate Cromer, but seemingly without success. Edw. 
VI. divested Archbishop Dowdall of the primacy, in 
1551, in order to confer it on George Browne, Arch- 
bishop of Dublin, as a reward for his advocacy of the 
Reformation ; but on the same principle the right was 
restored to Dowdall on the accession of Mary. In 1 623, 
Launcelot Bulkeley revived the contest with Primate 
Hampton, and continued it against his successor, the 
distinguished Ussher, in whose favour it was decided by 
the Earl of Strafford, then lord-deputy, in 1634. 

At the commencement of the Reformation, Primate 
Cromer was inflexible in his determination to oppose 
its introduction into the Irish church ; and on his 
death, in 1542, his example was followed by his suc- 
cessor, Dowdall, who, after the accession of Edw. VI., 
maintained a controversy on the disputed points with 
Staples, Bishop of Meath, in which both parties claimed 
the victory. The English government, finding him de- 
termined in his opposition to the new arrangements, 
issued a mandate rendering his see subordinate to that 
of Dublin, which caused Dowdall to quit the country 
and take refuge on the continent. The king, deeming 
this act a virtual resignation of the see, appointed Hugh 
Goodacre his successor ; but Dowdall was restored by 
Queen Mary, and held the see till his death in 1558, 
the year in which his protectress also died. Notwith- 
standing the ecclesiastical superiority of the see of Ar- 
magh over that of Dublin, the income of the latter was 


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so much greater, that Adam Loftus, who had been ap- 
pointed Archbishop of Armagh on the death of Dowdall, 
was removed a few years after to Dublin, as being more 
lucrative : he was only 28 years of age on his first 
elevation, being the youngest primate of all Ireland 
upon record, except Celsus. In 1614-15, a regrant 
of the episcopal property of Armagh, together with a 
large additional tract of land, accruing from the forfeited 
estates of the Earls of Tyrone and Tyrconnel, was made 
to Primate Hampton. His immediate successor was the 
celebrated James Ussher, during whose primacy Chas. I. 
endowed anew the college of vicars choral in the cathe- 
dral, by patent granted in 1635, by which he bestowed 
on them various tracts of land, the property of the 
dissolved Culdean priory. Ussher was succeeded by 
Dr. Bramhall, a man also of great learning and mental 
powers, who was appointed by Chas. II. immediately 
after the Restoration. Dr. Lindsay, who was enthroned 
in 1713, endowed the vicars choral and singing boys 
with £200 per annum out of lands in the county of 
Down, and also procured for them a new charter, in 
1720. Dr. Boulter, who was translated from the see of 
Bristol to that of Armagh, on the death of Lindsay in 
1724, is known only as a political character ; a collec- 
tion of his letters is extant. He was succeeded by Dr. 
Hoadly, translated from Dublin, who published some 
sermons and other works ; and the latter by Dr. Stone, 
also an active participator in the political events of the 
time. His successor was Dr. Robinson, Bishop of 
Kildare, and after his translation created Baron Rokeby, 
of Armagh, whose history may be best learned in the 
contemplation of the city over which he presided, raised 
by his continued munificence from extreme decay to 
a state of opulence and respectability, and embel- 
lished with various useful public institutions, worthy of 
its position among the principal cities of Ireland ; and 
from the pastoral care evinced by him in an eminent 
degree in the erection of numerous parochial and dis- 
trict churches for new parishes and incumbencies, to 
which he annexed glebes and glebe-houses, and in pro- 
moting the spiritual concerns of his diocese. 

Of the R. C. archbishops, since the Reformation, 
but little connected with the localities of the see is 
known. Robert Wauchope, a Scotchman, who had 
been appointed by the pope during the lifetime of 
Dowdall, may rightly be considered the first ; for 
Dowdall, though a zealous adherent to the doctrines of 
the Church of Rome, had been appointed solely by the 
authority of Hen. VIII. Peter Lombard, who was ap- 
pointed in 1594, is known in the literary and political 
circles by his commentary on Ireland, for which a pro- 
secution was instituted against him by Lord Strafford, 
but was terminated by Lombard’s death at Rome, in 
1625, or the year following. Hugh M c 'Caghwell, his 
successor, was a man of singular piety and learning, an 
acute metaphysician, and profoundly skilled in every 
branch of scholastic philosophy : a monument was 
erected to his memory by the Earl of Tyrone. Oliver 
Plunket, appointed in 1669, obtained distinction by his 
defence of the primatial rights against Talbot, Arch- 
bishop of Dublin ; but his prosecution and death for 
high treason, on a charge of favouring a plot for 
betraying Ireland to France, have rendered his name 
still more known. Hugh M c Mahon, of the Monaghan 
family of that name, was appointed in 1708 : his great 
71 


work is the defence of the primatial rights, entitled 
“ Jus Primitiale Armacanum ,” in which he is said to have 
exhausted the subject. 

The Archbishoprick, or Ecclesiastical Province of Ar- 
magh comprehends the ten dioceses of Armagh, Clogher, 
Meath, Down, Connor, Derry, Raphoe, Kilmore, Dro- 
more, and Ardagh, which are estimated to contain a 
superficies of 4,319,250 acres, and comprises within its 
limits the whole of the civil province of Ulster; the 
counties of Longford, Louth, Meath, and Westmeath, 
and parts of the King’s and Queen’s counties, in the 
province of Leinster ; and parts of the counties of 
Leitrim, Roscommon, and Sligo, in the province of Con- 
naught. The archbishop, who is primate and metro- 
politan of all Ireland, presides over the province, and 
exercises all episcopal jurisdiction within his own 
diocese ; and the see of Down being united to that of 
Connor, and that of Ardagh to the archiepiscopal see of 
Tuam, seven bishops preside over the respective dio- 
ceses, and are suffragan to the Lord-Primate. Under 
the Church Temporalities’ Act of the 3rd of Wm. IV., 
the archiepiscopal jurisdiction of the province of Tuam 
will become extinct on the death of the present arch- 
bishop, and the dioceses now included in it will be 
suffragan to Armagh. 

The diocese of Armagh comprehends the greater part 
of that county, and parts of those of Meath, Louth, 
Tyrone, and Londonderry : it comprises by computation 
a superficial area of 468,550 acres, of which 1300 are 
in Meath, 108,900 in Louth, 162,500 in Tyrone, and 
25,000 in Londonderry, It was anciently divided into 
two parts, the English and the Irish, now known as the 
Upper and Lower parts : the English or Upper part 
embraces that portion which extends into the counties 
of Louth and Meath, and is subdivided into the rural 
deaneries of Drogheda, Atherdee or Ardee, and Dundalk ; 
and the Irish or Lower part comprehends the remaining 
portion of the diocese in the counties of Armagh, Tyrone, 
and Londonderry, and is subdivided into the rural 
deaneries of Creggan, Aghaloe, Dungannon, and Tulla- 
hog. In all ancient synods and visitations the clergy of 
the English and Irish parts were congregated separately, 
which practice is still observed, the clergy of the Upper 
part assembling for visitation at Drogheda, and those of 
the Lower at Armagh. The see of Clogher, on the first 
avoidance by death or translation, will, under the Church 
Temporalities’ Act, become united to that of Armagh, 
and its temporalities will be vested in the Ecclesiastical 
Commissioners for Ireland. There are 100,563 statute 
acres belonging to the see of Armagh, of which 87,809 
are profitable land, the remainder being bog or moun- 
tain ; and the gross amount of its yearly revenue on an 
average is about £17,670, arising from chief rents, fee 
farms, and copyhold leases. On the death of the pre- 
sent primate the sum of £4500 is, under the above act, 
to be paid out of the revenue annually to the Ecclesias- 
tical Commissioners. The chapter consists of a dean, 
precentor, chancellor, treasurer, archdeacon, and the 
four prebendaries of Mullaghbrack,Ballymore,Loughgall, 
and Tynan, with eight vicars choral, and an organist 
and choir. The dean and precentor are the only dig- 
nitaries for whom houses are provided ; five houses are 
assigned for the vicars choral and organist. Each dig- 
nity and prebend has cure of souls annexed, as regards 
the benefice forming its corps. The economy estate of 


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the cathedral yields an annual rental of £180. 1.5., which 
is expended in the payment of salaries to the officers 
of the cathedral, and in defraying other charges incident 
to the building. The diocese comprises 8S benefices, 
of which, 14 are unions consisting of 45 parishes, and 
74 consist of single parishes or portions thereof. Of 
these, 4 are in the gift of the Crowm, 51 in that of the 
Lord-Primate, 12 are in lay and corporation patronage, 
and 21 in clerical or alternate patronage. The total 
number of parishes or districts is 122, of which 91 are 
rectories or vicarages, 23 perpetual cures, 1 impropriate, 
and 7 parishes or districts without cure of souls ; there 
are 22 lay impropriations. The number of churches is 
88, besides 1 1 other buildings in which divine service is 
performed, and of glebe-houses, 74. 

In the R. C. Church the archbishopriclc of Armagh, 
as originally founded, is the head or primacy of all 
Ireland ; end the same bishopricks are suffragan to it as 
in the Protestant Church. The R. C. diocese comprises 
51 parochial benefices or unions, containing 120 
places of worship, served by 51 parish priests and 65 
coadjutors or curates. The parochial benefice of St. 
Peter, Drogheda, is held by the archbishop ; and the 
union of Armagh, Eglish, and Grange is annexed to the 
deanery. There are 68 Presbyterian meeting-houses, 
and 44 belonging to other Protestant dissenters, making 
in the whole 331 places of worship in the diocese. 

The parish of Armagh comprises, according to the Ord- 
nance survey, 4606f statute acres, of which 105 1^ are in 
the barony of O’Neilland West, and 3555| in that of Ar- 
magh. The rural district is only of small extent : the 
system of agriculture has very much improved of late ; the 
land is excellent, and yields abundant crops. Limestone 
prevails, and is mostly used in building and in repairing 
the roads ; in some places it is beautifully variegated, 
and is wrought into chimney-pieces. The principal 
seats are the Primate’s palace ; Ballynahone, that of 
Miss Lodge ; Beech Hill, of T. Simpson, Esq. ; Tulla- 
more, of J. Oliver, Esq. ; and those of J. Simpson, Esq., 
and J. Mackey, Esq., at Ballyards. The living consists 
of a rectory and vicarage, in the diocese of Armagh, 
consolidated by letters patent of the 1 1th and 12th of 
Jas. I., and united, in the reign of Chas. I., to the 
parishes of Eglish, Lisnadell, and Ballymoyer, in the 
patronage of the Lord-Primate. These parishes, having 
been so long consolidated, are not specifically set forth 
in the incumbents’ titles, so that Armagh has practically 
ceased to be, and is no longer designated a union in the 
instruments of collation. The deanery is in the gift of 
the Crown, and is usually held with the rectory, but 
they are not statutably united, and the former has 
neither tithes nor cure of souls : it is endowed with five 
tenements and a small plot of land within the city, the 
deanery-house and farm of 90 acres, and five townlands 
in the parish of Lisnadill, comprising in all 1142 
statute acres, valued at £274. 13. 7§- per annum. The 
deanery-house, situated about a quarter of a mile from 
the cathedral, was built in 1774. The rectorial glebe- 
lands comprise about 380 acres, valued in 1831 at 
£368. 6. 9. per annum. The tithes of Armagh and 
Grange amount to £500 ; and the gross value of the 
deanery and union of Armagh, tithe and glebe inclusive, 
amounts to £2462. 1.2g. There are six perpetual cures 
within the union, namely, Grange, Eglish, Killylea, 
Lisnadill, Armaghbreague, and Ballymoyer, the endow- 
72 


ments of which amount to £440 per annum, paid by 
the rector out of the tithes. The Ecclesiastical Commis- 
sioners have recommended that the union, on the next 
avoidance of the benefice, be partially dissolved, and the 
district of Ballymoyer erected into a new parish ; and 
that the deanery and consolidated rectory and vicarage, 
now belonging to different patrons, be united and con- 
solidated, the respective patrons presenting and collating 
alternately, agreeably to the Irish act of the 10th and 
11th of Chas. I., cap. 2, — or that the advowson of the 
deanery be vested solely in the patron of the rectory 
and vicarage, which are of much greater value than the 
deanery, the patron of which to be compensated by being 
allowed the right of presentation to the new parish of 
Ballymoyer. 

The cathedral church, originally founded by St. 
Patrick in 445, was burnt by the Danes of Ulster, under 
Turgesius, who, in 836, destroyed the city. At what 
time the present building was erected is not accurately 
known j the crypt appears to be of the 11th or 12th 
century, but there are several portions of a much earlier 
date, which were probably part of a former, or perhaps 
of the original, structure. It appears from an existing 
record that the roof, which for 130 years had been only 
partially repaired, was, in 1125, covered with tiles ; and 
in 1262 the church was repaired by Archbishop O’Scan- 
lain, who is supposed to have built the nave and the 
elegant western entrance. The cathedral was partially 
burnt in 1404 and 1566, after which it was repaired by 
Primate Hampton, who in 1612 rebuilt the tower; it 
was again burnt in 1642 by Sir Phelim O’Nial, but was 
restored by Archbishop Margetson, at his own expense, 
in 1675, and was further repaired in 1729 by the Dean 
and Chapter, aided by Archbishop Boulter. Primate 
Robinson, in 1766, roofed the nave with slate, and fitted 
it up for divine service ; the same prelate commenced 
the erection of a tower, but when it was raised to the 
height of 60 feet, one of the piers, with the arch spring- 
ing from it, yielded to the pressure from above, and it 
was consequently taken down even with the roof of the 
building. The tower was again raised to its present 
height and surmounted by a spire, which, from a fear of 
overpowering the foundation, was necessarily curtailed 
in its proportion. Primate Beresford, on his translation 
to the see, employed Mr. Cottingliam, architect of Lon- 
don, and the restorer of the abbey of St. Alban's, to sur- 
vey the cathedral with a view to its perfect restoration, 
and the report being favourable, the undertaking, towards 
which His Grace subscribed £8000, was commenced 
under that gentleman’s superintendence in 1834. The 
piers of the tower have been removed and replaced by 
others resting upon a more solid foundation, in the exe- 
cution of which the whole weight of the tower was 
sustained without the slightest crack or settlement, till 
the new work was brought into contact with the old, by 
a skilful and ingenious contrivance of which a model 
has been preserved. The prevailing character of the 
architecture is the early English style, with portions of 
the later Norman, and many of the details are rich and 
elegant, though long obscured and concealed by inju- 
dicious management in repairing the building, and, when 
the present w r ork now in progress is completed, will add 
much to the beauty of this venerable and interesting 
structure. The series of elegantly clustered columns 
separating the aisles from the nave, which had declined 


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from the perpendicular and will be restored to their 
original position, was concealed by a rude encasement, 
with a view to strengthen them ; and many of the cor- 
bels, enriched with emblematical sculpture, were covered 
with thick coats of plaister. Among other ancient de- 
tails that had been long hidden is a sculpture of St. 
Patrick with his crosier, in a compartment surmounted 
with shamrocks, which is perhaps the earliest existing 
record of that national emblem ; and another of St. 
Peter, with the keys, surmounted by a cock, discovered 
in the wall under the rafters of the choir. There are 
several splendid monuments, of which the principal are 
those of Dean Drelincourt, by Rysbrach ; of Primate 
Robinson, with a bust, by Bacon ; of Lord Charlemont, 
who died in 167L and of his father, Baron Caulfield. 
The ancient monuments of Brian Boru or Boroimhe, 
his son Murchard, and his nephew Conard, who were 
slain in the battle of Clontarf and interred in this cathe- 
dral, have long since perished. The church, which was 
made parochial by act of the 15th and l6thof Geo. III., 
cap. 17th, occupies a commanding site; it is 183^ feet 
in length, and 1 19 in breadth along the transepts. 

To the east of the cathedral and Mall, on an eminence 
in front of the city, is a new church, dedicated to St. 
Mark : it is a handsome edifice in the later English 
style ; the interior is elegantly finished ; the aisles are 
separated from the nave by a row of arches resting on 
clustered columns, from the capitals of which spring 
numerous ribs supporting a handsome groined roof. 
This church, which is indebted for much of its decora- 
tions to the munificence of the present primate, was 
built at an expense of £3600, and contains about 1500 
sittings, of which 800 are free. There are also six other 
churches within the union. In the R. C. divisions this 
parish is the head of a union or district, which com- 
prises also the parishes of Eglish and Grange, and forms 
one of the benefices of the primate : the union contains 
three chapels, situated at Armagh, Annacramp, and Tul- 
lysaren. The first was built about the year 1750, on 
ground held under different titles, the proprietors having 
successively devised a permanent interest therein to 
the congregation at a nominal rent ; the building has 
of late been much enlarged and improved, but is still 
too small for the R. C. population ; it is triple-roofed, 
as if intended for three distinct buildings, yet has a 
good effect. The places of worship for dissenters are, 
one built in 1722 with part of the ruins of the church 
and monastery of St. Peter and St. Paul, and having a 
substantial manse in front, for a congregation of Pres- 
byterians in connection with the Synod of Ulster, who 
settled here about the year I67O, and endowed with a first 
class grant of royal bounty ; one for Seceders, built 
about the year 1785, and endowed with a second class 
grant ; one for the Evangelical or Independent congre- 
gational union ; one for Wesleyan Methodists, built in 
1786, with a comfortable house for the minister attach- 
ed, and situated near the spot where Mr. Wesley, in 
I767, frequently preached; and one near it for Primi- 
tive Wesleyan Methodists. 

The free grammar-school, to the south of the obser- 
vatory, is endowed with seven townlands in the parish 
of Loughgilly, comprising 1514 acres, and producing a 
clear rental of £1377> granted in trust to the primate 
and his successors in 1627, for the support of a gram- 
mar school at Mountnorris : part of the income is 
Vol. I .— 73 


applied to the maintenance of several exhibitions at 
Trinity College, Dublin. The buildings occupy the four 
sides of a quadrangle, the front of which is formed by 
a covered passage communicating on each side with the 
apartments of the head-master and pupils ; on the 
fourth side is the school-room, 56 feet long by 28 
broad, behind which is a large area enclosed by a wall 
and serving as a play-ground. They were completed 
in 1774, at an expense of £5000, defrayed by Primate 
Robinson, and are capable of conveniently accommodat- 
ing 100 resident pupils. A school for the instruction 
of the choir boys has been established by the present 
primate, the master of which receives a stipend of £75 
per annum, and is allowed to take private pupils. The 
charter school was founded in 1738, and endowed 
with £90 per ann. by Mrs. Drelincourt, widow of Dean 
Drelincourt, for the maintenance and education of 20 
boys and 20 girls, who were also to be instructed in the 
linen manufacture, housewifery, and husbandry. In 
that year the corporation granted certain commons or 
waste lands, called the “ Irish-Street commons,” com- 
prising upwards of 8 statute acres, on which the school 
premises, including separate residences for the master 
and mistress, were erected, and to which Primate Boulter 
annexed 13 statute acres adjoining. The endowment 
was further augmented with the lands of Legumin, in 
the county of Tyrone, comprising about 107 acres, and 
held under a renewable lease granted in trust by Primate 
Robinson to the dean and chapter : the present annual 
income is £249. 8. 2. The primate and rector are trus- 
tees, and the officiating curate is superintendent of the 
school, in which only ten girls are now instructed in the 
general branches of useful education ; the surplus funds 
have been allowed to accumulate for the erection of pre- 
mises on a more eligible site, and it is in contemplation 
to convert the establishment into a day school for boys 
and girls. In 1819, Primate Stuart built and endowed 
a large and handsome edifice, in which 105 boys and 84 
girls are at present taught on the Lancasterian plan, and 
about 160 of them are clothed, fifteen by the dean, and 
the remainder principally by Wm. Stuart, Esq., son of 
the founder. The income is about £100 per annum ; 
£31. 10. is given annually by the present primate and 
Mr. Stuart. The building is situated on the east side 
of the Mall, and consists of a centre and two wings, the 
former occupied as residences by the master and mis- 
tress, and the latter as school-rooms. There is a na- 
tional school for boys and girls, aided by a grant of 
£50 per ann. from the National Board of Education and 
by private subscriptions, for which a handsome build- 
ing is now in course of erection by subscription, to the 
east of the Mall, with a portico in front. In Callan- 
street is a large building erected for a Sunday school 
by the present primate, who has presented it to the 
committee of an infants’ school established in 1835, and 
supported by voluntary contributions. At Killurney is 
a National school for boys and girls, built and support- 
ed by the Hon. Mrs. Caulfeild ; and there are other 
schools in the rural part of the parish. The total num- 
ber of children on the books of these schools is 653, 
of whom 285 are boys and 368 are girls ; and in the 
different private schools are 270 boys and 200 girls. 

The county hospital or infirmary is situated on the 
north-western declivity of the hill which is crowned by 
the cathedral, at the top of Abbey-street, Callan- street, 

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and Dawson-street, which branching off in different direc- 
tions leave an open triangular space in front. It is a fine 
old building of unhewn limestone, completed in 1774, at 
an expense of £2150, and consisting of a centre and two 
wings ; one-half is occupied as the surgeon’s residence, 
the other is open for the reception of patients ; there 
are twowardsfor males andonefor females. The domestic 
offices are commodious and well arranged, and there are 
separate gardens for the infirmary and for the surgeon. 
The entire number of patients relieved in 1834 was 3044, of 
whom 563 were admitted into the hospital, and 71 children 
were vaccinated : the expenditure in that year amount- 
ed to £1145. 8. S., of which £500 was granted by the 
grand jury, and the remainder was defrayed by private 
subscription. Prior to the establishment of the present 
county infirmary by act of parliament, the inhabitants 
had erected and maintained by private contributions an 
hospital called the “ Charitable Infirmary,” situated in 
Scotch-street, which they liberally assigned over to the 
lord primate and governors of the new establishment, 
and it was used as the county hospital until the erec- 
tion of the present edifice. The fever hospital, situ- 
ated about a furlong from the city, on the Caledon road, 
was erected in 1825, at air entire cost, including the 
purchase and laying out of the grounds, &c., of about 
£3500, defrayed by the present primate, by whose mu- 
nificence it is solely supported. It is a chaste and hand- 
some building of hewn limestone, 50 feet in length and 
30 in width, with a projection rearward containing on 
the ground floor a physician’s room, a warm bath and 
washing-room, and on the other floors, male and female 
nurses’ rooms and slop-rooms, in the latter of which 
are shower baths. On the ground floor of the front 
building are the entrance hall, the matron’s sitting and 
sleeping-rooms, and a kitchen and pantry : the first and 
second floors are respectively appropriated to the use of 
male and female patients, each floor containing two 
wards, a fever and a recovery ward, the former having 
ten beds and the latter five, making in all thirty beds. 
The subordinate buildings and offices are well calculated 
to promote the object of the institution : there is a good 
garden, with walks in the grounds open to convalescents ; 
and with regard to cleanliness, economy, and suitable 
accommodation for its suffering inmates, this hospital 
is entitled to rank among the first in the province. The 
Armagh district asylum for lunatic poor of the counties of 
Armagh, Monaghan, Fermanagh, and Cavan, was erected 
pursuant to act of parliament by a grant from the con- 
solidated fund, at an expense, including purchase of site, 
furniture, &c., of £20,900, to be repaid by instalments 
by the respective counties comprising the district, each 
of which sends patients in proportion to the amount of 
its population, but is only charged for the number ad- 
mitted. It has accommodation for 122 patients, who 
are admitted on an affidavit of poverty, a medical certi- 
ficate of insanity, and a certificate from the minister 
and churchwardens of their respective parishes. The 
establishment is under the superintendence of a board 
of directors, a resident manager and matron, and a phy- 
sician. Thirteen acres of ground are attached to the 
asylum, and are devoted to gardening and husbandry. 
The male patients weave all the linen cloth used in the 
establishment, and the clothing for the females ; gym- 
nastic exercises and a tennis-court have been lately es- 
tablished. From the 14th of July, 1825, when the 
74 


asylum was first opened, to the 1st of Jan., 1835, 710 
patients were admitted, of whom 400 were males and 
310 females: of this number, 305 recovered and were 
discharged; 121 were discharged relieved; 70 un- 
relieved and restored to their relations ; 89 died, and 
16 were transferred to the asylum at Londonderry; 
leaving in this asylum 109- The average annual expense 
for the above period amounted to about £1900, and the 
average cost of each patient, including clothing and all 
other charges, was about £17 per annum. 

Among the voluntary institutions for the improve- 
ment of the city the most remarkable is the association 
for the suppression of mendicity, under the superin- 
tendence of a committee, who meet weekly. For this 
purpose the city is divided into six districts, and eight 
resident visiters are appointed to each, one of whom 
collects the subscriptions of the contributors on Wed- 
nesday, and distributes them among the paupers on the 
ensuing Monday. The paupers are divided into three 
classes, viz., those wholly incapacitated from industrious 
exertion ; orphans and destitute children ; and paupers 
with large families, who are able in some measure, 
though not wholly, to provide for their subsistence. The 
visiters personally inspect the habitations of those whom 
they relieve, and report to the general committee. The 
paupers are employed in sweeping the streets and lanes, 
by which means the public thoroughfares are kept in a 
state of great cleanliness ; and itinerant mendicants are 
prevented from begging in the streets by two authorised 
beadles. “The Robinson Loan Fund” consists of an 
accumulated bequest of £200 by Primate Robinson, in 
1794, held in trust by the corporation, and lent free of 
interest, under an order of the Court of Chancery made 
in Feb. 1834, in sums of from £10 to £30, to tradesmen 
and artificers resident or about to settle in the city, and 
repayable by instalments at or within 12 months ; and 
there is another fund for supplying distressed tradesmen 
with small loans to be repaid monthly. A bequest was 
made by the late Arthur Jacob Macan, who died in 
India in 1819, to the sovereign and burgesses and other 
inhabitants of Armagh, for the erection and endowment 
of an asylum for the blind, on the plan of that at Liver- 
pool, but open indiscriminately to all religious persua- 
sions, and, if the funds should allow of it, for the 
admission also of deaf and dumb children, with pre- 
ference to the county of Armagh. The benefits deriv- 
able under the will are prospective, and are principally 
contingent on the death of certain legatees. 

Basilica Fetus Concionaria, “the old preaching church,” 
was probably used in later times as the parish church : a 
small fragment still remains contiguous to the cathedral, 
where the rectors of Armagh were formerly inducted. 
The priory of the Culdees, who were secular priests 
serving in the choir of the cathedral, where their pre- 
sident officiated as precentor, was situated in Castle- 
street, and had been totally forsaken for some time prior 
to 1625, at which period the rents were received by the 
archbishop’s seneschal, and the whole of its endowment 
in lands, &c., was granted to the vicars choral. Temple 
Bridget, built by St. Patrick, stood near the spot now 
occupied by the R. C. chapel. He also founded Temple - 
na-Fearta, or “the church of the miracles,” without the 
city, for his sister Lupita, who was interred there, and 
whose body was discovered at the commencement of 
the 17th century in an upright posture, deeply buried 


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under the rubbish, with a cross before and behind it. 
The site of the monastery of St. Columba was that now 
occupied by the Provincial Bank, at the north-east 
corner of Abbey-street ; the two Methodist chapels 
stand on part of its gardens. There are many other 
vestiges of antiquity in the city and its vicinity. The 
most ancient and remarkable is Eamhuin Macha or 
Eamania, the chief residence of the Kings of Ulster, 
situated two miles to the west, near which several celts, 
brazen spear heads, and other military weapons have 
been found. Crieve Roe, adjoining it, is said to have been 
the seat of the only order of knighthood among the ancient 
Irish ; its members were called “Knights of the Red 
Branch,” and hence the name of the place. In the same 
neighbourhood is the Navan Fort, where also numerous 
ornaments, military weapons, horse accoutrements, &c., 
are frequently found; and on the estate of Mr. John 
Mackey, in the townland of Kennedy, are the remains of 
two forts, where petrified wood and other fossils have been 
found. In the primate’s demesne are extensive and pictu- 
resque ruins of an abbey ; near the asylum are the walls of 
Bishop’s Court, once the residence of the primates ; and 
on the banks of the Callan are the remains of the tumulus 
of “ Nial of the hundred battles.” On a lofty eminence 
four miles to the south-east is Cairnamnhanaghan, now 
called the “Vicar’s Cairn,” commanding an extensive 
and pleasing prospect over several adjacent counties. 
It is a vast conical heap of stones in the parish of Mul- 
laghbrack, covering a circular area 44 yards in diameter, 
and thrown together without any regularity, except the 
encircling stones, which were placed close to each other, 
in order to contain the smaller stones of which the 
cairn is composed. Its size has been much diminished 
by the peasantry, who have carried away the large stones 
for building ; but the proprietor, the Earl of Charle- 
mont, has prohibited this destruction. Coins of Anlaff 
the Dane, Athelstan, Alfred, and Edgar have been found 
in and around the city. Armagh gives the title of Earl 
to his Majesty, the King of Hanover, who is also Duke 
of Cumberland. 

ARM AGH-BRE AGUE, a district parish, partly in 
the barony of Armagh, and partly in the barony of 
Lower Fews, county of Armagh, and province of 
Ulster, 7 miles (S.) from Armagh, on the road from 
Keady to Newtown- Hamilton ; containing 3632 inhabit- 
ants. It was formed into a parish under the provisions 
of an act of the 7th and 8th of Geo. III., cap. 43, by 
taking three townlands from the parish of Lisnadill, 
and three from that of Keady, the former principally 
heath and mountain, and the latter tithe-free ; and 
comprises 9113 statute acres, of which 5000 are arable, 
and the remainder waste and bog. The mountains 
abound with clay-slate ; and there are also indications 
of lead and copper ores, but no attempt has yet been 
made to work either. About two miles from the village 
is Mountain Lodge, the residence of Hugh Garmany, 
Esq. At Linen Vale there is an extensive bleach-green, 
where 20,000 pieces of linen are annually finished for 
the English markets. The inhabitants are chiefly em- 
ployed in the weaving of linen and in agricultural 
pursuits. The living is a perpetual curacy, in the dio- 
cese of Armagh, and in the alternate patronage of the 
Rectors of Armagh and Keady, the former of whom 
contributes £60 and the latter £40 per annum as a 
stipend for the curate ; there is neither glebe-house nor 
75 


glebe. The church, situated on the summit of one of 
the Fews mountains, is a small neat edifice, in the early 
English style; it was built in 1831, at an expense of 
£600, a gift from the late Board of First Fruits. In 
the R. C. divisions this parish is one of three that form 
the union or district of Lisnadill or Ballymacnab, and 
contains a small chapel at Granemore. In the parochial 
school are 80 boys and 40 girls ; the master has a 
house and three roods of land rent-free. The school- 
room, a large and commodious building, was erected by 
subscription in 1826. There are also a Sunday school 
for gratuitous instruction, and a hedge school. Lough 
Aughnagurgan, the source of the river Callan, is in this 
district ; and on the summit of one of the mountains 
stands the South Meridian Arch belonging to the obser- 
vatory of Armagh. 

ARMOY, or ARDMOY, a parish, partly in the 
barony of Upper Dunluce, but chiefly in that of 
Carey, county of Antrim, and province of Ulster, 
4 miles (S. S. W.) from Ballycastle ; containing 2622 
inhabitants, of which number, 129 are in the village. 
St. Patrick is said to have had a cell at this place, 
where, in attempting to convert the natives to Chris- 
tianity, his disciple Uhda was killed. The parish is 
situated on the river Bush, and is intersected by a small 
river called the Wellwater, which rises in a bog on the 
eastern side, and, with its tributary streams, flows 
through the parish into the river Bush on the western 
side. The road from Ballycastle to Ballymena passes 
through it, and is intersected by one from east to west, 
and by another from north-east to south-west. It com- 
prises, according to the Ordnance survey, 9349 statute 
acres, of which 826f are in Upper Dunluce and 8522^ 
in Carey ; about seven-tenths are arable, pasture, and 
meadow land. The surface is broken by a ridge of 
mountains which take their names from the townlands to 
which they are contiguous, and of which the north side 
affords good pasturage for cattle, and the summits are 
heathy and barren ; about nine-tenths of the great hill of 
Knocklayd, the highest in the county, is good arable 
and pasture land. That portion of the parish which is 
under tillage is in a very high state of cultivation ; the 
system of agriculture is rapidly improving, and com- 
posts of lime and earth, or moss, are used as manure 
for potatoes, by which the produce is greatly increased. 
There are three bogs, called respectively Ballyhenver, 
Breen, and Belaney, and the small bog of Moninacloygh ; 
and turf may be had on the sides and summits of all the 
mountains. Several quarries of excellent white limestone 
and basalt afford good materials for building, and for 
repairing the roads. Turnarobert is the residence of the 
Rev. S. Hunter. The whole of the parish, with the 
exception of the townlands of Ballycanver, Park, Bun- 
shanloney, and MulaghdufF, and part of the village of 
Armoy, belongs to the see of Connor. The village is 
very flourishing and has a penny post to Ballycastle : 
several handsome houses have been built, new roads 
have been opened, and bridges constructed over the 
river Wellwater. Fairs for horses, horned cattle, pigs, 
corn, and butter, are held on Jan. 25tli, Feb. 25th, 
March 29th, May 25th, Aug. 16th, Nov. 14th, and 
Dec. 26th. 

The living was formerly a vicarage, the rectory being 
appropriate to the archdeaconry of Connor, from the 
year 1609 till 1831, when, upon the decease of Dr. Trail, 

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the last archdeacon, it became a rectory under the pro- 
visions of Bishop Mant’s act ; it is in the diocese of 
Connor, and in the patronage of the Bishop ; the tithes 
amount to £225. The church, situated in the centre of 
the parish, was rebuilt in 1820, for which a loan of 
£415 was obtained from the late Board of First Fruits: 
it is a neat plain edifice, and has been lately repaired 
by a grant of £128 from the Ecclesiastical Commis- 
sioners. The glebe-house was built in 1807, at an 
expense of £3 76. 10. 4. : the glebe comprises 23 acres, 
valued at £30 per annum. In the R. C. divisions this 
parish is united with that of Ballintoy, in each of 
which there is a chapel: that in Armoy is a small edifice. 
There is also a place of worship for Presbyterians in 
connection with the Synod of Ulster, of the third class. 
The parochial school is in the townland of Doonan ; 
there are national schools at Breene and in the village 
of Armoy, and another school at Mulaghduff. In the 
churchyard are the remains of an ancient round tower, 
47^ feet in circumference and 36 feet high ; the present 
rector has enclosed the upper part with a dome of wood 
and stone, in which is placed the church bell. Some 
beautifully clear crystals, called Irish Diamonds, are 
found on Knocklayd ; and fragments of gneiss, por- 
phyry and mica slate are found in various parts of the 
parish. 

ARRAN ISLANDS, a barony, in the county of 
Galway, and province of Connaught, 30 miles (W. S. 
W.) from Galway; containing 3191 inhabitants. This 
barony consists of a group of islands called the South 
Arran Isles, situated in the centre of the mouth of 
Galway bay, stretching south-east and north-west from 
52° to 53° (N. Lat.), and from 9° 30' to 9° 42' (W. Lon.) ; 
and comprising Arranmore or the Great Arran to the 
west, Ennismain or Innismain (called also the Middle 
Island), and Innishere or the Eastern island, which are 
thickly inhabited ; also the small rocky isles called 
Straw Island, the Branach Isles, and Ulane-Earhach or 
the Western Isle. They are supposed to be the remains 
of a high barrier of land separated at some remote 
period by the violence of the sea ; and from evident ap- 
pearances of their having been anciently overspread 
with wood, their retired situation, and the existence of 
druidical remains, to have been appropriated to the 
celebration of the religious rites of the early Irish, prior 
to the introduction of Christianity. The Firbolg tribes 
had possession of these islands at a very early period ; 
and in the third century they were held, it is said, by 
the sept of Eogan More, King of Thomond. They sub- 
sequently became the residence of St. Ibar, one of the mis- 
sionaries sent to Ireland before the time of St. Patrick ; 
and in the 5th century the Great Island was given by 
ACngus, King of Cashel, to St. Endeus or St. Enda, who 
founded several monasteries, and built several churches, 
of which the principal was named after him Kill-Enda, 
now called Killeany. This island soon became celebrated 
for its number of holy men, and such was the fame of 
Enda for sanctity, that it was visited during his lifetime 
by St. Kieran, St. Brendan, and the celebrated Columb- 
kill ; it still bears the name of “ Arran of the Saints.” 
In 546 it was agreed between the kings of Munster and 
Connaught, whose territories were separated by the bay 
of Galway, that these islands should be independent of 
both, and pay tribute to neither. In 1 08 1 the Great Island 
was ravaged by the Danes. The sept of Mac Tiege O’Brien 
76 


were temporal lords of the islands from a very remote 
period, and the inhabitants of the English part of the town 
of Galway entered early into strict alliance and friendship 
with them ; but this compact did not save the islands 
from being plundered and burnt by Sir John D’Arcy, 
Lord-Justice of Ireland, who, in 1334, sailed round the 
western coast with a fleet of 56 vessels. In 1485 a 
monastery for Franciscans was founded in the Great 
Island, in which was also erected a famous abbey for 
Canons Regular. In the reign of Elizabeth the O’Briens 
were expelled by the sept of O’Flaherty, of the neigh- 
bouring mainland of Connaught; on which occasion 
the mayor and sheriffs of Galway sent a petition to the 
Queen in favour of the former, to whom, they state, 
they paid an additional tribute of wine, in consideration 
of their protection, and of their expenses in guarding the 
bay and harbour of Galway against pirates and coast 
plunderers. In consequence of this petition, a commis- 
sion was issued, under which it appeared that the 
islands belonged of right to the crown ; and in 1587 
letters patent were granted, by which the Queen, instead 
of restoring them to the ancient proprietors, gave them 
to John Rawson, of Athlone, on condition of his keeping 
constantly on them 20 foot soldiers of the English 
nation. This property afterwards became vested in 
Sir Robert Lynch, of Galway ; but the Clan Tieges still 
claimed it as their patrimony, and taking advantage of 
the troubles ot 1641, prepared, with the assistance of 
Boetius Clanchy, the younger, a man of great property 
and influence in the county of Clare, to invade the 
islands ; but the execution of their design was prevented 
by the timely interference of the Marquess of Clanri- 
carde and the Earl of Thomond. In 1651, when the 
royal authority was fast declining, the Marquess of 
Clanricarde placed 200 musqueteers on these islands, 
under the command of Sir Robert Lynch ; the fort of 
Ardkyn, in the Great Island, was soon after repaired 
and mounted with cannon ; and by these means they 
held out against the parliamentary forces for nearly 
twelve months after the surrender of Galway. In 
December of that year, the Irish, defeated in every 
other quarter, landed here 700 men in boats from Iar 
Connaught and Inis Bophin ; and on the 9th of the 
following January, 1300 of the parliamentary "infantry 
were shipped from the bay of Galway to attack them, 
and 600 more marched from the town to Iar Con- 
naught, to be sent thence, if necessary, to their aid ; 
but on the 13th the islands surrendered, on condition 
that quarter should be given to all within the fort, and 
that they should have six weeks allowed them to retire 
to Spain, or any other country then at peace with 
England. Sir Robert Lynch, the late proprietor, being 
declared a traitor, the property was forfeited and granted 
to Erasmus Smith, Esq., one of the most considerable 
of the London adventurers, from whom it was pur- 
chased by Richard Butler, fifth son of James, first Duke 
of Ormonde, who was created Earl of Arran in 1662, 
and to whom it was confirmed by royal patent under the 
Act of Settlement. On the surrender of Galway to the 
forces of Wm. III., in 1691, Arran was again garrisoned 
and a barrack was erected, in which soldiers were 
quartered for many years. In 1693, the title of Earl 
of the Isles of Arran was conferred on Charles, brother 
of the second Duke of Ormonde, with whom it became 
extinct in 1758; it was revived in favour of Sir Arthur 


A R R 


ARR 


Gore, Bart., in 1762, and from him the title has des- 
cended to the present Earl. The islands are now the 
property of the Digby family, of whom the present 
head is the Rev. John Digby, of Landerstown, in the 
county of Kildare. 

Their appearance, on approaching, is awfully im- 
pressive ; the dark cliffs opposing to the billows that 
roll impetuously against them a perpendicular barrier, 
several hundred feet high, of rugged masses shelving 
abruptly towards the base, and perforated with various 
winding cavities worn by the violence of the waves. 
Arranmore, or the Great Island, which is the most 
northern of the three, is about 11 miles in length, and 
about If- mile at its greatest breadth ; and comprises 
the villages of Killeany, Kilmurvey, and Onought, and the 
hamlets of Icararn, Ballyneerega, Mannister, Cowruagh, 
Gortnagopple, Furnakurk, Cregacarean, Shran, and 
Bungowla. In the centre is a signal tower ; and at 
Oaghill, on the summit, is a lighthouse, elevated 498 feet 
above the level of the sea at high water, and exhibiting 
a bright revolving light from 21 reflectors, which attains 
its greatest magnitude every three minutes, and may 
be seen from all points at a distance of 28 nautical 
miles, in clear weather. The island is bounded on the 
south and west by rocky cliffs, from 300 to 400 feet high ; 
but on the north are low shelving rocks and sandy 
beaches ; and the passage to the northward is called the 
North Sound, or entrance to the bay of Galway. There 
is only one safe harbour, called Killeaney or Arran bay : 
in the upper part of the bay is a small pier, erected by order 
of the late Fishery Board in 18$2, which has eight feet of 
water. Ennismain, or the Middle Island, is separated from 
Arranmore by Gregory Sound, which is about four miles 
broad and navigable from shore to shore : it is of 
irregular form and about eight miles in circumference ; 
and comprises the village of Maher and the hamlets of 
Moneenarouga, Lissheen, Ballindoon, and Kinavalla. 
The inhabitants are chiefly engaged in fishing and 
making kelp ; they have a few row-boats and a number 
of canoes, or corachs, made of osiers and covered with 
pitched canvas. The northern point of this island is 
lofty and rugged, but terminates in a low sandy beach, 
and on several sides it is boldly perpendicular. 
Innishere, or the Eastern Island, is separated from En- 
nismain by a rocky and dangerous passage, called Foul 
Sound, which is about a league broad, with a ledge of 
rocks having on it six feet of water. It is about a mile 
and a half in length, three quarters of a mile in breadth, 
and four miles in circumference ; and comprises the 
village of Temore, and the hamlets of Forumna, Castle, 
and Cleganough. The tillage is chiefly for potatoes, 
with a little rye ; but the inhabitants live principally by 
fishing and making kelp, which is said to be the best 
brought to the Galway market. There is a signal tower 
on the island, and near it an old castle. To the west of 
Arranmore are the Branach Isles, two of which, about 
eight acres in extent, afford good pasturage, and the 
third is a perpendicular and barren rock of about two 
acres. 

The surface of all the islands is barren rock, inter- 
spersed with numerous verdant and fertile spots. There 
are many springs and rivulets, but these afford in dry 
seasons a very inadequate supply of water, which is 
either brought from the main land for the use of the 
cattle, or the cattle are removed thither during the con- 
77 


tinuance of the drought. The best soils are near the shore 
and are sandy, with a mixture of rich loam : the prevailing 
crops are potatoes, rye, and a small kind of black oats ; the 
inhabitants raise also small quantities of barley and wheat, 
for which they apply an additional portion of sea-weed, 
their only manure ; and they grow small quantities of 
flax ; but the produce of their harvests seldom exceeds 
what is required for their own consumption. The pas- 
ture land is appropriated to sheep and goats, and a few 
cows and horses, for which they also reserve some mea- 
dow: the mutton is of fine flavour and superior quality; 
but the most profitable stock is their breed of calves, 
which are reputed to be the best in Ireland, and are 
much sought after by the Connaught graziers. The 
grasses are intermingled with a variety of medicinal 
and sweet herbs, among which the wild garlick is so 
abundant as to give a flavour to the butter. The plant 
called Rineen, or “ fairy flax,” is much relied on for its 
medicinal virtues in almost all cases ; the tormentil 
root serves in place of bark for tanning ; and there is 
another plant which gives a fine blue dye, and is used in 
colouring the woollen cloth which the islanders manu- 
facture for their own wear. The fisheries are a great 
source of profit, and in the whole employ about 120 
boats ; of these, 30 or 40 have sails and are from five 
to ten tons’ burden ; the rest are small row-boats and 
canoes, or corachs. The spring and beginning of the 
summer are the season for the spillard fishery ; im- 
mense quantities of cod, ling, haddock, turbot, gurnet, 
mackerel, glassin, bream, and herring are taken here ; 
and lobsters, crabs, cockles, and muscles are also found in 
abundance. The inhabitants rely chiefly on the herring 
fishery, which is very productive ; and in April and 
May, many of them are employed in spearing the sun- 
fish, or basking shark, from the liver of which they 
extract considerable quantities of oil. Hares and rabbits 
abound in these islands, which are also frequented by 
plovers, gannets, pigeons, ducks, and other wild fowl ; 
and the cliffs are the resort of numerous puffins, which 
are taken for the sake of their feathers by cragmen, 
who descend the cliffs at night by means of a rope 
fastened round the body, and are lowered by four or 
five of their companions. In one of the islands a very 
fine stratum of dove-coloured and black marble has been 
discovered ; and from the various natural resources of 
this apparently barren district, the inhabitants are en- 
abled to pay a rental of from £2000 to £3000 per 
annum to the proprietor. The most remarkable of the 
natural curiosities are the three caverns called the Puff- 
ing Holes, at the southern extremity of Arranmore ; 
they communicate with the sea and have apertures in 
the surface of the cliff, about 20 perches from its brink, 
from which, during the prevalence of strong westerly 
winds, prodigious columns of water are projected to ther 
height of a ship’s mast. 

The three islands form three parishes in the diocese of 
Tuam, and, in respect to their vicarages, are part of the 
union of Ballynakill, from the church of which they are 28 
miles distant ; the rectories are impropriate in the Digby 
family. The tithes amount to £47. 19. 10f., of which 
£38. 8. is payable to the impropriator, and £9. 11. lOf. 
to the incumbent. In the R. C. divisions they form 
one parish, which is served by a clergyman resident at 
Oaghill, where a chapel, a neat slated building, has been 
recently erected. About 400 children are educated in 


ART 


ART 


four pay schools at Arranmore. There are still some 
very interesting remains not only of druidical antiquity, 
but also of the ancient churches and monasteries. The 
ruins of the old abbey of Kill-Enda are situated nearly 
at the eastern extremity of the largest island ; and in 
the opposite direction are the ruins of seven churches, 
one of which, called Tempeil-Brecain, was probably 
dedicated to that saint. Near it is a holy well, and 
throughout the island are various others, and also nu- 
merous ancient crosses. In Ennismain are the ruins o 
two churches, dedicated to the Blessed Virgin ; and in 
Innishere, anciently called Arran Coemhain, were three, 
namely, St. Coemhain’s or Kevin’s, St. Paul’s, and 
Kill-i-Gradhandomhain, with the first of which was 
connected a monastery founded by St. Fechin. The 
most remarkable of the primitive fortifications is Dun- 
ASngus, situated on the summit of a great precipice 
overhanging the sea : it consists of three enclosures, 
the largest of which is encircled by a rampart of 
large stones standing on end ; and there are one of 
similar size and others smaller. From the secluded 
situation of these islands, the language, manners, 
customs, and dress of the natives are peculiarly 
primitive ; instances of longevity are remarkable. The 
shoes worn are simply a piece of raw cow hide, rather 
longer than the foot, and stitched close at the toes and 
heel with a piece of fishing line. The Irish language 
is commonly spoken, and being replete with primitive 
words, varies from the dialect of the natives of the main- 
land, but not so as to be unintelligible; a great portion of 
the inhabitants, however, speak good English. In the 
Great Island is a place called the Field of Skulls, from 
the number of human bones found in it, and thence 
supposed to have been the site of a battle fought during 
some intestine quarrel of the O’Briens. 

ARRANMORE, an island, in the parish of Temple- 
croan, barony of Boylagh, county of Donegal, and 
province of Ulster, 3 miles (W. N. W.) from Rutland; 
containing, in 1834, 1141 inhabitants. This is the 
largest of a group of islands called the Rosses, lying off 
the north-west coast, about two miles from the shore, 
in lat. 54° 51' 45" (N.), and Ion. 8° 31' 45" (W.) : it is 
three miles in length and three in breadth, and is about 
nine miles distant from the mainland ; comprising, ac- 
cording to the Ordnance survey, 4355 statute acres, of 
which about 650 only are under cultivation and in pasture, 
and the remainder is rugged mountain. In 1784 a 
large herring fishery was carried on successfully on 
this part of the coast, in which 400 sail of vessels and 
about 1000 small boats were employed; but within the 
last thirty or forty years it has been entirely discon- 
tinued. On the north point of the island, which is a 
large rock of granite, was formerly a lighthouse, fitted 
up with an improved apparatus in 1817 by the corpo- 
ration for the improvements of the port of Dublin, which 
has since been removed to Tory Island; the house 
remains, but is not lighted. There is good anchorage 
on the east side of the island in an open roadstead. In 
the R. C. divisions this place forms part of the parish of 
Templenane or Templecroder, in which is the chapel, 
where divine service is performed every third Sunday. 

ARTAGH.— See TAUGHBOYNE. 

ARTANE, otherwise ARTAINE, a parish, in the 
barony of Coolock, county of Dublin, and province of 
Leinster, 2§ miles (N.) from the Post-office, Dublin ; 

78 


containing 583 inhabitants. The village is situated on the 
road from Dublin to Malahide, and has a penny post. 
Artane castle was long the property of the Donellans 
of Ravensdale, and is said to have been the scene of 
the death of John Alen or Alan, Archbishop of Dublin, 
who, in endeavouring to escape from the vengeance of 
the house of Kildare, which he had provoked by his ad- 
herence to the will and measures of Cardinal Wolsey, was 
shipwrecked near Clontarf ; and being made prisoner by 
some followers of that family, was brought before Lord 
Thos. Fitzgerald, then posted here with the insurgent 
army, whom he earnestly entreated to spare his life ; 
but, either failing in his supplications, or from the wil- 
ful misconstruction of a contemptuous expression by 
Fitzgerald into a sentence of death on the part of those 
around him, as variously alleged by different writers, he 
was instantly slain in the great hall of the castle, on the 
28th of July, 1534. On the breaking out of hostilities 
in 1641, it was taken by Luke Netterville, one of the 
R. C. leaders, at the head of a body of royalists, and 
garrisoned. The parish comprises 946 statute acres, of 
which about 20, including roads, are untitheable and of 
no value. The old castle was pulled down in 1825, 
and on its site and with its materials was erected, by the 
late Matthew Boyle, Esq., uncle of the present pro- 
prietor, M. Callaghan, Esq., a handsome house, which 
commands a splendid view of the islands of Lambay and 
Ireland’s Eye, the hill of Howth, and the Dublin and 
Wicklow mountains. The other seats are Elm Park, 
the residence of T. Hutton, Esq. ; Thorndale, of D. H. 
Sherrard, Esq.; Woodvill?, of J. Cornwall, Esq.; Artaine 
House, of T. Alley, Esq. ; Mount Dillon, of H. Cooper, 
Esq. ; Kilmore House, of H. Hutton, Esq. ; Belfield, of 
Capt. Cottingham ; Artaine Cottage, of J. Cusack, Esq. ; 
Pozzodigotto, of Mrs. Atkinson ; and Stella Lodge, of 
M. Curwen, Esq. In its ecclesiastical concerns this is 
a chapelry, in the diocese of Dublin, and one of three 
which, with the rectory of Finglas and the curacy of St. 
Werburgh’s, Dublin, constitute the corps of the chan- 
cellorship in the cathedral church of St. Patrick, Dublin, 
which is in the patronage of the Archbishop. The 
church is a picturesque ruin, partly covered with ivy : in 
the burial-ground is a tombstone to the Hollywood family, 
to which the manor belonged for many ages, and of 
which John Hollywood, a distinguished mathematician 
and philosopher of the 13th century, was a member. 
In the R. C. divisions it is in the union or district of 
Clontarf, Coolock, and Santry. A neat school-house for 
boys and girls, with apartments for the master and mis- 
tress, was built near the old church by the late M. 
Boyle, Esq., in 1832, at an expense of more than £600, 
of which £150 was repaid by the National Board, which 
contributes £25 per annum towards the support of the 
school, and, in 1833, Mr. Boyle bequeathed £10 per 
annum for the same purpose : the number of boys on 
the books is 116, and of girls, 107. 

ARTHURSTOWN, or KING’S-BAY, a post-town, 
in the parish of St. James, barony of Shelburne, 
county of Wexford, and province of Leinster, 9i 
miles (S.E. byS.) from New Ross, and 80 (S. by W.) 
from Dublin ; containing 170 inhabitants. This place is 
situated on Waterford harbour, three miles below the 
junction of the rivers Barrow, Suir, and Nore, and derives 
its origin and name from its proprietor, Arthur, first and 
present Lord Templemore, whose seat is here, and by 


ART 


ASH 


•whom it has been mostly built within the last few years. 
The trade consists principally in the importation of coal 
and culm from South Wales, and slates from Bangor 
and the exportation to Waterford of corn, pigs, butter, 
eggs, honey, and poultry. It has a commodious quay, 
with a muddy strand open to Waterford harbour ; and 
a pier of millstone grit found in the quarries here, 306 
feet in length, and originally intended for the accommo- 
dation of the boats employed in the fishery, has been 
constructed at an expense of £3000, of which £700 was 
granted by the late Fishery Board, and the remainder 
was defrayed by Lord Templemore. Vessels of 100 tons’ 
burden can come up close to the pier, but the harbour 
formed by it has lately become partially choked with 
an accumulation of mud, which requires speedy removal, 
and the adoption of some plan calculated to prevent a 
recurrence of the obstruction. The bay is subject to a 
heavy sea during the prevalence of south, south-west, 
and north-west winds. This place is a chief constabu- 
lary police station, and a station of the coast-guard. 
There is a dispensary, and a fever hospital also has been 
built in connection with it, and is supported in the usual 
manner. — See James (St.) 

ARTRAMONT, or ARDTRAMONT, a parish, in 
the barony of Shelmalier, county of Wexford, and 
province of Leinster, 4 miles (N.) from Wexford ; 
containing 661 inhabitants. It is situated on the north- 
western side of the estuary of the Slaney, and comprises 
2384 statute acres, as applotted under the tithe act, of 
which 129 are woodland. A kind of red sandstone 
adapted for building is quarried in the parish. The sur- 
rounding scenery is pleasingly diversified, and in some 
parts highly picturesque. Artramont, the elegant seat of 
G. le Hunte, Esq., is beautifully situated on an eminence 
surrounded by a fine plantation, and commanding an ex- 
tensive view of Wexford harbour and the country adja- 
cent : the demesne is separated from the parish of 

Tickillen, on the north, by a romantic glen called Eden 
Vale, the steep sides of which are covered from the 
water’s edge to their summits with young and thriving 
plantations ; and from one point of view are seen three 
picturesque cascades, formed by the precipitation of the 
little river Sow from a rocky height of 50 or 60 feet. 
St. Edmond’s, the residence of J. Lane, Esq., is also in 
the parish. The parish is in the diocese of Ferns, and 
is a rectory, forming part of the union of Ardcolme : 
the tithes amount to £184. 12. 3f. The church has 
long been in ruins. In the R. C. divisions it is in 
the union or district of Crossabeg, where the chapel is 
situated. A school for children of both sexes was esta- 
blished in 1818 j the school-house, a handsome building 
in the rustic style, was erected at the expense of Sir 
Francis le Hunte, by whom the school is chiefly sup- 
ported ; it affords accommodation, including a girls’ 
work-room, for about 100 children ■, the master has 
apartments and two acres of land, with £20 per annum, 
and six tons of coal yearly. Within the demesne are the 
ruins of Artramont castle ; and there are also vestiges of 
a Danish fort, with a square moat, in the parish. 

ARTREA.— See ARDTREA. 

ARVAGH, a market and post-town, and a parish, 
in the barony of Tulloghonoiio, county of Cavan, 
and province of Ulster, lOf miles (S. W.) from Cavan, 
and, by way of that town, 66 miles (N. W. by W.) 
from Dublin ■, containing 4580 inhabitants, of which 
79 


number, 422 are in the town. This parish is situated 
on the road from Killesandra to Scrabby, near the 
point of junction of the three counties of Cavan, Leitrim, 
and Longford, and was formed by the disunion of 
thirty t.ownlands from the parish of Killesandra. Near 
the town is the lake of Scraba, one of the sources of 
the river Erne, which, with the lakes through which it 
runs, is commonly called in its entire extent Lough 
Erne. The market is on Friday, and is well supplied 
with provisions : the market-house, situated in the 

centre of the town, was built by the Earl of Gosford, 
to whom the town belongs. Fairs are held on Jan. 28th, 
March 25th, April 1st, May 2nd, June 8tli, Aug. 8th 
Sept. 23rd, Nov. 1st, and Dec. 23rd. Here is a station 
of the constabulary police. The living is a perpetual 
cure, in the diocese ofKilmore, and in the patronage of 
the Vicar of Killesandra : the perpetual curate has a 
fixed income of £75 per annum late currency, of which 
£50 is paid by the incumbent of Killesandra, and £25 
from the funds of the Ecclesiastical Commissioners. 
The church was built by aid of a gift of £900 and a 
loan of £100, in 1819, from the late Board of First Fruits. 
The glebe-house is small but conveniently built ; and the 
glebe comprises 21 acres. In the R. C. divisions this 
parish remains included in the union or district of Kil- 
lesandra, and has a chapel, situated at Corronee. 
There is a place of worship for Wesleyan methodists. 
There are two public schools, one in the town and the 
other at Corronary, and other private and Sunday 
schools in the parish. 

ASHBOURNE, a post-town, in the parish of 
Killegland, barony of Ratoath, county of Meath, 
and province of Leinster, 12| miles (S. by E.) from 
Drogheda, and 10^ (N. by W.) from Dublin, on the mail 
coach road to Londonderry and Belfast ; containing 60 
houses and 473 inhabitants. It is a constabulary police 
station, and has fairs on Jan. 6th, April 16th, May 21st, 
July 29th, and Oct. 31st. Here is a R. C. chapel, a 
neat modern building ; and a dispensary is principally 
supported by the rector and curate, assisted by some, of 
the parishioners. — See Killegland. 

ASHFIELD, a parish, in the barony of Tullagh- 
garvey, county of Cavan, and province of Ulster, ■§ 
a mile (S. W.) from Cootehill, on the road to Belturbet ; 
containing 3013 inhabitants. It formerly constituted 
part of the parish of Killersherdiny, from which it was 
separated in 1799 ; and comprises 4426 acres, as ap- 
plotted under the tithe act, and valued at about £4006 
per annum. The land is in general good, and there is 
very little waste ; the system of agriculture is slowly 
improving. The manufacture of linen for broad sheet- 
ing is carried on to a considerable extent. Ashfield 
Lodge, the seat of Col. Clements, is beautifully situated 
on an eminence within view of the church, beneath 
which swiftly flows the Cootehill river, a tributary to 
Lough Erne, and is surrounded with extensive planta- 
tions. Fort Henry, formerly a seat of the Clements 
family, is now that of the Rev. J. Thompson. The living 
is a perpetual curacy, in the diocese of Kilmore, and in 
the patronage of the Vicar of Killersherdiny, with 
which parish the tithes are included and are payable to 
the vicar : the perpetual curate has a fixed annual 

income of £100, of which £50 is payable by the 
Ecclesiastical Commissioners. The church is a hand- 
some edifice, with a lofty spire, occupying a very elevated 


ASK 


ASK 


site ; it was built by aid of a gift of £500 from the late 
Board of First Fruits, in 1795, and, in 1818, the Board 
also granted £500, of which one half was a gift and the 
other a loan. The glebe-house was built by a gift of 
£450 and a loan of £50 from the same Board, in 1812 ; 
the glebe comprises 20 acres. In the R. C. divisions 
this parish forms part of the union or district of Kil- 
lersherdiny : the chapel is situated at Drummurry. 

Besides the parochial school, there is one at Doohurrick 
under the patronage of Mrs. Clements ; also three 
private pay schools. 

ASHFORD, a village and post-town, in the parish of 
Rathnew, barony of Newcastle, county of Wicklow, 
and province of Leinster, 3 miles (W. N. W.) from 
Wicklow, and 2 if (S. by E.) from Dublin : the popula- 
tion is returned with the parish. This place, which is 
situated on the south side of the river Vartrey, and on 
the mail coach road from Dublin, consists of several 
neat cottages, and is pleasantly situated in the centre of 
a rich agricultural district ; it has a small but well- 
conducted posting-house and hotel. Fairs are held on 
April 27th, June 24th, Sept. 8th, and Dec. 16th. — See 
Rathnew. 

ASHFORD.— See KILLEEDY. 

ASKEATON, a market and post-town, and a parish 
(formerly a parliamentary borough), in the barony of 
Lower Connello East, county of Limerick, and 
province of Munster, 16 miles (W. S. W.) from Limerick, 
and 113 miles (S. W. by W.) from Dublin; containing 
2799 inhabitants, of which number, 1515 are in the town. 
This place is indebted for its foundation and early import- 
ance to the Fitzgeralds, who had a magnificent castle 
here, and of whom James, seventh Earl of Desmond, 
founded a monastery in 1420, for Conventual Francis- 
cans, which was reformed, in 1490, by the Observantine 
friars, and ranked among the finest ecclesiastical struc- 
tures in Ireland. In 1558, James Fitzgerald, fifteenth Earl 
of Desmond, and High Treasurer of Ireland, died here and 
was buried in the monastery. He was succeeded by his 
son Garret, called by way of distinction the Great Earl, 
who forfeited his life and his large estates by his parti- 
cipation in the insurrection during the reign of Eliza- 
beth. In 1564 a provincial chapter of the Franciscan 
order was held in the monastery ; but in the hostilities 
which broke out soon after, the monks were expelled 
and some of them put to death by the English forces. 
The Earl of Desmond, who, in 1573, had been in the 
custody of the mayor of Dublin, made his escape to the 
castle of this place, which, in 1579, he garrisoned against 
the Queen’s forces under Sir Nicholas Malby. In April 
of the following year it was attacked by Sir George 
Carew ; but the garrison retired during the night, leaving 
a train of gunpowder which blew up part of the fortress, 
and the English took possession of the remainder of 
the castle, which was the last that held out for this 
powerful earl. In 1642, Lord Broghill sent 200 men to 
defend the town, which was then walled, and to prevent 
the inhabitants from revolting to the insurgents ; it was 
for some time bravely defended by this force, but was 
at length compelled to surrender. In 1648 the Con- 
federate Catholics took possession of the abbey, and 
commenced repairing and restoring it. 

The town is pleasantly situated on the road from 
Limerick to Tarbert, and on the banks of the river 
Deel, which discharges itself into the Shannon about 
80 


two miles below, and is here crossed by an ancient 
bridge of five arches connecting the opposite portions 
of the town : it contains about 260 houses, of very in- 
different appearance. The Deel runs through the de- 
mesne of Inchirourk-More, and has a waterfall, or 
salmon leap, the scenery of which is wild and roman- 
tic ; there is a beautiful view of it from the town. The 
fishery belongs to Mr. Hunt, and was formerly of con- 
siderable value, but it has been much injured by the 
erection of the Scotch weirs on the Shannon, which the 
proprietors are taking steps to remove. The trade con- 
sists principally in grain and flour, which have been 
exported direct to the foreign markets. There are 
two large flour-mills ; one near the castle, the pro- 
perty of Mr. Hewson, is very extensive. The town is 
advantageously situated for trade, from its vicinity to 
the Shannon, and having a good river up which the tide 
flows, capable of admitting vessels of 60 tons’ burden, 
and which might be deepened at a trifling expense, so 
as to admit vessels drawing 15 feet of water to the 
bridge : the quays are spacious. In the spring, con- 
siderable quantities of sea-weed and sand are landed for 
manure. The market day is Tuesday, and a market- 
house is about to be erected on ground given by R. 
Hunt, Esq. Fairs are held on July 30th and Oct. 9th, 
for horses, cattle, and sheep. Here is a station of the 
constabulary police. The borough was incorporated by 
charter of the 11th ofJas. I. (J613), under the style 
of “ the Sovereign, Free Burgesses, and Community of 
the Borough of Askeaton and the corporation was 
made to consist of a sovereign and 12 free burgesses, 
who, amongst other privileges, were empowered to have 
a court of record, to be held every Monday, for the trial 
of all actions personal to the extent of five marks. It 
returned two members to the Irish parliament until 
the Union, when it was deprived of the franchise ; and 
of the £15,000 awarded in compensation for the loss of 
that privilege, £6850 was paid to Henry Thomas, Earl 
of Carrick, £6850 to the Trustees of the will of Hugh, 
Lord Massey, £1100 to Sir Yere Hunt, Bart., and £200 
to Sir Joseph Hoare, Bart. The corporation has since 
become extinct. A court of petty sessions is held 
before the county magistrates every alternate Tuesday. 
A manorial court, with jurisdiction to the amount of 
£10 late currency, was formerly held every month before 
the seneschal, who was appointed by Sir Matthew Blakis- 
ton, Bart., lord of the manor ; but it has been discon- 
tinued in conseauence of the establishment of the petty 
sessions, and no seneschal has been appointed since the 
death of the last, in 1834. 

The parish comprises 6138 statute acres, as ap- 
plotted under the tithe act. The surface is very un- 
dulating, and numerous rocky knolls rise considerably 
above the ordinary level. The lands are arable and 
pasture ; the soil is everywhere light ; but the system 
of agriculture, though advancing, is still capable of 
further improvement. Limestone of good quality is 
obtained in great abundance ; and copper ore has been 
discovered in several places, but no attempt has been 
hitherto made to work it. The scenery is pleasantly 
diversified and enlivened with numerous gentlemen’s 
seats, of which the principal are Inchirourk-More, the 
residence of R. Hunt, Esq. ; Shannon View, of J. Browne, 
Esq. ; Mantle Hill, of J. Hunt, Esq. ; Castle Hewson, 
of W. Hewson, Esq. ; and the Abbey, of the Rev. M. 


ASS 


ATH 


Fitzgerald, P.P. The living is a vicarage, in the diocese 
of Limerick, with the rectory of Lismakeery and the 
vicarage of Iverus united, forming the union of Askea- 
ton, in the patronage of Sir Matthew Blakiston, Bart. ; 
the rectory is impropriate in R. Hunt, Esq. The tithes 
amount to £450, of which £300 is payable to the im- 
propriator, and £150 to the vicar ; and the tithes of 
the benefice amount to £410. The church, situated in 
the town, is in a very dilapidated condition, and has 
been condemned by the ecclesiastical provincial archi- 
tect. The glebe-house, a large and handsome residence, 
was built in 1827 : the glebe comprises acres. In 
the R. C. division? the parish is the head of a union or 
district, comprising the parishes of Askeaton, Iverus, 
Lismakeery, and Tomdeely ; there are two chapels, one 
in the town, and one at Ballystean, both thatched build- 
ings. Adjoining the church is a parochial school for boys 
and girls j four public schools afford instruction to about 
190 children ; and there are three pay schools, in which 
are about 150 boys and 50 girls. There is also a dis- 
pensary. The present parochial church was that of the 
commandery of Knights Templars, founded in 1298 ; 
on the south side is a transept, now in ruins, and sepa- 
rated from the church by two lofty arches which have 
been rudely closed up ; and near the east end are the 
remains of an ancient tower, square at the base and 
octangular above. This tower and also the church and 
transept are precisely in the state in which they are 
described in the “ Pacata Hibernica,” published more 
than 200 years since. To the west of the church are 
the remains of the once stately castle, boldly situated 
on a rock of limestone in the river Deel ; and near it 
are those of the banqueting- house, a very spacious and 
elegant building, and, with the exception of the roof, 
still in a very perfect state ; the arched vaults beneath 
are very extensive, and the windows of the great hall 
are lofty and of beautiful design. On the eastern bank 
of the river, and at a short distance to the north, are 
the venerable ruins of the Franciscan abbey : it is built 
entirely of the dark grey marble which is found here in 
great abundance ; the cloisters are nearly entire, and 
of beautiful character ; on each side of the enclosed 
quadrangle are twelve lofty pointed arches supported by 
cylindrical columns with richly moulded capitals ; and 
in the centre of the square is an ancient thorn of stately 
growth. The church, with the exception of the roof, is 
partly standing ; the eastern gable, with its lofty win- 
dow, has some beautiful details in the later English 
style j the other portions are much decayed, and large 
masses of the walls lie scattered around, as if detached 
by the force of gunpowder ; these ruins are close to the 
bank of the river, and are almost washed by every tide. 
Two miles north of the town are the ruins of Court 
Browne castle, seated on an eminence overlooking the 
Shannon. In 1834 two very splendid fibulae of pure 
gold were found near the town ; and, in the following 
year, several ancient gold coins were discovered in sink- 
ing the foundation of a wall on the west side of the 
river. Silver chalices, crosiers, and a great number of 
coins have been found near the abbey and the castle. 

ASSEY, or ATHSY, a parish, in the barony of 
Lower Deece, county of Meath, and province of 
Leinster, 4 miles (S.) from Navan, on the river Boyne ; 
containing 108 inhabitants. The land, though not rich, 
is tolehably productive ; a considerable portion is under 
Vol. I. — SI 


tillage, and the remainder is good grazing land. Bellinter, 
the seat of the Rev. J. Preston, is situated in a well- 
wooded demesne of more than 800 acres, stretching 
into the adjoining parish of Balsoon. The living is a 
rectory, in the diocese of Meath, to which the rectory 
of Balsoon was united by diocesan authority in 1826, 
together forming the union of Assey, in the patronage 
of the Crown : the tithes amount to £62. 15. 4§., and 
the gross amount of tithes of the benefice is £132. 
There is neither church nor glebe-house in the union, 
the occasional duties of which are performed by the in- 
cumbent of Kilmessan, who receives £24 per annum, 
besides the glebe, which consists of three acres, valued 
at £6 per annum. The Commissioners of Ecclesiastical 
Inquiry, in 1831, have recommended that the two 
parishes be formed into one, to be called the parish of 
Athsy, and that a church and glebe-house for a resident 
minister be erected. In the R. C. divisions this parish 
forms part of the union or district of Dunsany and 
Kilmessan. 

ATHASSEL, a parish, in the barony of Clanwil- 
li am, county of Tipperary, and province of Munster, 
3^ miles (W.) from Cashel ; containing, with the parish 
of Relickmurry, 5498 inhabitants. This place, which 
is situated on the river Suir, was distinguished for its 
priory, founded towards the close of the 12th century 
by William Fitz Aldelm de Burgho, for Canons Regular 
of the order of St. Augustine, and dedicated to St. 
Edmund the King and Martyr. In 1319 the town was 
set on fire by Lord John, brother of Lord Maurice Fitz- 
Thomas ; and, in 1329, Bryan O’Brien burned it to the 
ground : there are still some slight traces of its site. 
The priory, which was amply endowed, and of which 
the abbot sat in parliament, continued to flourish till 
the reign of Edw. VI., when it was dissolved ; and in 
that of Philip and Mary it was, with other possessions, 
granted to Thomas, Earl of Ormonde. The remains 
are extensive and highly interesting, and shew the build- 
ings to have been distinguished for elegance and mag- 
nificence, and equal, if not superior, to any monastic 
structure in the kingdom. In this monastery was 
interred Richard de Burgho, second Earl of Ulster, 
called, from his complexion, the Red, who, after giving 
a splendid entertainment to the nobles and his friends 
at Kilkenny, in 1326, retired hither and soon after died. 
Castle Park, the seat of R. Creaghe, Esq., is a spacious 
and well-built mansion, pleasantly situated in a richly 
planted demesne, in which are some remains of an an- 
cient castle ; Ballycarron, the seat of T. Butler, Esq., 
is situated in an extensive and finely planted demesne ; 
Golden Hills is the castellated residence of H. White, 
Esq. ; and Springmount, that of J. White, Esq. Suir 
Castle, the residence of J. Robbins, Esq., is situated on 
the banks of the Suir, and within the demesne are the 
ruins of a castle with a square tower. The other seats 
are Gaulty View, the residence of F. Massey, Esq. ; 
Ballyslatteen, of R. Butler, Esq. ; and Hymenstown, of 
R. Scully, Esq. The parish is in the diocese of Cashel, 
and is a rectory, forming part of the union of Relick- 
murry : the tithes, including those of the parish of 
Relickmurry, amount to £550. In the R. C. divisions 
it forms part of the union or district of Golden. 

ATHBOY, a market and post-town, and a parish 
(formerly a borough), in the barony of Lune, county 
of Meath, and province of Leinster, 5 miles (N. W .) 

M 


A T H 


ATH 


from Trim, and 28 (N. W. by W.) from Dublin ; contain- 
ing 5317 inhabitants, of which number, 1959 are in the 
town. This place derives its name, signifying in the 
Irish language “ the yellow ford,” from its situation on 
a stream which falls into the river Boyne near Trim. 
The town, in 1831, contained 346 houses, and is at 
present a place of very little trade : the road from Old- 
castle to Dublin runs through it ; there is a very large 
flour-mill. The market is on Thursday, and is well sup- 
plied with corn and provisions. The principal fairs are 
held on the Thursday before Jan. 28th, May 4th, Aug. 
4th, and Nov. 7th, and there are others on March 3rd 
and 10th, June 22nd and 30th, and Sept. 22nd and 29th, 
but they are very inconsiderable. Here is a chief station 
of the constabulary police. 

In the 9th of Hen. IV. (1407), a charter was granted 
on petition from the provost and commonalty, which, 
after setting forth that the town had been from time 
immemorial an ancient borough, confirmed all existing 
privileges, and granted a guild mercatory, freedom from 
tolls and customs throughout the king’s dominions, and 
other immunities. Hen VI., in 1446, gave a confirma- 
tory charter, by which additional customs were also 
conferred for a term of 60 years. These chai’ters were 
also confirmed in the 9th of Hen. VII. ; and in the 9th 
of Jas. I. (1612), on a surrender of the corporation pro- 
perty, a charter of inspection and confirmation was 
granted, under which the corporation was entitled “ the 
Provost, Free Burgesses, and Commonalty of the Town 
of Athboy.” This charter vested the right of electing 
the provost in the burgesses and freemen, and the bur- 
gesses and all inferior officers in the corporation at 
large ; it ordained that the provost should be a justice 
of the peace, and prohibited all other justices from 
acting within the borough, which comprised an extent 
of one mile beyond the town in every direction : it 
also granted a court of record, with jurisdiction to the 
amount of £10. From the second of Elizabeth the 
borough returned two representatives to the Irish par- 
liament, who were exclusively elected by the members 
of the corporation ; but it was disfranchised at the 
Union, when the £15,000 compensation money for the 
loss of this privilege was awarded to the trustees under 
the will of John, then late Earl of Darnley, to be ap- 
plied to the trusts of the will. The corporation then 
fell into disuse, and is now extinct. By patent granted 
in 1694 to Thomas Bligh, Esq., “the town’s lands and 
commons,” and several other denominations of land, were 
erected into a manor, and power was given to him and 
his heirs to hold a court leet twice in the year, and a 
court baron every three weeks, or not so often, before a 
seneschal ; but no manor court has been held, or sene- 
schal appointed, since the beginning of the present cen- 
tury. Petty sessions are held every alternate Thursday 
by the county magistrates. 

The parish extends five Irish miles in length and 
four in breadth : the land is mostly of very good quality, 
and is principally under grass ; there is an abundance 
of limestone, used both for building and manure. The 
principal seats are Ballyfallon, the residence of J. Mart- 
ley, Esq. ; Mitchelstown, of F. Hopkins, Esq.; Athboy 
Lodge, of J. Noble, Esq.; Frayue, of W. Hopkins, Esq.; 
Grenanstown, of P. Barnewall, Esq. ; Frankville, of F. 
Welsh, Esq. ; Dance’s Court, of H. Biddulph Warner, 
Esq. ; and Causestown, of — Thunder, Esq. The living 
82 


is a vicarage, in the diocese of Meath, to which the rec- 
tory and vicarage of Girly, and the rectories of Moyagher, 
Rathmore, and Kildalky were united by act of council in 
1678, now forming the union of Athboy, in the patronage 
of the Crown, the Lord- Primate, and the Bishop of Meath : 
the rectory is appropriate to the Lord-Primate. The 
tithes of this parish amount to £560, of which £360 is 
paid to the lord-primate, and £200 to the vicar ; and 
the tithes of the entire union are £486. 3. 4|. The 
church has an ancient tower, but the body of the building 
is somewhat modern ; the Ecclesiastical Commissioners 
have lately granted £102 for its repair. The glebe- 
house, situated near the town, was built in 1818, at 
an expense of £1/00, principally defrayed by a gift of 
£100 and a loan of £1050 from the late Board of First 
Fruits : the glebe comprises six acres in Athboy and l| 
in Girly, valued at £2 per acre. In the R. C. divisions 
the parish is the head of a union or district, comprising 
the parishes of Athboy and Rathmore : the chapel is now 
in course of re-erection, and when completed will be a 
handsome and commodious edifice in the ancient style 
of architecture, with a steeple 90 feet high ; it will 
be lighted by five windows of considerable dimensions 
on each side, and three at each end, and will have three 
entrances in front. The parochial school, held in the 
market-house, is supported under the patronage of the 
Earl of Darnley : and there is an infants’ school. At 
Frayne is a school for boys and girls under the pa- 
tronage of Lady Chapman, of Killua Castle. About 
150 boys and 90 girls are instructed in these schools ; 
and in the other private pay schools there are 112 boys 
and 54 girls. There is a dispensary ; and three alms- 
houses were founded by the late Earl of Darnley, con- 
taining apartments for twelve poor widows, who have 
each an annual allowance of £5. 5., with a garden and 
ten kishes of turf : about 43 poor out-pensioners also 
receive weekly allowances from his lordship’s successor. 
A monastery of Carmelite friars was founded here early 
in the 14th century, which, with its possessions, was 
granted in the 34th of Hen. VIII. to Thomas Casey. 
There are some picturesque remains of the ancient 
church, and at Frayne are considerable ruins of two an- 
cient castles, and of a third at Causestown. This town con- 
fers the inferior title of Viscount on the Earl of Darnley. 

ATHEA, or TEMPLE - ATTEA.— See RATHRO- 
NAN. 

ATHENEASY.— See ATHNASSY. 

ATHENRY, an incor- 
porated market and post- 
town, and a parish, partly in 
the baronies of Clare, Dun- 
kellin, Kilconnell, and 
Tyaquin, but chiefly in the 
barony of Athenry, county 
of Galway, and province of 
Connaught, 11 miles (E.) 
from Galway, and 95§ (W. 
by S.) from Dublin ; contain- 
ing 12,185 inhabitants, of 
which number, 1319 are in 
the town, which is wholly within the barony of Athenry. 
This place, anciently called Athnere, is said to have 
derived its name from Ath-na-Riagli, “the King's ford,” 
or “ the abode of a King.” Sir James Ware considers 
it to have been the chief town of the Anteri, who, ac- 



AT H 


A T H 


cording to Ptolemy, were the ancient inhabitants of this 
part of the country. It was the first town established 
by the De Burgos and Berminghams, the Anglo-Nor- 
man invaders of Connaught, and at a remote period 
was surrounded with walls and became a place of im- 
portance. In the reign of John, Meyler de Berming- 
ham granted a site of land here for the foundation of a 
Dominican monastery, and contributed towards the 
erection of the buildings, which were completed in 
1261. Florence O’Flin, Archbishop of Tuam, and the 
Earls of Ulster and many others were munificent bene- 
factors to this establishment, which became very exten- 
sive and wealthy, and the chief burial-place of the Earls 
of Ulster and all the principal families of this part of 
Ireland. Indulgences for the benefit of the monastery 
were granted by the Pope in 1400, and in 1423 its 
church was burned down ; in 1427, some of the monks 
obtained licence from the Pope to found two subordinate 
establishments ; and in 1445 Pope Eugene IV. renewed 
the bull of Pope Martin for repairing the church, at 
which time there were 30 brethren in the monastery. 
A Franciscan friary was founded here by Thomas, Earl 
of Kildare, in 1464, and chapels were successively erect- 
ed by his wife, the Earl of Desmond, and O’Tully. In 
1577, the two sons of the Earl of Clanricarde, called 
the “ Mac-an-Earlas,” renouncing the submission which 
they had recently made to Queen Elizabeth, assembled 
their partisans in considerable force and sacked the 
town, destroyed the few houses that had recently been 
built, set fire to the new gates, and drove away the 
workmen employed in repairing the fortifications and 
in erecting other buildings, which had been undertaken 
by the chief governor. Sir Henry Sidney. From this 
period the town remained in a deserted condition till 
1584, when Robert Foyle, John Browne, and other of 
its former inhabitants petitioned the queen’s council in 
England for such encouragement as would enable them 
to bring over English artisans and tradesmen to settle 
in the town, to rebuild and improve it, and to support 
a sufficient force .for its future protection. The queen, 
in 1585, directed the lord-deputy to grant their request 
forthwith ; and although no record exists of any such 
grant having passed the seal, several buildings were 
erected and numerous improvements were made. In 
1596 the northern Irish invested the town, burned 
the gates, and forced an entrance ; but they were re - 
pulsed in an attack on the castle, which was bravely 
defended, and having failed in an attempt to scale the 
battlements, they took possession of all the wall towers, 
and made prisoners of the inhabitants who guarded 
them ; they afterwards set fire to the town, which, with 
the exception only of the castle, the abbey, and the 
church, was again reduced to ashes, and from this time 
seems to have been entirely neglected except by its im- 
mediate proprietors. In 1644 the Dominican establish- 
ment was revived and converted into a university ; and 
in 1662 a writ of privy seal was issued on behalf of the 
inhabitants ; but the town, which formerly held the 
second rank in the county, never recovered its ancient 
importance. It is situated on the road from Oranmore 
to Monivae, and also from Loughrea to Tuam, and con- 
tains about 250 houses. The market, with a fair in 
October, was granted to Sir Wm. Parsons, Bart., in 
1629, and is on Friday, but is only indifferently attend- 
ed ; and fairs for sheep and cattle are held on May 5th, 
83 


July 2nd, and Oct. 20th, of which that in July is the 
largest. A constabulary police force is stationed here. 

The borough is very ancient and probably exists by 
prescription. From a murage grant made to the “ bai- 
liffs and honest men of Athenry,” in the 4th of Edw. II. 
(1310), it would appear that a corporation previously 
existed ; and writs of the first and some subsequent 
years of the reign of Rich. II. shew that it then returned 
representatives to parliament. Queen Elizabeth, by 
letters patent dated at Greenwich in the 16th of her 
reign, granted to the portreeve and burgesses divers 
extensive privileges, and in the same year gave them 
the site and precincts of the Dominican monastery. In 
1578 she conferred upon them various rectories and 
tithes; but all these privileges and possessions appear 
to have become forfeited during the civil dissensions 
which soon afterwards ensued, as Chas. II., by his letters 
under the privy seal in 1662, after reciting the petition 
of “ the ancient inhabitants, natives, and freemen of the 
old corporation of Athenry,” and other particulars refer- 
ring to the borough, ordered that they should be forth- 
with reinvested with the said town and corporation, 
with all their rights, interests, and estates, and all pri- 
vileges and immunities, excepting such inhabitants as 
had been disloyal and disobedient to his government. 
A charter was granted in the 4th of Jas. II., on a sei- 
zure of the franchises, but it does not appear to have 
been accepted or acted upon. The grant of Elizabeth 
is that under which the borough is governed : the cor- 
poration is styled “ the Portreeve, Burgesses, and Free- 
men of the Corporation of the Town and Liberties of 
Athenry,” and consists of a portreeve and an unlimited 
number of burgesses and freemen : the above grant 
empowers them to appoint a common clerk and “ all 
such other necessary servants as Trim used,” but the 
only inferior officers are a serjeant-at-mace, craner, 
pound-keeper, two appraisers, and a bellman, who are 
appointed by the portreeve. The portreeve is annually 
elected on the 14th of Sept, by the portreeve and bur- 
gesses, from three burgesses nominated on the preced- 
ing day by the same body, and is sworn in on the 29th : 
the burgesses are nominated on one day, elected on the 
next, and sworn on the 29th of Sept., and are now 
about twenty in number. The borough returned two 
members to the Irish parliament till the Union, who 
were elected by the portreeve and burgesses ; the 
£15,000 awarded as compensation for the abolition of its 
franchise was paid to the trustees of the marriage set- 
tlement of Theophilus Blakeney, Esq. The limits of 
the borough comprehend the town and a surrounding 
agricultural district, called ‘'the liberties.” The port- 
reeve, who has power to appoint a deputy, is a justice 
of the peace within the borough and its liberties, clerk 
of the market, and sole judge in the borough court. 
The town or portreeve’s court is held for all pleas, real 
and personal, to an unlimited amount, as often as busi- 
ness requires, which of late has been but seldom, and 
generally on a Monday, not in any fixed court-house or 
place, but in different parts of the town ; the ordinary 
process is by attachment against the debtor’s goods, 
on affidavit made by the plaintiff. Petty sessions are 
held in the town every Friday, at which three of the 
county magistrates usually attend. 

The parish comprises 1954 statute acres, as applotted 
under the tithe act : the system of agriculture is some- 

M 2 


A T H 


A T H 


what improved j there is a considerable extent of un- 
reclaimed bog. A coal- pit was opened some years since 
at Castle Lambert, and a considerable quantity of coal 
was found, but it was soon discontinued ; the present 
proprietor, however, contemplates reopening it. The 
principal seats are Castle Lambert, that of W. Lam- 
bert, Esq., and Athenry House, the property of J. 
Lopdell, Esq. The living is a rectory and vicarage, 
in the diocese of Tuam ; the rectory is partly appro- 
priate to the prebend of Taghsaxon, but is principally 
consolidated with the vicarage (to which are united the 
chapelries of Abbert and Dunmacloughy), and in the 
patronage of the Crown for two turns, and the Bishop 
for one : the tithes amount to £1075, of which £7. 10. 
is payable to the prebendary, and £1067. 10. to the in- 
cumbent. The church is a very neat edifice, built about 
the year 1828, by aid of a gift of £1500 from the late 
Board of First Fruits ; and there is also a church at 
Monivae, served by a perpetual curate. There is neither 
glebe nor glebe-house. The R. C. parish is co-exten- 
sive with that of the Established Church ; the chapel 
is a plain slated building in the town. In addition to 
the parochial school, in which about 55 boys and 35 
girls are taught, there are four private pay schools, in 
which are about 240 children. There is also at Monivae 
a school of about 30 boys and 30 girls ; and at Monivae 
and Newcastle are two private schools, in which are 
about 70 boys and 40 girls. Some remains exist of the 
ancient town walls and of one of the gates. The ruins of 
the Dominican monastery evince its ancient extent and 
grandeur ; the tower of the church still remains, and 
the east window is of good design. On Mr. Lopdell’s 
estate is a chalybeate spring, which is much resorted to. 
Athenry formerly gave the title of Baron to the family 
of Bermingham, and was the premier barony of Ireland, 
being created in 1 1 7S ; this title is now claimed by 
Edmund Bermingham, Esq., of Dalgan, and also by — 
St. George, Esq., of Tyrone, in the county of Galway, 
and the matter is under investigation by the House of 
Peers. 

ATHGLASSON, a village, in the parish of Kil- 
skyre, barony of Upper Kells, county of Meath, and 
province of Leinster containing 19 houses and 114 
inhabitants. 

ATHLACCA, or ATHLATRICHE, a parish, in the 
barony of Coshma, county of Limerick, and province 
of Munster, 3 miles (S. W. by W.) from Bruff ; contain- 
ing 1381 inhabitants. The place was anciently the 
residence of the powerful family of De Lacy, who 
were proprietors of the surrounding territory, and had 
two very strong castles, one near the present village, 
and the other at Tullerbuoy, now Castle Ivers. In 1691, 
a sanguinary battle was fought here between the Irish 
adherents of Jas. II. and a force of militia and dragoons 
commanded by Capt. O’Dell on the part of Wm. III., 
in which the latter were defeated with great slaughter. 
The parish is situated on the road from Croom to Kil- 
mallock, and is intersected by a beautiful little river 
called the Morning Star, which falls into the Maigue 
about a mile below the village. It comprises 5453§ 
statute acres, as applotted under the lithe act ; the land 
is very fertile, resting on a substratum of limestone, and 
around Rathcannon it is exceedingly productive. About 
one-half is under tillage ; the remainder is rich meadow 
and pasture land, on which a great number of cattle are 
84 


fed ; there is not an acre of waste land or turbary. A 
great want of timber prevails throughout this district ; 
scarcely a tree or shrub, or even a hedge-row is to be 
seen, except around the houses of the principal inhabit- 
ants. Castle Ivers, the residence of R. Ivers, Esq., is 
about a mile from the village, and is pleasantly situated 
in a well-planted demesne. A constabulary police force 
has been stationed in the village. The parish is in the 
diocese of Limerick, and is a rectory, united to Dromin: 
the tithes amount to £306. 12. 7^. The church, built by 
aid of a loan of £560 from the late Board of First Fruits, 
in 1813, was burnt by the Rockites in 1822 ; and the 
present church, a small but neat edifice, with a tower and 
lofty spire, was erected in the following year by a cess 
levied on the parish. The glebe-house, built by aid of 
a gift of £400 and a loan of £360 from the Board, in 
the same year, is a handsome residence situated on a 
glebe of 14 acres, the whole of which is tastefully laid 
out. In the R. C. divisions the parish also forms part 
of the union or district of Dromin, and has a chapel. 
A school of about 60 boys and 20 girls is aided by the 
Rev. J. O’ Regan, P.P. Adjoining Castle Ivers are the 
ruins of Tullerbuoy castle 5 and near the village are those 
of Old Court, also the ancient residence of the De Lacy 
family. On the summit of a fertile eminence are the 
extensive remains of the castle of Rathcannon, built by 
the O’Casey family in the 16th century, on the site of 
a very ancient fortress. Near Castle Ivers are the ruins 
of Kilbroney church, built on a gentle eminence by the 
Knights Templars, in 1289, in view of their extensive 
manor of Ross-Temple. In the churchyard are some 
ancient and very curious tombs of the De Lacy family, 
who were great benefactors to the church and parish, 
and presented a valuable service of communion plate. 
Near the castle of Rathcannon a very perfect specimen 
of the elk or moose deer was discovered by Archdeacon 
Maunsell, who presented it to the Royal Society of 
Dublin : the body, from the nose to the tail, is 1 1 feet 
in length j the antlers measure 12 feet from tip to tip, 
and the highest point is 10 feet from the ground. 

ATHLEAGUE, a post-town and parish, partly in 
the barony of Killian, county of Galway, but chiefly 
in that of Athlone, county of Roscommon, and in the 
province of Connaught, 4§ miles (S. W.) from Ros- 
common, and 79? (W.) from Dublin ; containing 5361 
inhabitants, of which number, 488 are in the town. 
This parish is situated on the river Suck, and on the 
road from Roscommon to Mount-Talbot and Loughrea : 
it contains 7 601 statute acres, as applotted under the 
tithe act ; the state of agriculture is improving. There 
are large tracts of bog, now being reclaimed, but not on 
an extensive scale ; more than half of the Galway 
portion of the parish consists of this species of land. 
Limestone and freestone of excellent quality abound ; 
and mines of iron were formerly worked, but were dis- 
continued from the scarcity of fuel. Over the Suck is 
a long winding causeway bridge of ten arches carried 
from one islet to another, and forming a communication 
between the two counties ; from one end of it the houses 
stretch along the right bank of the river, with a street 
or road ascending a hill at right angles ; the number of 
houses in the town, in 1831, was 84. The principal 
seats in the parish are Rookwood, the handsome resi- 
dence of E. Kelly, Esq. ; Castle Kelly, the seat of D. H. 
Kelly, Esq., originally built as a castle in the 14th century, 


AT H 


ATH 


and of which the modern portion is castellated and part 
of the ancient structure still remains ; Fortwilliam, the 
seats of N. J. Ffrench, Esq. ; Curramore, of Christo- 
pher Balfe, Esq. ; and Thornfield, of J . Mahon, Esq. 
Near the river are some large insulated mills. Fairs 
are held on July 11th and Sept. 24th. The living is a 
vicarage, with the vicarages of Fuerty and Kilbegnet 
episcopally united in 1809, in the diocese of Elphin, and 
in the patronage of the Bishop : the rectory is impro- 
priate in the Incorporated Society for Protestant Charter 
Schools, by deed of request from Lord Ranelagh. The 
tithes amount to £226. 3. 1., of which £90. 9- 2|. is 
payable to the impropriator, and the remainder to the 
vicar : the gross amount of tithes in the union payable 
to the incumbent is £288. There are two churches in 
the union : that of Athleague, formerly a domestic 
chapel of the family of Lystre, is an old building in bad 
repair. The glebe-house was built by a gift of £400 
and a loan of £214 from the late Board of First Fruits, 
in 1815 : the glebe annexed to it comprises 23 acres, 
besides 20 acres in the parish of Fuerty. The R. C. 
parish is co-extensive with that of the Established 
Church : the chapel is situated in the town, and is in 
bad repair. The parochial school is supported by sub- 
scription ; and there are several hedge schools, on the 
books of which are 290 boys and 130 girls. Between 
Castle Kelly and Rookwood is a rath, in which stood an 
abbey of Grey friars, where Maylesa O’Hanayn, abbot 
of Roscommon, died in 1266 : and near it was a cell in 
which, according to tradition, four bishops were interred. 
In 1819, some labourers digging for gravel under a bog 
that had been cut away, on the estate of Castle Kelly, 
found a gold fibula weighing l/§ oz., now in the posses- 
sion of the Very Rev. H. R. Dawson, Dean of St. Pa- 
trick’s, Dublin. A chalybeate spring issues from the 
hill of Mount-Mary. 

ATIILONE, a borough, 
market and post-town, and 
an important military sta- 
tion, partly in the barony 
of Brawney, county of 
Westmeath, and province 
of Leinster, and partly in 
the barony of Athlone, 
county of Roscommon, and 
province of Connaught, 12 
miles (N. E. by E.) from Bal- 
linasloe, 15^ (S.E.byS.) from 
Roscommon, and 59^ (W.) 
from Dublin ; containing 11,406 inhabitants. This place 
derives its name from the words Ath Luain, signifying 
in the Irish language ‘"the ford of the moon,” of which, 
previously to the introduction of Christianity, the an- 
cient inhabitants were worshippers ; or, according to 
some, from Ath-Luan, in reference to the rapids at the 
bridge over the Shannon. After the erection of a town 
at this ford it obtained the name of Bail- ath- Luain, or 
“ the town of the ford of the moon,” by which, now 
contracted into Blahluin, it is generally called by the 
Irish inhabitants of the neighbourhood. The town is 
situated on the river Shannon, by which it is divided 
into two parts, and on the great western road from 
Dublin to Galway through Ballinasloe. An abbey for 
Cistertian monks, dedicated to St. Peter, was founded, 
according to Ware, in 1216, on the western or Con- 
85 


naught side of the Shannon, to which in that year King 
John gave certain lands in exchange for the site on 
which was erected the Castle of Athlone, besides one- 
tenth part of the expenses of the castle, which after- 
wards become one of the principal military stations in 
the country. The castle was progressively increased in 
strength, and so important was it regarded by the 
English monarchs, that when Hen. III. granted the 
dominion of Ireland to his son Prince Edward, this 
town was expressly reserved with other principal cities ; 
and when the same monarch granted the whole of Con- 
naught to Richard de Burgo, he retained for himself 
five cantreds contiguous to the castle. In this reign 
another monastery was founded on the eastern side of 
the Shannon, by Cathal Croibh-Dearg O’Connor, Prince 
of Connaught, and completed by Sir Henry Dillon, who 
was interred in it in 1244. In the reign of Elizabeth 
this place was greatly improved, the fortifications were 
strengthened, and the castle was for some time occupied 
by the Earl of Essex. The castle became the seat of 
the presidency of Connaught, and when the insurrec- 
tion broke out in 1641, it was occupied by Viscount 
Ranelagh, then lord-president, with the usual ward of 
a royal castle. Independently of its several defences, 
the town was strong in itself, being built of stone ; and 
the inhabitants having given assurances of their deter- 
mination to defend it against all enemies, the president 
entrusted it entirely to their custody ; but in a few weeks 
they secretly formed a design of enabling the insurgents 
to seize the president and his family, and to surprise 
the castle. For this purpose they admitted Sir James 
Dillon’s forces within the walls on the night of Satur- 
day, in the hope of surprising Lord Ranelagh on his 
way to church in the English town on the following 
day ; but by some mistake in the appointed signal the 
design miscarried. The Irish forces laid close siege to 
the castle for twenty-two weeks, when it was relieved by 
some troops sent from Dublin by the Duke of Ormonde, 
who strengthened the garrison ; but with this reinforce- 
ment the president effected nothing more than an unim- 
portant defeat of the Connaught men near Ballintobber. 
During the president’s absence on this expedition, the 
insurgents of Westmeath under Sir James Dillon at- 
tacked the English town in such numbers that the 
garrison were compelled to abandon the walls, but they 
defended the houses till Captain St. George, making a 
sally from the castle, compelled the assailants to with- 
draw. By occupying the pass of Ballykeran, however, 
Dillon’s forces cut off all communication with the me- 
tropolis, and reduced the town to a state of extreme 
distress for want of supplies, which an entire troop had 
to cut its way through his forces to Dublin to solicit. 
At length, all hope of assistance being extinct, the pre- 
sident negotiated with the enemy for a safe conduct 
for his wife and family to Trim, which was honourably 
granted ; and so forcibly did Lady Ranelagh, at Dublin, 
urge the necessities of the deserted English in this 
town, that a convoy was sent to bring the inhabitants 
away. This convoy, which consisted of 1 100 foot and 
a few horse, summoned from the garrisons around 
Dublin, under the command of Sir Richard Grenville, 
arrived at Athlone in the latter part of February, 1642, 
and found the English there so much reduced in num- 
bers as scarcely to muster more than 450 men, and 
many of these so wasted by famine and disease as to be 



A T H 


A T II 


unable to march. They fought their way home through 
the pass of Rochonell, and the custody of the castle was 
assumed by Viscount Dillon of Costelloe. After the 
victories obtained by Cromwell, the castle was taken on 
a second attack by Sir Charles Coote for the parlia- 
ment ; and during the fury of the war the town was 
burned ; though restored, it never recovered its former 
strength or appearance ; and in the reign of Charles II. 
the eastern portion of it was destroyed by an acci- 
dental fire. 

During the war of the Revolution, the town was 
held for James II. by Col. Richard Grace, an expe- 
rienced officer, and a garrison, consisting of three 
regiments of foot, with nine troops of dragoons and 
two troops of horse in and around it. Immediately after 
the battle of the Boyne, Lieutenant-General Douglas 
was sent by William III. to assault the town. Colonel 
Grace, doubtful of his ability to defend the whole, burnt 
the eastern portion of it, and breaking down some of 
the arches of the bridge, fortified himself in the other 
part ; and Douglas, after battering the castle for eight 
days without success, withdrew his forces in the middle 
of the night. Towards the midsummer of 1691, the 
main body of William’s army was led to the assault by 
De Ginkell, who first made himself master of the eastern 
portion of the town, of which, after the retreat of 
Douglas, the Irish had taken possession, and had forti- 
fied it with additional works. From the 20th till the 
30th of June, a destructive cannonade was kept up 
across the river by both parties from batteries succes- 
sively erected ; during this period, after expending 
12,000 cannon balls, many tons of stone shot, 600 
shells, and more than 50 tons of powder, De Ginkell 
destroyed not only the castle but every house on the 
Roscommon side of the river. New works, however, 
were constantly thrown up by the garrison, assisted by 
the Irish army under St. Ruth, which had encamped at 
a short distance for the especial defence of the bridge, 
the passage of which was perseveringly contested with 
frequent destructive losses to William’s army. On the 
last day of the siege a council of war was held, when it 
was resolved to storm the town, and the ringing of the 
bell of St. Mary’s church was appointed as a signal for 
crossing the river. This was accordingly effected the 
same evening by the army in three divisions, and such 
was the simultaneous velocity of their movements, that 
after half an hour’s sanguinary conflict the assailants 
became masters of the town, which was immediately 
evacuated by the garrison. A detachment, which had 
been sent by St. Ruth to oppose them, was repulsed by 
the victorious army, who turned the guns of the garrison 
against them ; and St. Ruth, on their taking possession 
of the place, decamped with his forces to Aughrim, 
fifteen miles distant. During this siege the loss of the 
defenders amounted to 1200; and their brave com- 
mander, Col. Grace, who had been chamberlain to 
James II., while Duke of York, and one of his most 
faithful adherents, was killed in the action. The English, 
on taking possession of the town, immediately directed 
their attention to its restoration and to the repair of its 
fortifications and works ; and it soon became one of the 
principal military depots for arms, stores, and ammuni- 
tion. On the 27 th of October, 1697, the castle was, 
during one of the severest storms ever known here, 
struck by the electric fluid, which set fire to the maga- 
86 


zine, in which were 260 barrels of gunpowder, 10,000 
hand grenades charged, and a great quantity of match 
and other combustible stores, the whole of which ex- 
ploded with so violent a concussion that all the houses 
in the town, except a few cottages without the gates, 
were shattered or destroyed : the loss of life, however, 
was comparatively small, only 7 persons being killed 
and 36 wounded. 

The town, though at present the largest on the 
Shannon next to Limerick, still retains much of its 
character as a military station. On the Leinster side, 
one of the principal entrances near the river is through 
a gateway in one of the old square towers ; and the 
ancient walls, though in a great measure concealed by 
buildings, extend for a considerable distance in that 
direction. On the Connaught side there are scarcely 
any traces of the walls or gates ; but in this quarter 
are situated all the present military defences of the 
place. These consist principally of the castle, which 
forms a tete dupont, and of advanced forts and redoubts 
on the outside of the town to defend the main approaches 
along the great road from Galway by Ballinasloe, the 
most important line of communication with that part of 
the country which is most exposed to invasion. A short 
canal on this side of the river enables boats navigating 
the Shannon to avoid the rapids at the bridge of Ath- 
lone, and adds materially to the strength of the works : 
it is crossed by three bridges, one of which is falling 
into decay, and of which two are defended by palisades, 
those of the third having been taken down to facilitate 
the passing of the mail coaches. The bogs along the 
river are a sufficient protection to the town on the 
south side. The oldest of the works is a tower of 
decagonal form, which, from the massive structure of 
the walls, was probably the keep of the ancient castle, 
though having a new exterior ; it is situated on a lofty 
mound supported on the side next the river by a stu- 
pendous wall, but overlooked on the opposite side by the 
houses in the upper part of the town. The platform 
on which this tower, now used as a barrack, is situated, 
is bounded on the side next the lower town by dwellings 
for the officers, and walls of imposing appearance ; and 
on the others by modern works mounted with cannon, 
commanding not only the approach on the Connaught 
side of the river but also the bridge itself ; and the 
strong circular towers at irregular intervals, with the 
carefully fortified entrance, give to the whole place a 
very formidable appearance. To the north of the castle 
are the barracks, calculated for the accommodation of 
267 artillery, 592 infantry, and 187 horses ; a pontoon 
establishment is also attached, and there are two maga- 
zines, an extensive ordnance depot, and an hospital. 
The buildings occupy an elevated situation on the banks 
of the river, and comprise an area of about 15 statute 
acres, including spacious squares for exercise ; besides 
the barracks for the men, there are within the enclosure 
detached houses for the officers of the different depart- 
ments, store-houses, and an armoury. The armoury, 
a detached building, usually contains 15,000 stand of 
arms, including the muskets of eight regiments of 
militia of the central counties ; and the hospital is situ- 
ated on the high ground a short distance from the river, 
and is calculated for the reception of 96 patients. This 
place is the head-quarters of the western district, and 
the residence of the major-general and staff of the dis- 


A T H 


A T H 


trict. The town is divided into two nearly equal portions 
by the river Shannon, over which is a bridge erected in 
the reign of Elizabeth, which, though 100 yards in length, 
is only twelve feet wide ; the passage, therefore, is often 
attended with difficulty, and on market-days and at the 
fairs with danger ; it is further obstructed by the traf- 
fiek of three flour-mills, one at each end and the other 
on the bridge ; the narrowness of the arches, which are 
ten in number, and the width of the piers between them, 
prevent the free course of the water, and in time of 
floods cause an inundation on the shores of Lough Ree. 
On the south side are various sculptured tablets inserted 
in a wall, about nine feet broad, rising above the parapet 
and surmounted by a pediment ornamented with mould- 
ings ; their various inscriptions afford a curious history 
of its erection. It is in contemplation to build a new 
bridge by a loan from Government, which, on the re- 
commendation of the Shannon Navigation Committee, 
it is expected, will be granted for the improvement of 
that river from Lough Allen to Limerick. The total 
number of houses within the limits of the town is 1027, 
of which 546 are slated and the remainder thatched ; 
they are built chiefly of limestone, though bricks of 
excellent quality are made in great quantities a little 
below the town. A regatta is annually held on Lough 
Ree in August, and continues for four days ; and races 
take place occasionally at Ballykeran. About a mile 
and a half from Athlone, on the Leinster side of 
the Shannon, is Moydrum Castle, the handsome resi- 
dence of Viscount Castlemaine, a solid castellated 
mansion with square turrets at each angle, beautifully 
situated on the edge of a small lake, and surrounded 
by an extensive and richly wooded demesne. The 
ether gentlemen’s seats near the town, and also on the 
same side of the river, are the Cottage, the seat of 
W. Cooke, Esq. ; the Retreat, of F. E. Moony, Esq. ; 
the moorings, of Capt. James Caulfield, R. N ; Spring 
Park, of P. Cusack, Esq.; Lissevolan, of H. Malone, 
Esq. ; Auburn, of W. F. Bruce, Esq. ; Bonahenley, of S. 
Longworth, Esq. ; and Creggan Castle, the property of 
F. Longworth, Esq. On the Connaught side are Sham- 
rock Lodge, the seat of J. Robinson, Esq. ; and Hands- 
field, of A. Robinson, Esq. At Burnbrook are some 
corn-mills with a good residence, belonging to E. 
Burne, Esq. 

The manufacture of felt hats was formerly carried 
on here to a great extent, but only a few are now made 
for the supply of the immediate neighbourhood. There 
are two extensive distilleries, each producing from 
40,000 to 50,000 gallons of whiskey annually ; two tan- 
neries, two soap and candle manufactories, two public 
breweries on a large scale, and several corn-mills. 
The amount of excise duties collected within the district, 
in 1835, was £37,927. 3. 10. A communication by 
steam-boat between this place and Limerick has been 
lately established, and passage boats meet the steamers 
at Shannon harbour and proceed to Dublin by the 
grand canal. The market is held on Tuesday and 
Saturday, of which the latter is the principal, when 
sheep, swine, and great quantities of grain are ex- 
posed for sale : it is held in an open space under the 
wall supporting the castle mound, but the principal meat 
market is at the shambles near the river, and is abun- 
dantly supplied with provisions of all kinds ; fish is 
procured in the lake and the river Shannon, and salt- 
87 


wafer fish is brought from Galway. The fairs, to which 
is attached a court of pie poudre, are on the Monday 
after Epiphany, March 10th, Holy Thursday, and Aug. 
24th, each by the charters ordained to last three days. 
A branch of the Provincial Bank of Ireland has been 
established here for the last eight years ; and there is a 
constabulary police station. 

The town was incorporated by charter dated Dec. 
16th, 4th of Jas. I. (1606), which was seized by Jas. II. 
on a judgment of forfeiture obtained in the court of ex- 
chequer, and a new charter was granted in the 3rd of 
that monarch’s reign ; but the judgment being subse- 
quently declared void, the former has since been and 
still is the governing charter, and the latter has not been 
acted upon since the accession of Wm. III. Other 
charters confirming and extending the privileges of the 
corporation were granted on the 16th of Jas. I. and 17th 
of Chas. II. ; and the “New Rules ” made by the lord- 
lieutenant and privy council, in the 25th of Chas. II., 
provided that the appointment of the sovereign, recorder, 
and town-clerk should be subject to their approval. The 
style of the corporation is “The Sovereign, Bailiffs, Bur- 
gesses, and Freemen of the Town of Athlone;” and the 
officers are a sovereign, two bailiffs, thirteen burgesses 
(including the constable of the castle, Viscount Castle- 
maine), a recorder, town-clerk, serjeant-at-mace, and 
billet-master ; and there is a select body called the 
common council. The sovereign is elected by the com- 
mon council from among the burgesses, annually on the 
29th of June, and has the privilege of appointing a vice- 
sovereign with the approbation of the bailiffs and a ma- 
jority of the burgesses ; the bailiffs are elected from the 
freemen by the common council, on the same day as the 
sovereign, and are ex officio members of the council ; 
the burgesses are elected for life from among the fret 
men, and the freemen also for life, by the common 
council, of which body, according to the practice of 
the corporation, twelve must be present to consti- 
tute an election ; the recorder and town- clerk (who 
is also deputy-recorder) are appointed by the common 
council ; and the serjeant-at-mace and billet-master, 
of whom the former acts as constable in the borough, 
are appointed by the sovereign. The common council 
are unlimited in number, but usually consist of not 
more than twenty persons, including the sovereign 
and vice-sovereign and two bailiffs ; they hold their 
office for life, and vacancies are filled up by themselves 
from among the burgesses and freemen. The borough 
sent two representatives to the Irish parliament prior 
to the Union, since which period it has sent one to the 
imperial parliament. The right of election was for- 
merly vested in the burgesses and freemen, amounting, 
in April 1831, to 71 ; but by the act of the 2nd of 
Wm. IV., cap. 88, the non-resident freemen, except 
within seven miles, have been disfranchised, and the 
privilege has been extended to the £10 householders. 
The limits of the borough comprehend under the charter 
a circle of a mile and a half radius from the centre of 
the bridge, but, as regards electoral purposes, were 
diminished by the late enactments and now include only 
the town and a very small surrounding district, com- 
prising 485 statute acres ; they are minutely described 
in the Appendix. The number of voters registered at 
the last general election amounted to 274, of whom 179 
polled : the sovereign is the returning officer. The 


A T H 


A T H 


sovereign or vice-sovereign and the recorder are justices 
of the peace within the borough, having exclusive juris- 
diction under the charter ; the sovereign is also coroner, 
escheator, and clerk of the market. The civil court 
of the borough, which has jurisdiction in pleas not 
exceeding £5 late currency, was held under the sove- 
reign every third Thursday, but has been discontinued 
for more than fourteen years. The sovereign, or his 
deputy, sits thrice a week to hear complaints on matters 
arising within the borough. Quarter sessions for the 
Athlone division of the county of Roscommon are held 
here in March and October, and at Roscommon in June 
and December. The portion of the borough on the 
Westmeath side of the river is in the Moat division of 
that county, where the quarter sessions are held regularly 
four times a year. Petty sessions for the adjacent 
rural districts are held within the limits of the borough 
on both sides of the river, on alternate Saturdays, at 
which the county magistrates respectively preside. By 
letters patent in the 27th of Chas. II. the half-quarter 
of land of Athlone, otherwise Beallagh, with the manor, 
castle, &c., was granted to Richard, Lord Ranelagh, with 
power to hold courts leet and baron, which courts are 
not now held ; but the seneschal of the manor of Twy- 
ford, who holds his courts at Moat, claims jurisdiction 
over that part of the borough which is in the county of 
Westmeath. The court-house, or Tholsel, was built in 
1703 : it was partly occupied as a guard-room, and partly 
for holding the sovereign’s court, but has been taken down. 
There is a borough prison, to which, from its unfitness, 
offenders are only committed for a few hours prior to 
their removal ; and within the corporation district is 
a prison belonging to the county of Roscommon, to 
which the sovereign commits offenders. 

The town comprises the parishes of St. Peter and 
St. Mary, the former in the western and the latter in the 
eastern portion. The living of St. Peter’s is a perpetual 
curacy, in the diocese of Elphin, and in the patronage 
of the Bishop. The church, which is situated on the site of 
the ancient monastery of St. Peter, was built in 1804, 
by aid of a gift of £500, and a loan of £300, from the late 
Board of First Fruits, and has been recently repaired 
by a grant of £344 from the Ecclesiastical Commis- 
sioners. The glebe-house was built at the same time 
by a loan of £312 and a gift of £100 from the same 
Board ; the glebe comprises six acres, in three lots near 
the church. A new church is about to be built, at an esti- 
mated cost of about £2000. The living of St. Mary’s is a 
rectory and vicarage, in the diocese of Meath, and in the 
patronage of the Bishop ; the tithes amount to £304. 
12. 3§. The rectory was granted by Chas. I., in 1636, to 
Richard Linguard, together with a portion of the tithes 
of the parish of Ratoath, in the county of Meath, for the 
augmentation of the vicarage ; these tithes now amount 
to £100. The church was rebuilt in 1826, by a grant of 
£2300 from the late Board of First Fruits : it is a neat 
edifice, with a square embattled tower ; the tower of the 
old church is still standing, and contains the bell which 
gave the signal for William’s army to cross the river at the 
siege of Athlone. The glebe-house was built in 1812, by 
a gift of £100 and a loan of £500 from the late Board of 
First Fruits, and has been lately enlarged and beauti- 
fied, the incumbent having received permission from 
the bishop to expend £600 upon it, to be repaid to him 
or his heirs ; the glebe comprises eight acres. In the 
8S 


R. C. divisions the parish of St. Peter is united with 
that of Drum, and contains three chapels, besides a 
small religious house of the Augustinian order, now 
falling into decay ; and the R. C. parish of St. Mary is 
co-extensive with that of the Established Church, but 
in the diocese of Ardagh, and contains a spacious chapel, 
erected in 1794, and also a chapel attached to a religious 
house of the Franciscan order, rebuilt in 1825. There 
are places of worship for Baptists and Wesleyan and 
Primiti ve Methodists. 

“ The Ranelagh school” was founded pursuant to 
a grant, in 1708, by Richard, Lord Ranelagh, of the 
castle, manor, town, and lands of Athlone, with the 
customs, &c., belonging thereto, together with the lands 
of Clonarke, stated to contain 427 acres, and of Gort- 
nanghan or Gortecorson, containing 43 acres, in trust for 
the erection, contingent on the death of his daughter. 
Lady Catherine Jones, without issue, of two schools at 
Athlone for 20 boys and 20 girls, and two at Roscom- 
mon, with chapels attached ; and also for the pay- 
ment of £20 per annum to the minister of Athlone. 
Lady Jones dying without issue in 1740, the estates 
were, about 20 years after, vested by act in the Incor- 
porated Society for promoting charter schools ; and a 
school for the maintenance, instruction, clothing, and 
apprenticing of boys was founded in the parish of St. 
Peter. The number of boys was limited to 40, with 
each of whom, on being apprenticed, a premium of £10 
was paid ; but from a considerable diminution of the 
income the school has been for some years declining, 
and there are now not more than 15 boys, with whom 
only £7 is paid as an apprentice fee. In the same 
parish also are a school for boys, another for girls, 
and a Sunday school. St. Mary’s has also a parochial 
school for boys and girls, and a Sunday school. The 
abbey school, for the sons of Roman Catholics, is aided 
by subscriptions ; and there is a school for boys and 
girls aided by a grant of £10 and a premium of £2 per 
ann. from the Baptist Society. The number of children 
on the books of these schools, excepting the Sunday 
schools, is 371, of whom 218 are boys and 153 girls; 
and in the different private pay schools about 550 chil- 
dren are taught. There is a dispensary in the parish of 
St. Peter, and another in that of St. Mary. Robert 
Sherwood bequeathed the interest of £50 to the poor ; 
and William Handcock, Esq., ancestor of Lord Castle- 
maine, by deed in 1705, gave lands now producing a 
rental of £46. 2. 3. per annum, to be distributed by his 
representatives among the poor of both parishes on the 
recommendation of the ministers and churchwardens ; 
he also bequeathed £20 per annum for the support 
of a schoolmaster, who must have taken the degree of 
A. B. The sum of £8 late currency, called the Dodwell 
grant, is annually distributed among a number of poor 
women ; and £13 per annum, paid by a Mr. Evans, of 
Dublin, to the rector, is divided among old men. At 
Courson, about a mile from Athlone, in the parish of 
St. Mary, are some small vestiges of an ancient castle 
formerly belonging to the O’Briens ; on opening the 
ground near the ruins, a gold chain was found some 
years since. At Cloonakilla, in the parish of St. Peter, 
are the remains of an old chapel ; and at Cloonow, on 
the banks of the Shannon, about three miles below the 
town, is a more considerable ruin with a cemetery at- 
tached. There are numerous chalybeate springs in the 


AT H 


A T H 


neighbourhood. Athlone gave the title of Viscount, to 
the Earl of Ranelagh, and at present gives that of Earl 
to the family of De Ginkell. 

ATHLUMNEY, a parish, in the barony of Sk reen, 
county of Meath, and province of Leinster, J of a 
mile (S. by E.) from Navan ; containing 1148 inhabit- 
ants. This parish is situated on the river Boyne, by 
which it is separated from the parish of Navan, and 
over which are two bridges of stone ; it is intersected 
by the roads leading respectively from Navan and Trim 
to Drogheda, and is skirted on the south by the mail 
coach road from Dublin to Enniskillen. An old castle, 
situated on the right bank of the river, was formerly 
the property of the Dowdell family, by whom it was 
destroyed, to prevent its falling into the hands of Crom- 
well. The remains consist of an extensive and irregular 
pile of building of an oblong form, with two projecting 
square towers apparently of more ancient foundation 
than the remainder, which, with its gabled windows, 
appears to be in the Elizabethan style. The parish 
comprises 2398 statute acres, as applotted under the 
tithe act. The land is of excellent quality and mostly 
under tillage ; and limestone abounds and is quarried 
to a considerable extent. Athlumney, the seat of P. 
Ponsonby Metge, Esq., is beautifully situated on the 
banks of the Boyne, commanding some pleasing views, 
and the demesne is well planted and tastefully embel- 
lished. There are extensive flour and oatmeal-mills on 
the river, and a flax-mill in which upon the average 
260 men are employed. The Boyne navigation from 
Navan to Drogheda passes through the parish. The 
living is a vicarage, in the diocese of Meath, and in the 
patronage of P. P. Metge, Esq., in whom the rectory is 
impropriate ; the tithes amount to £270, of which £180 
is payable to the impropriator, and £90 to the vicar. 
The church is in ruins, and there is neither glebe-house 
nor glebe : divine service is performed by the vicar, 

every Sunday evening, in a private house. In the R. C. 
divisions this parish is the head of a union or district, 
called Johnstown, comprising the parishes of Athlum- 
ney, Kilcarn, Follistown, Gerrardstown and Staffords- 
town, and containing two chapels, situated at Johnstown 
and Walterstown; the chapel at Johnstown is a very 
old edifice, and it is in contemplation to rebuild it. 
There are two schools ; one at Johnstown of 79 boys 
and 59 girls, and the other in Mr. Blundell's factory, 
towards the support of which that gentleman gives £18 
per annum. 

ATHNASSEY, or ATHENEASY, a parish, in the 
barony of Costlea, county of Limerick, and province 
of Munster, 3 miles (E. N. E.) from Kilmallock; con- 
taining 549 inhabitants. It is situated on the road 
from Kilmallock to Hospital, and comprises 2799 statute 
acres, as applotted under the tithe act. The land is 
good ; about one-half is under tillage, and the remainder 
is meadow, chiefly attached to dairy farms, except a 
small tract of very valuable bog, which is rapidly di- 
minishing. Nearly in the centre of the parish is 
Martinstowu, the residence of M. Walsh, Esq. The 
parish is in the diocese of Limerick, and is a rectory 
forming part of the union of Kilmallock belonging to 
the Dean and Chapter of Limerick ; the tithes amount 
to £225. 11. 2|., forming part of the economy fund of 
the cathedral • the glebe comprises 27 acres of profitable 
land. In the R. C. divisions it is the head of a union or 
Vol. I. — 89 


district, also called Ballinvana, comprising the parishes of 
Athnassey, Bulgadine, Emly-Grenan, Kilbreedy-Major, 
and Ballinvana; the chapel, built in 1834, is near the 
verge of the Red bog. The only school is a pay school 
of about 15 boys and 12 girls. Some fragments of the old 
church are still remaining in the burial-ground attached 
to it : it is supposed to have been founded in the 7th 
century, and was dedicated to St. Athanasius, from 
which circumstance probably the parish may have de- 
rived its name. There are several traces of ancient 
military works within the parish, and several military 
weapons of rude workmanship have been found ; also 
the ruins of a small religious house called Adam’s Church, 
and fragments of castles or buildings at Fauntstown, 
Gormanstown, and Stephenson, near the first of which 
are a ruined chapel and a celebrated holy well. 

ATHNETT.— See ANHID. 

ATHNOWEN (ST. MARY), or OVENS, a parish, 
partly in the barony of Barretts, but chiefly in that 
of East Muskerry, county of Cork, and province of 
Munster, l| mile (W.) from Ballincollig ; containing 
1953 inhabitants. This parish, which is generally called 
Ovens, is situated on the south line of road from Cork 
to Macroom, and is bounded on the north by the river 
Lee, and intersected by the Bride. It comprises 4660 
statute acres, as applotted under the tithe act, and valued 
at £7594 per annum : the soil in the northern or hilly 
part is rather poor and stony, hut in the vales extremely 
rich, lying on a substratum of limestone forming part of 
the great limestone district extending to Castlemore on 
the west, and to Blackrock on the east. The limestone 
is quarried to some extent for burning into lime for the 
supply of the hilly districts to the north and south for a 
a distance of several miles. The principal seats are 
Grange, the residence of J. Hawkes, Esq., which occu- 
pies the site of Grange abbey (said to have been founded 
by St. Cera, who died in 679), and includes part of the 
ancient walls ; Sirmount, of G. Hawkes, Esq., which 
occupies an elevated site commanding an extensive 
prospect over a highly interesting and richly cultivated 
tract of country ; Spring Mount, of S. M c Carthy, Esq. ; 
Clashenure, of Kyrle Allen, Esq. ; and the glebe-house, 
of the Rev. W. Harvey. There are two boulting-mills 
on the river Bride ; one at Killumney belonging to Mr. 
D. Donovan, jun. ; and the other at Ovens, belonging to 
Messrs. R. Donovan and Sons. The petty sessions for the 
district are held every alternate week at Carroghally. 
The living is a rectory and vicarage, in the diocese of 
Cork, united by diocesan authority, in 1785, to the 
prebend of Kilnaglory in the cathedral church of St. 
Finbarr, Cork : the tithes amount to £425. The church 
is a neat ancient structure, with a square tower crowned 
with pinnacles. There is a glebe-house, with a glebe of 
20a. 2r. 17 p. In the R. C. divisions -this parish is the 
head of a union or district called Ovens, which includes 
also the parishes of Desertmore and Aglish, and the 
ploughlands of Millane and Killumney, in the parish of 
St. Finbarr, Cork : the chapel, erected in 1835, is a 
handsome edifice of hewn limestone, in the mixed Gothic 
and Grecian styles of architecture. The male and female 
parochial schools are supported principally at the expense 
of the rector. There is also a national school, in which 
are 140 children, under the patronage of the Roman 
Catholic clergy, for which a spacious school-room has 
been built near the chapel. A dispensary has been 

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A T H 


established for the relief of sick poor. Near the bridge 
of Ovens over the river Bride is the entrance to the 
celebrated limestone caves, which Smith, in his history 
of Cork, describes as 18 feet in height ; but from the 
accumulation of rubbish they are now not more than 
three feet high, and are nearly filled with water. They 
branch off into several ramifications, and from the roofs 
of some of them depend stalactites of various forms : 
their dimensions have never been satisfactorily ascer- 
tained. There are some remains of the ancient castle, 
called Castle Inchy. 

ATHY, an incorporated 
market and post-town, in 
the barony of West Nar- 
ragh and Rheban, county 
of Kildare, and province 
of Leinster, 17f miles (S. 
W. by S.) from Naas, and 32 
(S. W.) from Dublin ; con- 
taining 4494 inhabitants. 
This place derives its name 
from an ancient ford called 
Athelehac, or anciently Athle- 
gar, the “ ford towards the 
west,” which led from the territory of Leix to that of 
Calleagh or Caellan, and near which a great battle was 
fought between the people of Munster and those of 
Leix, under Lavisegh Cean Mordha, in the 3rd century. 
Donough O’Brien and his forces crossed the river 
Barrow at this ford, on their retreat from the battle of 
Clontarf. The town appears to have originated in the 
foundation of two monasteries, soon after the English 
invasion 5 one on the west bank of the Barrow, by 
Richard de St. Michael, Lord of Rheban, in 1253, for 
Crouched friars ; and the other on the east bank, by 
the families of Boisle or Boyle and Hogan, some time 
in the 13th century, for Dominican or Preaching friars. 
It was frequently exposed to the assaults of the neigh- 
bouring septs, especially of the O’ Kellys, whose terri- 
tories, then called Caellan, are included in the modern 
county of Kildare. In 1308 the town was burnt by 
the Irish, and in 1315 was plundered by the Scots under 
Robert Bruce, who gained the battle of Ardscull, in 
which were killed, on the side of the English, Raymond 
le Gros and Sir William Prendergast, and on the side 
of the Scots, Sir Fergus Andressan and Sir Walter 
Murray, all of whom were buried in the Dominican 
monastery. In 1422, the Lord Justice of Ireland, con- 
sidering Athy, from its situation on the Irish frontier, 
to be one of the keys of the Marches of Kildare, and 
necessary to be maintained for the defence of those 
parts, placed it in the custody of a military governor ; 
and about the year 1506, a castle was built on the 
eastern side of the river, by Gerald, eighth Earl of 
Kildare for the protection of the town, which being 
enlarged in 1575, by one of the family of White, has 
since obtained the name of White’s Castle, and in 164S 
was held by the Irish under O’Nial, but was taken in 
1650 by the parliamentary forces under Cols. Hewson 
and Reynolds. 

The town is pleasantly situated on the river Barrow, 
and on the mail coach road from Dublin, through Cashel, 
to Cork ; and the surrounding country is remarkably 
open and healthy. In 1831 it comprised 733 houses, 
and consists chiefly of one long street divided into two 
90 


parts by the river, over which is a neat stone bridge of 
five arches, built in 1796. On the east side of the 
bridge the road from Monastereven to Carlow intersects 
the main street at right angles, forming, on the Carlow 
side, a neat square called the Market-square. The only 
trade is in corn, of which a very considerable quantity 
is sold in the market, for the supply of some extensive 
mills on the Barrow, and of the Dublin market, the 
proportion destined for which is sent thither by the 
Grand Canal in boats and barges ; there is also a daily 
fly-boat, for the conveyance of passengers to the me- 
tropolis. Its situation in the- midst of an exhaustless 
turbary, affording fuel at a low price, is advantageous 
for the establishment of manufactures ; and its facility 
of communication by water with Dublin and other 
parts of the kingdom admirably adapts it for carrying 
on an extensive inland trade. The market is on Tues- 
day and Saturday, and, in addition to an ample supply 
of corn, is well furnished with meat, poultry, butter, 
and other provisions. Fairs are held on the 25th of 
April and July, under patent granted August 17th, 1756, 
by Geo. II . ; also on March 17th, June 9th, Oct. 10th, 
and Dec. 11th, for cattle, sheep, and pigs. There is a 
chief station of the constabulary police, also a barrack 
capable of accommodating a troop of cavalry. 

The inhabitants were incorporated in 1613, at the in- 
stance cf Sir Robert Digby, Knt., by a charter, in which 
the corporation is entitled “the Sovereign, Bailiffs, Free 
Burgesses, and Commonalty of the Borough of Athy.” 
The officers of the corporation are a sovereign (who is 
a justice of the peace), 2 bailiffs, 12 free burgesses, a 
recorder, and several inferior officers. The sovereign 
and bailiffs are elected annually, on June 24th, by the 
sovereign, bailiffs, and burgesses, out of the body of 
burgesses, and are sworn into office on Sept. 29th ; the 
burgesses are elected for life, out of the body of the 
freemen ; the latter, in recent instances, have been 
nominated by the sovereign. The governing body con- 
sists of the sovereign, bailiffs, and burgesses : the re- 
corder, treasurer, and inferior officers are appointed 
either by the sovereign or the governing body. The 
borough returned to the Irish parliament two members 
until the Union, when, of the £15,000 awarded as com- 
pensation for the abolition of the elective franchise, 
£13,800 was paid to the Duke of Leinster, as proprietor 
of the borough, and £1200 to Lord Ennismore. A 
court of record was held here until 1827, for deter- 
mining pleas to any amount arising within the borough 
and its liberties, which extend half a mile in every 
direction from White’s Tower. A curl court, for the 
recovery of debts under 406., late currency, is held on 
the 1st Monday in every month, at which the sovereign 
presides. The summer assizes for the county, and 
the Epiphany and Midsummer quarter sessions for the 
division, and also a weekly petty session on Tuesday, 
are held in the court-house, which is a neat and com- 
modious building in the market-square. A court, called 
a “ presenting court,” is held annually in the month of 
October, to make presentments for the ensuing year ; 
and a market jury of 12 persons is also chosen as 
inspectors of the markets, weights, and measures. The 
county gaol is situated outside the town, on the road to 
Carlow: it was completed in 1830, at an expense of 
£6000, of which £2000 was given by the Duke of 
Leinster, in addition to the site, and the remainder was 



Seal. 


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ATT 


paid by the county ; it is a well-arranged building on 
the radiating principle, the governor’s house being in 
the centre, and comprises 6 airing-yards, 6 day-rooms, 
2 work-rooms, and 32 sleeping and 3 solitary cells, 
with a matron’s room, 2 hospitals, and a chapel. 

The town comprises the greater part of the parishes 
of St. John and St. Michael, which, together with the 
rural parishes of Ardrie and Churchtown, constitute the 
vicarage of St. Nicholas, or Nicholastown, united by act of 
council, in 1804, to the rectory and vicarage of Tankards- 
town, in the diocese of Dublin, and in the alternate pa- 
tronage of the Crown and the Archbishop ; the tithes of 
the several parishes amount to £544. 2. 6. The church of 
the union, a plain edifice, is in the parish of St. Michael ■ 
and a new church is about to be built on a site given by 
the Duke of Leinster. The glebe contains seven acres. 
In the R. C. divisions this town is the head of a union 
or district, comprising the same parishes as the Pro- 
testant union, together with that of Kilberry, and 
containing two chapels, one in St. Michael’s and the 
other at Tankardstown ; the former is a spacious and 
handsome edifice, built in 1796, principally by a dona- 
tion from the late Maurice Keating, Esq., of Narragh- 
more, on an acre of land given by the Duke of Leinster, 
who also contributed towards its erection. There are 
places of worship for Calvinists and Wesleyan Metho- 
dists. The parochial school, in which 120 children are 
instructed, is held in a room behind the court-house. 
Contiguous to the R. C. chapel are two large school- 
rooms, one for 400 boys, built in 1826 by voluntary 
subscription, aided by a donation of £100 from the 
Duke of Leinster, who also gave the site and erected a 
convenient residence for the parish priest, at a nominal 
rent j the other, capable of containing 1 00 girls, was 
built by a donation from the late Mrs. Dooley. Here 
is a dispensary ; and a charitable association for reliev- 
ing the aged and distressed, without regard to religious 
distinctions, is maintained by subscriptions, aided by 
annual donations of £50 from the Duke of Leinster, 
£30 from the Rev. F. S. Trench, and £5 from Lord 
Downes. There are several remains of antiquity but 
of the ancient monasteries little is left besides a gate- 
way on the Carlow road, which, when seen in connec- 
tion with the plantations intervening between it and the 
river, forms a picturesque and interesting feature in the 
landscape. Near the entrance from the Dublin road is a 
modern building occupied by two Dominican friars, with a 
small domestic chapel, near which is the ancient burial- 
ground of St. Michael’s. The remains of White’s castle, 
which is situated close to the bridge, consist only of a 
massive square and embattled tower, now used as the 
police barrack. On the western bank of the river stand 
the remains of Woodstock castle : the date of its erection 
is unknown, but it is supposed to have been built, about 
1290, by a descendant of the Earl of Pembroke, or 
more probably at a later period by Thomas Fitzgerald, 
seventh Earl of Kildare, who, on marrying Dorothea, 
daughter of Anthony O’Moore, of Leix, in 1424, received 
the manors of Woodstock and Rheban as her dower. 
The walls are very thick and in moderately good preser- 
vation, and the mullioned windows are much admired 
for the elegance of their execution ; a fine arched gate- 
way and part of the outer court yet remain. The castle 
was taken from the insurgents, in 1642, by the Mar- 
quess of Ormonde, who made it a halting-place for 
91 


his troops ; and, in 1647, Owen Roe O’Nial surprised it 
and put the garrison to the sword, but Lord Inchiquin 
compelled him soon afterwards to surrender both it 
and Athy. Rheban castle is on the west bank of the 
Barrow, above two miles from the town. In the 2nd 
century, Rheban was one of the inland towns, and i.e 
found in Ptolemy’s map. The castle was built, or 
greatly enlarged, in the 13 th century, by Richard de 
St. Michael, when it and an adjoining district named 
Dunamase were erected into a barony, of which he was 
created baron. The first English settlers strengthened 
and repaired this castle, as also the opposite one of 
Kilberry. Its name was formerly Raiba or Righban, 
“ the habitation of the King,” and though now in ruins, 
its massive walls, mullioned windows, and imposing 
position, show that it was intended to awe the sur- 
rounding country. In 1325, Rheban, Dunamase, and 
all their dependencies, were taken by O’Moore, whose 
descendant, Anthony O’Moore, gave it in dower to the 
Earl of Kildare, through whom it has descended to the 
Dukes of Leinster. About three miles from the town, 
on the Dublin road, and in a most commanding position, 
is a rude but very extensive ancient fortification con- 
structed entirely of earth raised so high as to command 
all the adjacent country : it is called the Moat of Ard- 
scull, and if not raised on the occasion of the battle, was 
probably the scene of it ; it was enclosed and planted 
about ten years since by the Duke of Leinster, and is a 
conspicuous landmark. 

ATTANAGH, a parish, partly in the barony of 
Uffer Ossory, Queen’s county, but chiefly in that 
of Fassadining, county of Kilkenny, and province 
of Leinster, if mile (E. S. E.) from Durrow ; contain- 
ing 750 inhabitants. This parish, formerly called Rath- 
anna and Attier, is situated on the river Nore, and com- 
prises 2445 statute acres, as applotted under the tithe 
act. The living is a rectory and vicarage, in the diocese 
of Ossory ; the rectory is united to that of Aharney, and 
in the patronage of the Crown ■, the vicarage is united 
by act of council to the vicarage of Aharney and the 
rectories of Kilmenan and Rossconnell, in the patron- 
age of the Bishop. The tithes amount to £13S. 9. 2f., 
of which £92. 6. if. is payable to the rector, and the 
remainder to the vicar ■ and the gross tithes payable to 
the vicar amount to £362. 11. 3^. The tithes of the 
rectorial union amount to £318. 19. 5f. The church, 
a plain neat edifice, was erected by aid of a loan of 
£850 from the late Board of First Fruits, in 1821. 
The glebe-house is situated on a glebe of 40 acres, on 
which also the church is built, and there is another 
glebe of 100 acres in Rossconnell. In the R. C. divi- 
sions this parish is one of the nine denominations that 
form the union or district of Ballyragget. The parochial 
school, in which are 25 children, is supported by the 
rector and vicar ; and there is a private pay school. 

ATTYMASS, a parish, in the barony of Gallen, 
county of Mayo, and province of Connaught, 3f miles 
(N.) from Foxford ; containing 3276 inhabitants. This 
parish is bounded on the south by the river Moy, and 
on the east by the Ox mountains. The lands are chiefly 
under tillage, but the system of agriculture is not in a 
very improved state ; there are large tracts of waste land, 
which are chiefly irreclaimable bog and mountain. Free- 
stone abounds, but limestone i-s rather scarce, being 
found only in some parts of the parish. The surface is 

N 2 


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interspersed with several lakes, which being surrounded 
with mountains have a beautifully picturesque appear- 
ance. Fairs are held at Bonnefinglass on May 24th, 
July 7th, Nov. 15th, and Dec. 15th. The living is a 
vicarage, in the diocese of Killala, and forms part of 
the union of Ardagh ; the rectory is impropriate in Sir 
W. H. Palmer, Bart. The tithes amount to £180.7- 6., 
which is equally divided between the impropriator and 
the vicar. The R. C. parish is co-extensive with that 
of the Established Church ; the chapel is a neat slated 
building. There are three hedge schools, in which are 
about 150 boys and 100 girls. On the edge of a lake 
at Kildermot. is a picturesque ruin of an ancient con- 
vent. 

AUBURN, a village, in the parish and barony of 
Kilkenny West, county of Westmeath, and province 
of Leinster, 5| miles (N. E.) from Athlone: the po- 
pulation is returned with the parish. It is a very small 
place, but is celebrated as being the spot from which, 
from real life, Oliver Goldsmith drew his enchanting de- 
scription of rural scenery in the “ Deserted Village 
the house in which the poet resided is now in ruins ; 
and the hawthorn tree, round which a wall was built to 
preserve it, has been carried away piecemeal as relics. 
Near the village is Lissoy, which is described in his tale 
of the “Vicar of Wakefield” as “the modest mansion,” 
in which it is known he gave an accurate picture of his 
sister, and brother-in-law, Daniel Hodson, Esq., who 
resided there. — See Kilkenny West. 

AUGHA.— See AGHA. 

AUGHACREW.— See AGHACREW. 

AUGHADOWN, or AGHADOWN, a parish, in 
the East Division of the barony of West Carbery, 
county of Cork, and province of Munster, 3^ miles 
(W. S. W.) from Skibbereen ; containing, with several 
inhabited islands, 5419 inhabitants. This parish is 
situated on the north bank of the river lien, and 
comprises 7063 statute acres, as applotted under the 
tithe act, and valued at £5400 per annum. Its sur- 
face is very uneven ; in some parts, especially towards 
the north, it is rocky and unproductive ; but near its 
southern boundary, towards the Hen, the land is good 
and produces excellent crops. About two-thirds of it 
are under cultivation ; the remainder is rocky ground 
and bog, of which latter there is a considerable extent 
near Newcourt. The state of agriculture is not much 
improved ; the old heavy wooden plough is still used, 
and some of the land is cultivated by spade labour ; the 
fences are everywhere much neglected. Several good 
roads intersect the parish, one of which is a new line 
from Skibbereen to Crookhaven, likely to be of consi- 
derable advantage. The lien is navigable for vessels 
of 200 tons’ burden nearly to its eastern extremity : a 
quay and storehouses have been constructed at New- 
court, but are entirely neglected, and the harbour is 
only frequented by a few sand boats, which discharge 
their cargoes there for the convenience of the farmers. 
The principal seats are Aughadown House, that of H. 
Becher, Esq., occupying an elevated site in the midst of 
flourishing plantations, and commanding a fine view of 
the western coast ; Lake Marsh, of Hugh Lawton, Esq. ■ 
Whitehall, of S. Townsend, Esq. ; Newcourt, of Becher 
Fleming, Esq. ; the glebe-house, the residence of the 
Rev. T. D. Moore ; and Holly Hill, of the Rev. J. Cop- 
pinger, P.P. Fairs for the sale of cattle, sheep, pigs, 
92 


&c., are held on May 6th and Oct. 2nd. A manor court 
is held monthly by a seneschal appointed by Lord 
Carbery, for the recovery of debts under 40s. ; and here 
is a constabulary police station. The living is a vicar- 
age, in the diocese of Ross, and in the patronage of the 
Bishop ; the rectory is partly impropriate in Lord 
Audley and partly forms the corps of the archdeaconry 
of Ross. The tithes amount to £600, of which £300 
is payable to the impropriator and appropriator, and 
£300 to the vicar. The church, situated on the margin 
of the river, is a small neat edifice with a square tower, 
and was built by aid of a loan of £500, in 1812, from 
the late Board of First Fruits. The glebe-house is 
handsome and commodious, and is situated on a glebe 
of 45| acres. In the R. C. divisions this parish is the 
head of a union or district, which comprises also the 
parish of Kilcoe and part of Abbeystrowry, and con- 
tains two chapels, situated at Aughadown and Kilcoe, 
the former of which is a large and handsome edifice, 
occupying an elevated site near Currabeg. In addition 
to the parochial schools, there are schools at Whitehall 
and near Newcourt, also a pay school. In the demesne 
of Whitehall are the ruins of Kincoe or Kincolisky castle, 
built by the O’Driscols in 1495 ; and on the grounds of 
Lake View are some picturesque remains of an ecclesi- 
astical edifice, called by the people of the neighbourhood 
the Abbey of Our Lady. 

AUGHAGOWER, a parish, partly in the barony of 
Murrisk, but chiefly in that of Burrishoole, county 
of Mayo, and province of Connaught, 4 miles (S. E. 
by S.) from Westport ; containing 12,045 inhabitants. 
It is situated on the confines of the county of Galway, 
and on the road from Westport to Ballinrobe : the 
greater portion is mountain, about one-tenth only being 
under tillage; about 100 acres are woodland, and there 
are large tracts of bog. The system of agriculture is 
in a very rude and unimproved state, spade husbandry 
being still prevalent to a considerable extent. Lead 
mines have been opened in the mountains, which are 
the property of the Marquess of Sligo, but they are 
not worked at present ; and there is a large quarry of 
slate of a very heavy quality, which is not nowin opera- 
tion. Mount Browne House, now the seat of J. Browne, 
Esq., was, during the disturbances of 1798, the seat of 
the Right Hon. Denis Browne, brother of the Marquess 
of Sligo, and was for some time in the possession of 
the insurgents. The linen manufacture is partially 
carried on, but is diminishing every year, and at present 
affords employment only to a small number of persons. 
Fairs are held on June 24th, July 21st, Aug. 6th, and 
Sept. 29th. The parish is in the diocese of Tuam ; the 
rectory is appropriate to the archdeaconry, and also to 
the prebends of Faldownand Killabeggs in the cathedral 
of Tuam ; the vicarage forms part of the union of West- 
port. The tithes amount to £450, of which £355 is 
payable to the vicar. The church, a modern edifice 
with a square tower, was erected at an expense of £1200. 
The R. C. parish is co-extensive with that of the Esta- 
blished Church : the chapel is a small thatched building, 
and there is also a chapel at Erriff of similar character, 
both inadequate to the accommodation of their respec- 
tive congregations. There are six schools, situated res- 
pectively at Ayle, Ardygommon, Cushinkeel, Augha- 
gower. Triangle, and Lanmore, in which about 700 
children are taught ; and there is also a hedge school at 


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Carranmore of 50 boys and 40 girls. The only anti- 
quities are a round tower in the village, and the remains 
of an old castle at Doone. St. Patrick founded here 
the monastery of Achadfobhair, and placed St. Senach 
over it : it afterwards became the parish church. 

AUGHALOO, or AUGHLOE, a parish, in the 
barony of Dungannon, county of Tyrone, and pro- 
vince of Ulster ; containing, with the post-town of 
Caledon, 10,140 inhabitants. This parish, which is the 
most easterly in the county, is bounded on the east by 
the river Blackwater, and is situated on the mail coach 
road from Armagh to Aughnacloy ; it contains, accord- 
ing to the Ordnance survey, 19,583f statute acres, of 
which 140 are under water. The surface is pleasingly 
undulated and well planted and watered ; the lands are 
in a high state of cultivation, the system of agriculture 
is greatly improved, and there is little waste land and 
only a small portion of bog. There are several gentle- 
men’s seats, of which the principal are Caledon Hill, 
the seat of the Earl of Caledon ; Crilly, of R. Pettigrew, 
Esq ; Rahaghy, of N. Mayne, Esq. ; and Drummond, 
or Cottage Hill, of H. Moore, Esq. It is in the diocese 
of Armagh, and is a rectory and vicarage, forming part 
of the corps of the archdeaconry of Armagh and the 
union of Carrenteel ; the tithes amount to £609. 4. 7. 
The church is situated in the town of Caledon. A per- 
petual curacy was founded here in 1807, by the arch- 
deacon, who endowed it with £50 per annum and 26^ 
acres of glebe ; it has also an augmentation from 
Primate Boulter’s fund, and is in the gift of the Arch- 
deacon. In the R. C. divisions this parish is the head 
of a union or district, comprising the parishes of Aug- 
haloo and Carrenteel ; the chapel is at Caledon. There 
are three places of worship for Presbyterians, at Min- 
terburn, Crillig, and Caledon, the last in connection 
with the Seceding Synod and of the second class : there 
is also an Independent meeting-house, but no regular 
service is performed in it. The parochial school is at 
Caledon ; there are male and female schools at Rama- 
kit, Curlough, Minterburn, and Dyan, built and chiefly 
supported by the Earl of Caledon ; a school near the 
demesne was built and is supported by the Countess of 
Caledon, in which 40 girls are clothed and educated ; 
and a school at Rahaghy is under the National Board. 
These schools afford instruction to about 580 boys 
and 370 girls ; and there are also five private schools, 
in which are about 100 boys and 150 girls, and 14 
Sunday schools. Close to a stream that separates 
the union of Carrenteel from the parish of Errigal- 
Kerogue is a sulphuric spring, resembling in its proper- 
ties the Harrogate waters, but wanting their purgative 
quality : it has been enclosed in a small house erected 
over it by an individual who had received benefit from 
the use of the water. At Glenarb are the remains of a 
monastery with a burial-ground, and numerous stone 
crosses have been discovered. — See Caledon. 

AUGHAMACART, or AGHAMACART, a parish, 
in the barony of Upper Ossory, Queen’s county, and 
province of Leinster, 4 \ miles (W. S. W.) from Dur- 
row ; containing 2222 inhabitants. This place is situ- 
ated on the confines of the county of Kilkenny, and on 
the road from Durrow to Johnstown and from Dublin 
to Cork. A priory of Augustine canons was founded 
here in 550 by O’Dempsey, under the invocation 
of St. Tighernach, which soon afterwards became the 
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burial-place of the Fitzpatricks, princes of Ossory, 
who were its patrons. In the 43rd of Elizabeth it was 
granted to the descendants of that family, then barons 
of Upper Ossory, who erected a castle at Culla Hill, 
which now forms a picturesque ruin : the principal re- 
mains are a lofty rectangular tower very much broken, 
and fragments of various outer walls surrounded by a 
moat. The parish comprises 9135 statute acres, as ap- 
plotted under the tithe act : the lands are in general 
fertile and in a good state of cultivation; the system of 
agriculture is much improving; the waste land consists 
of mountain. The principal seats are Phillipsboro’, the 
residence of Mrs. Phillips; Belmont, of J. Roe, Esq. ; 
Edmundsbury, of Capt. Thompson ; Old Town, of 
— Delany, Esq. ; and Lodgefield, of Lodge Phillips, 
Esq. Fairs are held at Culla Hill on May 27th and 
Oct. 2nd, of which the latter is a large sheep fair. The 
living is a vicarage, in the diocese of Ossory, with the 
vicarages of Cahir and Killeen united episcopally and 
by act of council, and in the patronage of Ladies G. and 
F. Fitzpatrick, in whom the rectory is impropriate : the 
tithes of the union amount to £466. 13. 4., of which 
£300 is payable to the impropriators, and the remainder 
to the vicar. The church is old but in tolerable repair. 
There is no glebe-house ; the glebe comprises 29 a. lr. 3 p. 
In the R. C. divisions this parish forms part of the 
union or district of Durrow ; the chapel is at Culla 
Hill. A Sunday school is supplied with books by the 
Sunday School Society of Dublin ; and there are three 
pay schools, in which are about 100 boys and 86 girls. 
Of the ancient priory, only portions of the chapel walls 
and of the belfry remain, the latter having an arched 
doorway of good design. In the vicinity are the remains 
of an ancient castle, situated in the demesne of the 
La Touche family, at the foot of a hill on the margin 
of a spacious lake, and environed with woods ; they 
consist of a large low round tower with walls of great 
thickness, surmounted with battlements and turrets, 
forming a picturesque object in the landscape. 

AUGHANAGH, or AGHANAGH, a parish, in the 
barony of Tiraghrill, county oUSligo, and province 
of Connaught, 5 miles (N. W.) from Boyle, on Lough 
Arrow, and on the road from Boyle to Sligo ; contain- 
ing 2393 inhabitants. It is bounded on the south by 
the Curlew mountains, and comprises 5412 statute 
acres, as applotted under the tithe act, with a consider- 
able extent of mountain and bog. There are quarries 
of excellent limestone resembling marble, and much 
used for building. Hollybrook, the residence of J. Fol- 
liott. Esq., is beautifully situated on the shore of Lough 
Arrow ; the grounds are well planted, and contribute 
in a pleasing manner to embellish the scenery of the 
lake. It is a vicarage, in the diocese of Elphin, form- 
ing part of the union of Boyle : the tithes amount to 
£110. 15. 4§., of which £62. 6. I5. is payable to the 
impropriators, and £48. 9. 3. to the vicar. In the R. C. 
divisions it is included in the union or district of Rivers- 
town : the chapel at Greyfort is a good slated building. 
At Currydora there is a school under the patronage of 
Wm. Phibbs, Esq. ; and there is a private pay school in 
the parish. On the lands of Aughada are the remains 
of an abbey. 

AUGHANUNCHON, or AGHANINSHON, a pa- 
rish, in the barony of Kilmacrenan, county of Done- 
gal, and province of Ulster, 1^ mile (N. E.) from 


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Letterkenny ; containing 1848 inhabitants. This pa- 
rish, which is situated on Lough Swilly, and on the 
road from Letterkenny to Ramelton, comprises, accord- 
ing to the Ordnance survey, 401 1| statute acres, in- 
cluding 184^- acres of tideway. The living is a rectory 
and vicarage, in the diocese of Raphoe, and in the 
patronage of the Bishop : the tithes amount to £147. 
The church is in a very dilapidated state. The glebe- 
house, a comfortable residence, was built in 1782, by 
aid of a gift of £100 from the late Board of First Fruits ; 
the glebe comprises 300 acres. In the R. C. divisions 
it forms part of the union or district of Aughnish. The 
parochial school is supported by an endowment from 
Col. Robertson’s fund, aided by the rector ; and there 
are two other schools. 

AUGHAYAL, or OUGHAVAL, a parish, in the 
barony of Murrisk, county of Mayo, and province of 
Connaught ; containing, with the market and post- 
town of Westport, 13,921 inhabitants. This parish is 
situated on the bay of Westport, and on the road from 
Castlebar to Lewisburgh ; it is partly bounded by the 
celebrated mountain of Croagh Patrick, and comprises 
26,748 statute acres, as applotted under the tithe act, 
and valued at £7017 per annum. The land is chiefly 
under tillage ; the system of agriculture is improving ; 
there are large tracts of bog, which, lying on an inclined 
plane, might be easily reclaimed and rendered produc- 
tive. Limestone of good quality abounds and is quar- 
ried for building, for mending the roads, and for burn- 
ing into lime. Lead mines were formerly worked, but 
are now disused ; and in the mountain of Sheffrey a 
copper mine was opened, but has long been discon- 
tinued. The principal seats are Westport House, the 
mansion of the Marquess of Sligo ; Murrisk Abbey, of 
J. Garvine, Esq.; Trafalgar Lodge, of C. Higgins, Esq.; 
Marino, of J. Cuff, Esq. ; Holdhead, of the Rev. F. L. 
Rutledge ; and Boathaven, of the Rev. J. D’Arcy Sirr. 
Besides the market at Westport, fairs are also held there 
and at Murrisk. The living is a vicarage, in the diocese 
of Tuam, with the vicarages of Aughagower, Kilma- 
classer, and Kilgavower united by act of council, con- 
stituting the union of Aughaval, otherwise Westport, in 
the patronage of the Archbishop ; the rectory is appro- 
priate to the archdeaconry of Tuam and prebend of 
Killabeggs. The tithes amount to £300, of which £225 
is payable to the incumbent, and the remainder to the 
archdeacon and prebendary ; and the tithes of the en- 
tire benefice amount to £884. 10. The church, an 
old building in the demesne of the Marquess of Sligo, 
was erected by aid of a gift of £500 from the late Board 
of First Fruits, in 1797, and was lately repaired by a 
grant of £166 from the Ecclesiastical Commissioners. 
The glebe-house was built by a gift of £300 and a loan 
of £500 from the same Board, in 1815; the glebe com- 
prises seven acres. The R. C. parish is co-extensive 
with that of the Established Church : there are three 
chapels, one in Westport, which is spacious and 
ornamented with a handsome front ; the other two 
are at Thornhill and Drummin, and are new slated 
buildings, but quite inadequate to the accommodation 
of their respective congregations. There are places 
of worship at. Westport for Presbyterians and Wes- 
leyan Methodists, the former in connection with the 
Synod of Ulster and of the third class. At Westport 
are four free schools and an infants' school, in which 
94 


about 330 boys and 200 girls are taught ; and there are 
also 17 private schools, in which are about S60 children. 
There are some remains of an ancient abbey at Murrisk, 
and in the parish are some chalybeate springs. A large 
patron is held annually at Murrisk on the 28th of 
August. — See Westport. 

AUGHAVEA, or AGHAVEAGH, a parish, in the 
barony of Magherastephena, county of Fermanagh, 
and province of Ulster, on the road from Lisnaskea 
to Five-mile-town ; containing, with the post-town of 
Brookborough, 6281 inhabitants. It comprises, ac- 
cording to the Ordnance survey, 17,142 statute acres, 
of which 10,096 are applotted under the tithe act. 
About 17^ acres are water, and nearly one-fourth of 
the land is bog or mountain, the former affording good 
fuel, and the latter pasturage for cattle ; there is no 
waste land but what may occur from neglect or from a 
bad system of cultivation. The greater portion of the 
land is under tillage, and the system of agriculture is 
improving. There are some excellent quarries of free- 
stone, which is raised for building and for other uses. 
The principal seats are Nutfield, the residence of Lady 
Brook ; Abbey Lodge, of J. Macartney, Esq. ; Green- 
hill, of Major Irvine ; Whitepark, of A. Bailey, Esq. ; 
and Gola, of Major Dundas. The living is a rectory 
and vicarage, in the diocese of Clogher, and in the 
patronage of the Bishop ; the tithes amount to £300 ; 
there are 14 townlands in the parish, the tithes of 
which are annexed to the old abbey of Lisdoune, in the 
possession of the Leonard family, and are not included 
in the applotment under the tithe act. The church is a 
plain edifice, erected by aid of a gift of £200 and a loan 
of £300 from the late Board of First Fruits, in 1813 ; 
and divine service is also performed every Sunday in 
the school-house at Brookborough. The glebe-house 
is a handsome modern building ; the glebe comprises 
43 acres. In the R. C. divisions the parish forms part 
of the union or district of Aughalurcher, and has a 
chapel. There is a place of worship for Wesleyan 
Methodists at Brookborough, where is the parochial 
school, supported under the patronage of Sir A. H. 
Brooke, Bart. There are also five other schools in the 
parish. — See Brookborough. 

AUGHAVILLER, or AGHAVILLER, a parish, in 
the barony of Knocktopher, county of Kilkenny, and 
province of Leinster, 3 miles (S. W.) from Knockto- 
pher, on the road from Kilkenny to Carrick-on-Suir ; 
containing 1887 inhabitants. The farm-houses, being 
well built and slated, present a neat and comfortable 
appearance ; there is a good freestone quarry in the 
parish. Castle Morres, the splendid mansion of Harvey 
de Montmorency, Esq., occupies an elevated site, and 
has been recently much enlarged and improved. The 
estate confers the titles of Baron and Viscount Mount - 
morres in the peerage of Ireland, which are now held 
by a relation of the present proprietor. Three fairs, 
called “the fairs of Harvey,” are held at Hugginstown. 
The parish is in the diocese of Ossory, and is a rectory 
and vicarage, forming part of the union of Knocktopher: 
the tithes amount to £200. In the R. C. divisions also 
it is included within the union of Knocktopher, or 
Ballyhale : it contains two chapels, situated respectively 
at Newmarket and Hugginstown ; in the former is held 
a Sunday school. Near Castle Morres, within a few 
yards of the site of the old church, is the lower part of 


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an ancient round tower of breccia, measuring 50 feet in 
circumference above tbe base. 

AUGHER, a market-town (formerly a parliamentary 
borough), in the parish and barony of Clogher, county 
of Tyrone, and province of Ulster, 2 miles (N. E. by E.) 
from Clogher, and 75£ (N. N. W.) from Dublin ; con- 
taining 726 inhabitants. Of the origin and early 
history of this place but very little is known. In the 
reign of Elizabeth, Lord-Deputy Mountjoy placed in it 
a powerful garrison to defend the pass through the 
valley in which it is situated, that retained possession 
for some time, constantly harassing the army of the 
Earl of Tyrone till his final surrender at Mellifont. 
From this place the queen’s army marched when it 
crossed the mountains to give battle to the earl at 
Magheralowney, where that chieftain’s principal maga- 
zine was taken, in June 1602. At the time of the 
English settlement of Ulster, by virtue of a decree by 
James I. in 1611, Sir Thomas Ridgway, Knt., Treasurer 
at War for Ireland, received, in 1613, a grant of 315 
acres of land in the barony of Clogher, under an agree- 
ment that he should, within four years, settle on a 
parcel of land called Agher twenty Englishmen or Scots, 
chiefly artificers and tradesmen, to be incorporated as 
burgesses and made a body politic within the said four 
years 3 and should set apart convenient places for the 
site of the town, churchyard, market-place, and public 
school 5 he was likewise to assign to the burgesses 
houses and lands and 30 acres of commons. Sir Thomas 
received also, in 1611, the grant of a market and two 
fairs to be held here ; and in 1613, the town and pre- 
cincts, with the exception of a fort and bawn called 
Spur Royal castle, which had been erected, w T ere created 
a borough. Besides the 315 acres of land on which 
he was to found the borough. Sir Thomas received a 
grant of 2000 acres called Portclare ; and according to 
Pynnar’s report in 1619, it appears that, besides the fort 
and bawn, he had built 16 houses of stone in the town, 
which were inhabited by English artificers who were 
burgesses, and had each two acres of land, and commons 
for their cattle. In 1630, Sir James Erskine, Knt., 
then proprietor of the manor, received a grant of two 
additional fairs. On the breaking out of the war in 
1641, a garrison was stationed here by Col. Chichester 
and Sir Arthur Tyringham, and the castle was gallantly 
defended against the insurgent forces, who, in an attempt 
to take it by storm, -were repulsed. This defeat so 
exasperated their leader, Sir Phelim O’Nial, that in 
revenge he ordered his agent, Mac Donnel, to massacre 
all the English Protestants in three adjacent parishes. 
Sir James Erskine dying without male issue, the exten- 
sive manor of Portclare, which in 1665 was confirmed 
in the family by Chas. II., under its present name of 
Favour Royal, was divided between his two daughters, 
who married into the families of Richardson and Mou- 
tray, and the respective portions are still in the posses- 
sion of their descendants, of whom the present proprietor 
of Augher castle has assumed the additional surname 
and arms of Bunbury. The castle was finally dismantled 
by order of parliament, and continued in a state of 
dilapidation and neglect till 1832, when it was restored 
and a large and handsome mansion built adjoining it 
by Sir J. M. Richardson Bunbury, Bart. The ancient 
building consisted of a pentagonal tower surrounded 
by a wall 12 feet high and flanked by four circular 
95 


towers : the wall has been removed, but one of the 
round towers has been restored ; and the entrance 
gateway has also been removed and rebuilt on an 
elevated situation commanding some fine views, in which 
the remains of the old castle form an interesting object: 
the mansion is situated in a well-wooded demesne of 
220 acres, and upon the margin of a beautiful lake. 

The town is situated on the river Blackwater, over 
which is a bridge adjoining it, and in a fertile valley 
between two ridges of lofty mountains clothed with 
verdure to the summit, of which the highest. Knock- 
many, is covered on its south side with thriving plan- 
tations. It consists of one principal street, from which 
another branches at right angles on the south leading 
to Clogher 3 and has a penny post to Aughnacloy. 
Several new roads have been lately formed 3 and not 
far distant is an excellent bog. The lands in the neigh- 
bourhood are well cultivated. Besides Augher Castle, 
there are several gentlemen’s seats near the town, 
described in the article on the parish of Clogher, which 
see. The market is on Monday, and has lately become 
a good market for oats ; and fairs for the sale of cattle, 
sheep, pigs, and other commodities, are held on the last 
Monday in every month, in the market-place set apart 
under the original grant at the bottom of Clogher- 
street 3 the market-house is the only public building in 
the town. The collection of tolls and customs has been 
discontinued by the proprietors of the manor. Here is 
a chief station of the constabulary police. 

The charter granted in 16 13 incorporated the inha- 
bitants under the style of “ The Burgomaster, Free 
Burgesses, and Commonalty of the Borough of Agher,” 
with the privilege of holding a civil court of record 
with jurisdiction to the extent of five marks, and of 
returning two members to the Irish parliament, which 
they continued to exercise till the Union, when the 
£15,000 compensation money for the abolition of its 
franchise was awarded to James, Marquess of Abercorn. 
Since that period no corporate officers have been ap- 
pointed, and the town is now entirely within the juris- 
diction of the county magistrates, who hold petty ses- 
sions irregularly. The seneschal of the manor holds a 
court here every third Monday, for the recovery of 
debts to the amount of 40s., the jurisdiction of which 
extends into the parishes of Errigal-Kerogue, Errigal- 
Trough, Ballygawley, and Clogher 3 and a manorial 
court leet is held once in the year. Divine service is 
performed in the market- house every Sunday by the 
officiating clergyman of Clogher. A school for boys 
was built on part of the Commons Hill, or Fair Green, 
granted by the proprietors of the manor to the deans of 
Clogher, in trust for a school-house, and with funds 
provided from the “ Lord-Lieutenant’s School Fund 
it is supported by private subscriptions and by a weekly 
payment of Id. from each pupil ; and a school for girls 
is supported in a similar manner. 

AUGHNACLOY, a market and post-town, in the 
parish of Carrenteel, barony of Dungannon, county 
of Tyrone, and province of Ulster, 16 miles (S. E.) 
from Omagh, and 75-§ (N. N. W.) from Dublin 3 contain- 
ing 1742 inhabitants. This place, which is on the con- 
fines of the county of Monaghan, is situated on the river 
Blackwater, and on the mail coach road from Dublin to 
Londonderry. The town was built by Acheson Moore, 
Esq., who also erected the parish church, and it is now 


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the property of R. Montgomery Moore, Esq., his de- 
scendant : it consists of one principal street of consider- 
able length, from which three smaller streets branch off, 
and contains 365 houses, of which the greater number 
are thatched buildings, although there are several good 
houses of brick roofed with slate, and in the immediate 
neighbourhood are several gentlemen’s seats, which are 
described in the articles on their respective parishes. 
The market is on Wednesday, and is very well attended ; 
and fairs for live stock are held on the first Wednesday 
in every month. There is a convenient market-house. 
A constabulary police station has been established here ; 
and petty sessions are held every alternate Monday.. 
The church, a spacious and handsome edifice, was 
erected in 1736. There are a R. C. chapel, and places 
of worship for Presbyterians in connection with the 
Synod of Ulster, and for Primitive and Wesleyan Me- 
thodists. The parochial school is supported by the 
archdeacon, and there are three other schools. At Gar- 
vey, one mile distant, is a very valuable mineral spring, 
which has been found efficacious in dyspeptic and cuta- 
neous diseases ; it is enclosed within a large building, 
and near it is a house affording excellent accommodation 
to those who frequent it for the benefit of their health. 
Dr. Thomas Campbell, author of Strictures on the His- 
tory of Ireland, was a native of this place. 

AUGHNAMULLEN, a parish, in the barony of 
Cremorne, county of Monaghan, and province of 
Ulster, 3 miles (S. by W.) from Ballibay, on the road 
to Dublin; containing 18,03 L 2 inhabitants. It comprises, 
according to the Ordnance survey, 30,710 statute acres 
(including 1643^ under water), of which 26,463 are 
applotted under the tithe act and valued at £19,323 per 
annum : there are large tracts of mountain and bog. The 
mountain of Bunnanimma is an isolated mass about six 
miles in circumference, and its summit, which, according 
to the above survey, rises 886 feet above the level of the 
sea, is the highest point of land in the county : the waters 
flow from this mountain on the south-east to the sea at 
Dundalk, and on the west-north-west to Ballyshannon. 
On the south-east part of it is Lough Eagish, or Crieve 
Lough, partly supplied by springs and partly by rain 
water, which descends from the heights by which it is 
flanked on the east and west. A stream issuing from it 
presents by its rapid fall and constant supply, together 
with the abundance of fuel furnished by the bogs in the 
neighbourhood, such favourable sites for bleaching-mills 
that not less than fourteen mills are situated on its short 
course northward to Ballibay water, the tail race of one 
serving as the head of the next below it : the lake is 
under the care of an engineer, or waterman, to regulate 
the flow of water, so that a deficiency is seldom experi- 
enced even in the driest seasons. There are many other 
lakes in the parish, the principal of which are Lough 
Avean, Lough Chantinee, and Lough Ballytrain, besides 
several of smaller size. A battle is said to have been 
fought on an island in the lough opposite the glebe- 
house, where many large bridles and battle-axes have 
been found : this island comprises several acres of very 
excellent land, mostly in pasture. Of the entire extent 
of the parish, 25,008 acres are arable and pasture, and 
1503 are bog and waste land. The soil is of an average 
quality, and the system of agriculture is capable of great 
improvement : flax of good quality is cultivated to a 
great extent, and wheat, oats, barley, and rye are also 
96 


grown. There are very extensive bleach-greens at Crieve, 
near Ballibay, the property of Messrs. S. Cuningham 
and brothers ; also similar establishments at Drumfaldra 
and Cremorne, respectively belonging to Messrs. Cu- 
ningham and Mr. Jackson ; and at Chantinee, to Mr. 
Forbes. There are flax-mills at Crieve and Laragh, the 
latter, in which machinery for spinning has been recently 
erected, the property of Messrs. Davison, and, with a 
weaving factory and bleach-green, affording employment 
to more than 300 persons ; a large corn-mill at Rea, and 
two others at Derrygooney, all well supplied with water 
from the lakes. Some slate quarries of an inferior de- 
scription, and a lead mine, were formerly worked, but 
have been discontinued. The principal seats are Moun- 
tain Lodge, situated in a beautiful demesne, that of 
Lieut.-Col. Ker; Lough Bawn, of W. Tenison, Esq.; 
Chantinee, in the demesne of which are some fine water- 
falls, of J. Tilly Forbes, Esq. ; the glebe-house, the resi- 
dence of the Rev. R. Loftus Tottenham ; Cremorne 
Green, of J. Jackson, Esq. ; Crieve House, of S. Cu- 
ningham, Esq.; Drumfaldre, of John Cuningham, Esq.; 
Carnaveagh, of Jos. Cuningham, Esq.; Derrygooney, of 
R. A. Minnitt, Esq.; Laragh, of A. Davison, Esq.; Bush- 
ford, of R. Thompson, Esq. ; Corfada, of J. M c Cullagh, 
Esq. ; and Milmore, of the late T. Brunker, Esq. 

The living is a rectory and vicarage, in the diocese of 
Clogher, and in the patronage of the Bishop : the tithes 
amount to £900. The church is a plain neat edifice, 
with a tower surmounted by four turrets, and occupies 
a picturesque situation : a grant of £185 has been re- 
cently made by the Ecclesiastical Commissioners for its 
repair. Near Ballytrain is a chapel of ease, a very 
neat modern structure, for the eastern division of the 
parish. The glebe-house is handsome and commodious, 
and the glebe comprises 40 acres. In the R. C. divisions 
this parish is divided into two districts, east and west, 
having separate parochial clergy : there are five chapels, 
of which one at Luttin, to which is attached a burial- 
ground, was built in 1822, at an expense of £800 ; and 
another at Loughbawn, a spacious slated edifice, was 
built, in 1S33 at an expense of £1000. There are two 
places of worship for Presbyterians ; one at Ballytrain, 
in connection with the Synod of Ulster, and of the third 
class ; and the other at Crieve, in connection with the 
Seceding Synod, of the second class. There are four 
public schools, in which about 360 boys and 180 girls 
are taught ; and there are fifteen hedge schools, in which 
are about 600 boys and 360 girls ; and five Sunday 
schools. On the summit of a hill overlooking Lough 
Eagish, about 25 years since, an urn was found in a 
rude tomb covered with a stone which weighed about 
two tons, supposed to be the burial-place of some prince 
or chief. The townland of Cremorne gives the title of 
Baron to the family of Dawson, of Dawson’s Grove, in 
this county. 

AUGHNISH, a village, in a detached portion of the 
parish of Oughtmanna, barony of Burren, county of 
Clare, and province of Munster, 5 miles (N. W.) from 
Burren ; containing 46 houses and 304 inhabitants. 
This village, like others on this part of the coast, is 
frequented during the summer for sea-bathing ; it is 
situated on the bay of Galway and near Aughnish Point, 
a headland on the north side of the harbour of New 
Quay, projecting into the bay from the peninsula formed 
by the parish of Duras, in the county of Galway, and 


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forming the northern extremity of the county of Clare. 
On this point is a martello tower, and there is also one 
on Finvarra Point, to the south-west, in another detached 
portion of the parish. 

AUGHNISH, a parish, in the barony of Kilma- 
crenan, county of Donegal, and province of Ulster, 
containing, with part of the post-town of Ramelton, 4937 
inhabitants. This parish is situated on Lough Swilly, 
and on the road from Letterkenny to Rathmullen : it 
comprises, according to the Ordnance survey, 9194^ 
statute acres, of which 8146 are applotted under the 
tithe act, and valued at £3954 per annum. The land is 
principally arable and pasture, with a small quantity of 
bog ; agriculture is improving, and the waste lands are 
being reclaimed. There are extensive bleach-greens and 
flour-mills belonging to Mr. Watts ; and the parish is 
benefited by its vicinity to the river Lannon, which is 
navigable for vessels of 150 tons burden to Ramelton. 
Fairs are held on the Tuesday after May 20th and 
Dec. 11th, and on the 17th of July; and petty sessions 
are held every alternate Thursday at Ramelton. The 
gentlemen’s seats are Fort Stewart, the residence of 
Sir J. Stewart, Bart., and Shellfield, of N. Stewart, Esq. 
The living is a rectory, in the diocese of Raphoe, united 
subsequently to the 15th of Jas. I. to the rectory of 
Tully or Tullaferne, together forming the union of Augh- 
nish or Tullyaughnish, which is in the patronage of the 
Provost and Fellows of Trinity College, Dublin. The 
tithes amount to £509- 7- 4., and the entire tithes of the 
benefice to £1100. The church, which is at Ramelton, 
is a plain structure, rebuilt by aid of a gift of £200 and 
a loan of £800, in 1826, from the late Board of First 
Fruits, and a donation of £800 from the late Dr. Usher. 
The glebe-house, in the centre of the parish, one mile 
from the church, was built in 1828, at an expense of 
£6000, of which £1384. 12. was a loan from the same 
Board, and the remainder was either charged on the 
revenues of the living or contributed by the incumbent. 
The glebe lands in Aughnish consist of 389a. 3r., and in 
Tullaferne, of 512a. Or. 15 p., each portion valued at 10s. 
per acre. The R. C. parish is co-extensive with that of 
the Established Church, and is one of those held by the 
Bishop of Raphoe ; the chapel is a spacious building. 
There is a place of worship for Presbyterians of the Synod 
of Ulster, of the first class, also for Seceders and Wes- 
leyan Methodists. The parochial school is aided by Col. 
Robertson’s fund ; and there are four other public 
schools : about 200 boys and 250 girls are taught in 
these schools, besides which there are about 150 boys 
and 60 girls educated in private schools, and there is a 
Sunday school at Glenlary. A school-house is in course 
of erection by the Synod of Ulster. There are also a 
dispensary, a loan fund, a fund for supplying flax, and a 
Ladies’ Society. — See Ramelton. 

AUGHOURE.— See FRESHFORD. 

AUGHRIM, a post-town and parish, partly in the 
barony of Clonmacnoon, but chiefly in that of Kilcon- 
nell, county of Galway, and province of Connaught, 
29 miles (E.) from Galway, and 75| miles (W. by S.) 
from Dublin ; containing 2205 inhabitants, of which 
number, 587 are in the town. This place is celebrated 
for the memorable and decisive battle fought in its 
immediate vicinity on the 12th of July, 169L between 
the forces of Wm. III., consisting of 18,000 men under 
the command of Gen. de Ginkell, and the Irish army 

Vol. I. — 9* 


of Jas. II., consisting of 25,000 men under General St. 
Ruth. Each general having taken up his position, of 
which that of St. Ruth, on Kilcommodon hill, was very 
strong, the action commenced at noon by a detachment 
from theEnglish lines forcing, after avery sharp skirmish, 
the pass on the right of the Irish camp. About five o’clock 
the left wing of the English, both infantry and cavalry, 
advanced against the Irish ; and after the engagement 
had continued more than an hour and a half with varied 
success, St. Ruth detached a considerable part of the 
cavalry of his left wing to the support of the right, which 
was severely pressed. Gen. Mackay, availing himself 
of this opportunity, and while the cavalry were forcing 
the pass of Aughrim castle, ordered several regiments of 
infantry to pass the bog and to wheel from the right to 
sustain them. Hurried on by their impetuosity, these 
regiments approached almost to the main body of the 
Irish army, and being encountered by the enemy’s horse 
and foot were, after a severe conflict, partly driven back 
to the bog ; but Gen. Talmash, who commanded the 
English cavalry of the left wing, assisted by Gens. 
Mackay and Rouvigny from the right, advancing to their 
support, bore down all opposition, and enabled the in- 
fantry of the centre to rally and repossess themselves 
of their former ground. St. Ruth, seeing that the result 
of the battle depended on his making a powerful im- 
pression on the English cavalry, advanced against them 
with a body of the Irish cavalry, but being killed by a 
cannon ball, his whole army was thrown into confusion 
and retreated with precipitation. The pursuit was con- 
tinued for three miles with the greatest activity; and the 
Irish lost 7000 men slain and 450 taken prisoners, 
besides their cannon, ammunition, and baggage ; while, 
on the side of the English, only 700 were killed and 
1000 wounded. Gen. de Ginkell, after his victory, 
remained here for a few days to refresh his forces. 

The town, which is situated on the road from Bal- 
linasloe to Galway, and contains about 100 houses, was 
anciently called Eachraim, or Aglirim O' Many, and was 
the site of a priory of Canons Regular of the order of 
St. Augustine, said to have been founded in the 13th 
century and dedicated to St. Catherine, by Theobald, 
first Butler of Ireland ; the establishment continued to 
flourish till the dissolution, when it was given to Richard, 
Earl of Clanrickarde. The market has fallen into 
disuse: fairs are held on June 21st and Oct. 14th. 
The October fair is noted for the number of turkeys 
which are sold, in general not less than 20,000 ; they 
are smaller than those of other parts of Ireland. A 
constabulary police force is stationed in the town. 
The Grand Canal comes up to Ballinasloe, within three 
miles of it. 

The parish comprises 6700 statute acres, as applotted 
under the tithe act : about half a mile from the town, 
on the Ballinasloe road, there is an extensive bog. 
The gentlemen’s seats are Aughrim Castle, the residence 
of R. Stanford, Esq. ; Northbrook, of J. North, Esq. ; 
Aughrim glebe, of the Rev. H. Martin ; Eastwell, of 
J. Ussher, Esq. ; Ballydonnellan, of A. Donnellan, Esq.; 
Castron, of, Mrs. Lynch; Fahy, of Capt. Davys ; Oat- 
field, of Major Lynch ; Fairfield, of T. Wade, Esq. ; Bal- 
lieghter, of P. Donnellan, Esq.; and Lissevahane, of F. K. 
Egan, Esq. The living is a vicarage, in the diocese of 
Clonfert, with part of the rectory united, and to which 
also the rectories and vicarages of Killaghton, Kilgerrill, 

O 


AUG 


BAD 


and Killimore-daly were episcopally united in 1735, 
together constituting the union of Aughrim, which 
is in the patronage of the Bishop ; the rectory is also 
partly appropriate to the see and partly to the deanery. 
The tithes amount to £147- 15. 9., of which £32. 8. Of. 
is payable to the Ecclesiastical Commissioners, £9. 4. 7|. 
to the dean, and £106. 3. Of. to the vicar ; and the tithes 
for the whole benefice amount to £408. 9. 2|. The church 
is a neat edifice, erected by aid of a loan of £1500 from 
the late Board of First Fruits, in 1817. The glebe-house 
was built by aid of a gift of £400 and a loan of £340 
from the same Board, in 1826 : the glebe comprises 
20a. lr. 4 p. In the R. C. divisions the parish forms part 
of the union or district of Kilconnell ; the chapel here 
is a neat building. There are places of worship for 
Primitive and Wesleyan Methodists. The parochial 
school for boys and girls is aided by the vicar ; and 
there are two other schools, in which about 120 children 
are educated. Some remains yet exist of the castle of 
Aughrim, which, about the time of the battle, was the re- 
sidence of the family of O’Kelly. Swords, spear heads, 
and cannon balls, with numerous coins of Jas. II., are fre- 
quently dug up. Aughrim gives the title of Viscount to 
the family of De Ginkell, descendants of Gen. De Gin- 
kell, on whom it was conferred by Wm. III., together 
with that of Earl of Athlone, March 4th, 1692, for his 
important services here and at Athlone, and to whom he 
subsequently granted all the forfeited estates of William 
Dongan, the attainted Earl of Limerick, comprising 
26,480 acres of profitable land. 

AUGHRIM, a parish, in the barony and county of 
Roscommon, and province of Connaught, 3| miles 
(S.) from Carrick-on-Shannon; containing 4537 inha- 
bitants. This parish, anciently called Tirebrine, is situ- 
ated on the road from Drumsna to Elphin, and on the 
river Shannon : it comprises, by the county books, 
5535 statute acres, of which 5316 are applotted under 
the tithe act and are principally under tillage; there are 
about 130 acres of woodland, besides some small detached 
tracts of bog and several inferior lakes. There are quar- 
ries of excellent limestone for building. The principal 
seats are Rockville, the residence of W. Lloyd, Esq. ; 
Lisadurn, of J. Balfe, Esq. ; Rushhill, of J. Devenish, 
Esq. ; and Cloonfad, of Martin Brown, Esq. Petty ses- 
sions are held here on alternate Thursdays ; and there is 
a fair at Ardsallagh on the 21st of December. The living 
is a vicarage, with the rectory and vicarage of Cloonaff 
and the vicarage of Killumod episcopally united in 1811, 
in the diocese of Elphin ; the rectory forms the corps 
of the prebend of Tirebrine in the cathedral church of 
Elphin ; both are in the patronage of the Bishop. The 
tithes amount to £190, payable in moieties to the pre- 
bendary and the vicar ; and the gross amount of tithes 
payable to the incumbent is £237. The church is a 
neat plain building with a small spire, erected in 1744, 
and has been lately repaired by a grant of £154 from 
the Ecclesiastical Commissioners. There is no glebe- 
house : the glebe comprises 18a. 2 r. 25 p., and is subject 
to a rent of £15. The R. C. parish is co-extensive with 
that of the Established Church ; the chapel is situated 
on the townland of Rodeen. , There are three public 
schools, in which are 150 boys and 80 gii’ls ; and in 
various other hedge schools are about 270 boys and 130 
girls. The ruins of the old church, in which some of 
the Earls of Roscommon were interred, yet exist. On 
98 


the summit of a high hill on the estate of Rockville, 
which commands extensive views of the surrounding 
country, is a very large fort, containing in the middle a 
heap of stones, said to be the place of interment of some 
native chief. 


B 

BADONY (LOWER), a parish, in the barony of 
Strabane, county of Tyrone, and province of Ulster, 
8 miles (N. N. E.) from Armagh ; containing 7024 inha- 
bitants. This place is situated on the Munterlowney 
Water, and is bounded on the north by the Spereen 
mountains, which are the highest in the county, and 
among which the mountain of Mullaghcairn rises to a 
very considerable height above the rest ; its summit, 
according to the Ordnance survey, being 1778 feet above 
the level of the sea. The base of this mountain is a 
vast accumulation of sand and water-worn stones, rising 
to an elevation of 900 feet, and in it is an extraordinary 
fissure called Gortin Gap, through which the road from 
Omagh leads to the village of Gortin. The parish, 
according to the same survey, comprises 47,9211- 
statute acres (including 178| under water), of which 
the greater portion is mountain and bog, but the former 
affords good pasturage and the latter an abundance of 
fuel : the vale of Gortin is fertile and well cultivated. 
Through the range of mountains opposite to Mullagh- 
cairn is a pass called Barnes Gap, in which various 
indications of copper ore have been discovered. In 
these mountains is Beltrim, the handsome residence of 
A. W. C. Hamilton, Esq., proprietor of the principal 
part of the parish ; and in a large bog is the ancient 
fortress of Loughnacranagh, where the Earl of Tyrone 
sheltered himself from the British troops under Lord- 
Deputy Mountjoy, who despatched Sir Henry Dockwra 
from Omagh, in June 1602, to give battle to the Irish 
prince, whom he defeated. The inhabitants are princi- 
pally employed in agriculture and in the breeding of 
cattle ; and the weaving of linen cloth is carried on 
in several of the farm-houses. The living is a rectory, 
in the diocese of Derry, separated from Upper Badony 
by order of council in 1706, and in the patronage of the 
Bishop : the tithes amount to £750. The church, situ- 
ated in the village of Gortin, is a small neat edifice with 
a campanile turret at the west end. There is neither 
glebe nor glebe-house at present, but a house is about 
to be built on a glebe of 30 acres of land granted for 
that purpose by Mr. Hamilton. The R. C. parish is 
co-extensive with that of the Established Church, and 
contains two chapels, one at Ruskey, the other at 
Greencastle. There is a place of worship for Presby- 
terians in connection with the Synod of Ulster. The 
parochial school is supported by the rector and Mr. 
Hamilton ; and there is a school at Ruskey under the trus- 
tees of Erasmus Smith’s charity, and others at Liscable, 
Winneyduff, Caronhustion, and Broughderg. These 
schools afford instruction to about 180 boys and 120 
girls : there are also eleven private schools, in which are 
about 450 children ; and eight Sunday schools. 

BADONY (UPPER), a parish, in the barony of 
Strabane, county of Tyrone, and province of Ulster, 
4 miles (N. N. E.) from Newtownstewart. ; containing 


B AD 


B A I 


6715 inhabitants. A monastery for Franciscans of the 
third order was founded at Corrick about the year 
1465; it continued to flourish till the dissolution, and 
in the reign of Jas. I. was given, with all its possessions, 
to Sir Henry Piers, who soon after sold it to Sir Arthur 
Chichester; it was subsequently granted to the Hamilton 
family, whose descendant is the present proprietor. 
There are some highly picturesque remains of this 
abbey, affording an idea of the original extent and 
elegance of the buildings. Here was also a strong castle 
or fortress, of which there are some remains. The dis- 
trict appears to have been distinguished at an early 
period as the scene of various important battles, and in 
the fastnesses of its mountains the lawless and daring 
found a secure asylum. In the reign of Elizabeth O’Nial 
was defeated here with the loss of all his baggage, plate, 
and treasures, and compelled to make his escape across 
the river Bann to his castle of Roe. The parish com- 
prises, according to the Ordnance survey, 38,208^ 
statute acres, including 150^ underwater: nearly three- 
fourths are mountain and bog, and the remainder, with 
the exception of a small portion of woodland, is arable. 
The state of agriculture is progressively improving ■ 
extensive tracts of mountain have been recently enclosed 
and brought into cultivation, and great portions of bog 
and mountain may still be reclaimed. Part of the Sawel 
mountain is within its limits, and, according to the 
Ordnance survey, rises to an elevation of 2235 feet 
above the level of the sea. Most of the farmers and 
cottagers unite with agricultural pursuits the weaving 
of linen ; and great numbers of cattle and horses afre 
bred and pastured in the extensive mountain tracts. 
Fairs are held on the 16th of every month for the sale 
of cattle, horses, and pigs, and are in general numer- 
ously attended. A constabulary police force has been 
stationed here. A manorial court is held monthly, at 
which debts under £2 are recoverable ; and a court of 
petty sessions is held every alternate week at Gortin. 

This parish was formerly much more extensive than 
it is at present ; an act of council was obtained, by 
which it was divided into the parishes of Upper and 
Lower Badony, and a church was soon afterwards built 
for the latter at Gortin. The living is a rectory, in the 
diocese of Derry, and in the patronage of the Bishop : 
the tithes amount to £396. 18. 6. The church is an 
ancient structure, in the early English style : for the 
repair of which a grant of £108 has been lately made 
by the Ecclesiastical Commissioners. The glebe-house, 
a handsome residence, was built in 1821, by aid of a 
loan of £225 from the late Board of First Fruits ; the 
glebe comprises 195 acres, of which 86 are mountain. 
The R. C. parish is co-extensive with that of the 
Established Church ; there are two chapels, of which 
one, near the foot of the mountain, is a spacious build- 
ing. There are places of worship for Presbyterians of 
the Synod of Ulster and of the Seceding Synod ; the 
minister of the former officiates also in the adjoining 
parish of Lower Badony. The parochial male and 
female school is aided by a small annual payment be- 
queathed by the late C. Plamilton, Esq., but is chiefly 
supported by the rector. There are two schools 
situated respectively at Castledamp and Clogherney ; a 
school at Corrick, supported by — Gardiner, Esq. ; a 
male and female school at Glenroan, built and supported 
by Major Humphreys ; and a school at Plumb Bridge, 
99 


supported by subscription : there are also four pay 
schools, and two Sunday schools. 

BAGNALSTOWN, a post-town, in the parish of 
Dunleckney, barony of Idrone East, county of Car- 
low, and province of Leinster, 8 miles (S.) from Car- 
low, and 49 miles (S. S. W.) from Dublin ; containing 
1315 inhabitants. This town is beautifully situated on 
the river Barrow, and on one of the mail coach roads 
from Dublin to Kilkenny ; it is a place of considerable 
trade, and is rapidly rising into importance ; there are 
some extensive corn-mills. It has a patent for two 
fairs, and ten other fairs have been lately established by 
the proprietors. Quarter sessions are held here in Jan., 
April, July, and October. Petty sessions are held every 
Monday ; and there is a manorial court, but no seneschal 
is at present appointed. Here is a station of the consta- 
bulary police. The court-house is a handsome build- 
ing in the Grecian style, in front of which is a portico 
with four Doric pillars. There is also a large and 
handsome R. C. chapel, and a dispensary. 

BAILIEBOROUGH, or MOYBOLOGUE, a market 
and post-town, and a parish, partly in the barony of 
Lower Kells, county of Meath, and province of 
Leinster, and partly in that of Castlerahan, but 
chiefly in that of Clonkee, county of Cavan, and 
province of Ulster, 11§ miles (N. W. by N.) from 
Kells, and 42^ miles (N. W.) from Dublin ; contain- 
ing 10,480 inhabitants, of which number, 1085 are 
in the town. This town is situated on the road from 
Cootehill to Kells, and consists of only one street, con- 
taining 165 houses. The market is the largest in the 
county, and is on Monday. Fairs are held on Feb. 17th, 
May 17th, June 15th, Aug. 14th, Oct. 14th, and Nov. 
17th, The Hilary and Midsummer general quarter ses- 
sions are held here : the court-house was enlarged and 
improved in 1834. The bridewell was built in that 
year, and contains five cells and two yards, with 
separate day-rooms and yards for female prisoners. A 
manorial court is held yearly ; and here is a station of 
the constabulary police. 

In the incumbent’s title this parish is denominated 
Moybologue, otherwise Bailieborough : it was formed 
by act of council in 1778, by separating from the parish 
of Killan, now called Shercock, 29 townlands, including 
the town of Bailieborough, and uniting them to the 
parish of Moybologue. It comprises 17,152 statute 
acres, as applotted under the tithe act. The land is 
generally of good quality : that part of the parish which 
is in the county of Meath is cultivated for all kinds of 
grain. Several small bogs are scattered over its surface, 
which are diminishing in extent either by draining or 
digging for fuel. There are some quarries of an inferior 
kind of stone, chiefly used for building , and about a 
mile from the town is an extensive bleach- green, with a 
comfortable house and small demesne, the residence of 
W. Spear, Esq. Bailieborough Castle, the seat of Sir 
Wm. Young, Bart., is situated in a fine demesne, and 
occupies the site of an ancient fortress described in 
Pynnar’s Survey, under the head of Tonregie, as a 
vaulted castle, with a bawn 90 feet square, and two 
flanking towers, attached to which were 1000 acres of 
land : this ancient castle remained standing till within 
a few years, when it was pulled down to make room for 
additions and improvements in the present house. 
Near the town also are Bexcourt, the seat of the Rev. 

O 2 


B A L 


B A L 


E. Mahaffy; and the glebe-house, the residence of the 
Rev. J. Gumley. The living is a united rectory and vicar- 
age, in the diocese of Kilmore, and in the patronage of 
the Bishop. The tithes amount to £553. ]., of which 
£314. 1. is payable by the Moybologue portion of the 
parish, and £239 by the townlands added to it. The 
old church being a dilapidated building, a new one is in 
course of erection. The glebe-house was built by a gift 
of £100 and a loan of £900, in 1811, from the late 
Board of First Fruits ; the glebe consists of two farms 
near the church, comprising 117 acres, and 43 acres of 
bog. In the R. C. divisions the parish is partly in the 
union or district of Killan or Shercock, and partly in 
that of Kilmainham and Tivorcher : the chapel of the 
former is situated in the town of Bailieborough ; and 
that of the latter, which is in the county and diocese of 
Meath, at Tivorcher. There are two meeting-houses 
for Presbyterians ; one in connection with the Synod of 
Ulster, of the third class ; and the other in connection 
with the Seceding Synod, of the first class. The Wes- 
leyan Methodists have also a place of worship, in which 
divine service is performed every alternate Sunday. 
The parochial school, at Lisnalea, is supported by the 
incumbent ; and there are three other public schools, in 
which ISO boys and 110 girls are taught, and a school 
is in progress at Kellan. There are 13 private schools, 
in which are about 500 boys and 250 girls. A dispen- 
sary was established in 1822. 

BALBRIGGAN, a sea-port, market, and post-town, 
and a chapelry, in the parish and barony of Balro- 
thery, county of Dublin, and province of Leinster, 
15 miles (N. by E.) from Dublin; containing 3016 in- 
habitants. According to Ware, a sanguinary conflict 
took place here on Whitsun-eve, 1329, between John 
de Bermingham, Earl of Louth, who had been elevated 
to the palatine dignity of that county, Richard, Lord 
De Malahide, and several of their kindred, in array 
against the partisans of the Verduns, Gernons, and 
Savages, who were opposed to the elevation of the earl 
to the palatinate of their county ; and in which the 
former, with 60 of their English followers, were killed. 
After the battle of the Boyne, Wm. III. encamped at 
this place on the 3rd of July, 1690. The town, which 
is situated on the eastern coast and on the road from 
Dublin to the North of Ireland, owes its rise, from a 
small fishing village to a place of manufacturing and 
commercial importance, to the late Baron Hamilton, 
who, in 1780, introduced the cotton manufacture, for 
which he erected factories, and who may justly be re- 
garded as its founder. It contains at present about 600 
houses, many of which are well built ; hot baths have 
been constructed for visiters who frequent this place 
during the bathing season. In the environs are several 
gentlemen’s seats, of which the principal is Hampton 
Hall, the residence of G. A. Hamilton, Esq. The inha- 
bitants are partly employed in the fishery, but princi- 
pally in the cotton manufacture ; there are two large 
factories, the machinery of which is worked by steam- 
engines and water-wheels of the aggregate power of 84 
horses, giving motion to 7500 spindles, and spinning 
upon the average about 7400 lb. of cotton yarn per week. 
More than 300 persons are employed in these factories, 
to which are attached blue dye-works ; and in the town 
and neighbourhood are 942 hand-looms employed in the 
weaving department. The principal articles made at 
100 


present are checks, jeans, calicoes, and fustians. The 
town is als- celebrated for the manufacture of the finest 
cotton stockings, which has been carried on successfully 
since its first establishment about 40 years since ; there 
are 60 frames employed in this trade, and the average 
produce is about 60 dozen per week. There are on the 
quay a large corn store belonging to Messrs. Frost & Co., 
of Chester, and some extensive salt-works ; and in the 
town is a tanyard. The fishery, since the withdrawing 
of the bounty, has very much diminished : there are at 
present only 10 wherries or small fishing boats belong- 
ing to the port. The town carries on a tolerably brisk 
coasting trade : in 1833, 134 coal vessels, of the ag- 
gregate burden of 11,566 tons, and 29 coasting vessels 
of 1795 tons, entered inwards, and 17 coasters of 1034 
tons cleared outwards, from and to ports in Great 
Britain. The harbour is rendered safe for vessels of 
150 tons’ burden by an excellent pier, completed 
in 1763, principally by Baron Hamilton, aided by a 
parliamentary grant, and is a place of refuge for vessels 
of that burden at f tide. A jetty or pier, 420 feet long 
from the N. W. part of the harbour, with a curve of 
105 feet in a western direction, forming an inner har- 
bour in which at high tide is 14 feet of water, and 
affording complete shelter from all winds, was com- 
menced in 1826 and completed in 1829, at an expense 
of £29 1*2. 7 . 9., of which the late Fishery Board gave 
£1569, the Marquess of Lansdowne £100, and the re- 
mainder was subscribed by the late Rev. Geo. Hamilton, 
proprietor of the town. At the end of the old pier there 
is a lighthouse. The Drogheda or Grand Northern 
Trunk railway from Dublin, for which an act has been 
obtained, is intended to pass along the shore close to 
the town and to the east of the church. The market is 
on Monday, and is abundantly supplied with corn, of 
which great quantities are sent to Dublin and to Liver- 
pool ; and there is a market for provisions on Saturday. 
Fairs are held on the 29th of April and September, 
chiefly for cattle. A market-house was erected in 1811, 
partly by subscription and partly at the expense of the 
Hamilton family. The town is the head-quarters of 
the constabulary police force of the county ; and 
near it is a martello tower with a coast- guard station, 
which is one of the nine stations within the district 
of Swords. Petty sessions for the north-east division 
of the county are held here every alternate Tuesday. 

The chapelry of St. George, Balbriggan, was founded 
by the late Rev. G. Hamilton, of Hampton Hall, who in 
1813 granted some land and settled an endowment, 
under the 1 1th and 12th of Geo. III., for the establish- 
ment of a perpetual curacy ; and an augmentation of 
£25 per annum has been recently granted by the Eccle- 
siastical Commissioners from Primate Boulter’s fund. 
In 1816 a chapel was completed, at an expense of 
£3018. 2. 2., of which £1400 was given by the late 
Board of First Fruits, £478. 15. 2. was raised by volun- 
tary subscriptions of the inhabitants, and £1139. 7 - 
was given by the founder and his family. This chapel, 
which was a handsome edifice with a square embattled 
tower, and contained monuments to the memory of R. 
Hamilton, Esq., and the Rev. G. Hamilton, was burned 
by accident in 1835, and the congregation assemble for 
divine service in a school-room till it shall be restored, 
for which purpose the Ecclesiastical Commissioners 
have lately granted £480. The living is in the patro- 


BAL 


B A L 


nage of G. A. Hamilton, Esq. There is a chapel belong- 
ing to the R. C. union or district of Balrothery and 
Balbriggan, also a place of worship for Wesleyan Metho- 
dists. The parochial school and a dispensary are in 
the town.— See Balrothery. 

BALDOYLE, a parish, in the barony of Coolock, 
county of Dublin, and province of Leinster, 6 miles 
(N. E.) from Dublin ; containing 120S inhabitants, of 
which number, 1009 are in the village. The village is 
pleasantly situated on an inlet or creek of the Irish Sea, 
to the north of the low isthmus that connects Howth 
with the mainland : it comprises about 200 houses, and 
is much frequented in summer for sea-bathing. Some 
of the inhabitants are engaged in the fishery, which at 
the commencement of the present century employed 
nine wherries belonging to this place, averaging seven 
or eight men each ; at present nearly 100 men are so 
engaged. Sir W. de Windsor, lord-justice of Ireland, 
held a parliament here in 1369. The creek is formed 
between the mainland and the long tract of sand on the 
north of Howth, at the point of which, near that port, a 
white buoy is placed ; it is fit only for small craft. The 
manor was granted to the priory of All Saints, Dublin, 
by Diarmit, the son of Murchard, King of Leinster, who 
founded that house in 1166. The corporation of Dublin 
owns the entire parish, about two-thirds of which are 
arable : the system of agriculture is improving, and the 
general routine of crops is pursued with success. Do- 
naghmede, the seat of Mrs. King ; Talavera, of Capt. 
N. Furnace ; and Grange Lodge, of W. Allen, Esq., are 
the principal seats. The village is a chief station of the 
constabulary police, and also a coast-guard station, form- 
ing one of the ninewhich constitute the district of Swords. 
The Drogheda or Grand Northern Trunk railway from 
Dublin to that town, for which an act has been obtained, 
is intended to pass through the grange of Baldoyle. 
The parish is in the diocese of Dublin, and is a curacy 
forming part of the union of Howth : it is tithe-free. 
In the R. C. divisions it is included in the union or 
district of Baldoyle and Howth, which comprises also 
the parishes of Kinsealy and Kilbarrack, and contains 
three chapels, situated respectively at Howth, Kinsealy, 
and Baldoyle, which last has been lately rebuilt by 
subscription, and has a portico of four Tuscan pillars 
surmounted by a pediment, above which rises a turret 
supporting a dome and cross : attached to the chapel 
are school-rooms, in which about 60 boys and 60 girls 
are taught. The parochial school-house is in the village, 
and there is also a hedge school in the parish, in which 
are 12 children. At the Grange are the picturesque 
ruins of the ancient church, surrounded by horse-chest- 
nut, lime, and sycamore trees ; and in the grounds of 
Donaghmede is a holy well, which is resorted to on St. 
John’s eve by the peasantry. 

BALDUNGAN, a parish, in the barony of Balro- 
thery, county of Dublin, and province of Leinster, 
14 miles (N. N. E.) from Dublin; containing 8S inhabit- 
ants. A strong fortress was erected here, in the 13th 
century, by the Barnewall family, which subsequently 
became the property of the Lords of Howth, and in 
the civil war of 1641 was defended for the parliament 
by Col. Fitzwilliam, but was ultimately surrendered 
to the royalists, by whom it was dismantled and a great 
portion of the building destroyed ; the remains, which 
were very extensive, have, within the last few years, been 
101 


almost wholly taken down by the tenant. Near its site 
are still some remains of a church, more than 80 feet in 
length, with a tower of ten sides, of durable materials 
and excellent workmanship. According to Arehdall, 
here was a commandery of Knights Templars, dedicated 
to the Blessed Virgin, of which this was probably the 
church. The prevailing substratum of the parish is 
limestone ; but the hill of Baldungan is chiefly com- 
posed of Lydian stone and flinty slate. The living is a 
rectory, in the diocese of Dublin, and in the patronage 
of the Earl of Howth : the tithes amount to £52. 4. 
The church is in ruins, and there is neither glebe-house 
nor glebe. In the R. C. divisions the parish forms part 
of the union or district of Skerries. 

BALDWINSTOWN, a village, in the parish of Gar- 
ristown, barony of Balrothery, county of Dublin, 
and province of Leinster, 4 miles (N. W.) from Ash- 
bourne; containing 35 houses and 218 inhabitants. 

BALEEK, or BELLEEK, a parish, partly in the 
baronies of Upper and Lower Fews, and partly in 
that of Lower Orior, county of Armagh, and pro- 
vince of Ulster, 6 miles (S. E.) from Market-Hill ; con- 
taining 3396 inhabitants, of which number, 129 are in 
the village. In the reign of Elizabeth an English gar- 
rison was stationed at this place ; but it was besieged 
and taken by O’Donnell, of Tyrconnell, who put every 
individual to the sword. The village is situated on the 
road from Newry to Newtown- Hamilton, and contains 
about 20 houses. The parish was constituted in 1826, by 
the separation of twelve townlands, comprising 5509 sta- 
tute acres, from the parish of Loughgilly, of which eight 
pay tithes to the perpetual curate, and four to the rector 
of Loughgilly. The living is a perpetual curacy, in the 
diocese of Armagh, and in the patronage of the Rector 
of Loughgilly : the tithes amount to £331. 3., of which 
£179- 3. is payable to the curate, and the remainder to 
the patron. The church, built in 1827, is a plain small 
edifice in the ancient style, with a lofty square tower. 
There is no glebe-house : the glebe comprises 20 acres 
in the townland of Lisnalee. In the R. C. divisions 
the parish is one of three forming the union or district 
of Loughgilly, and contains a chapel. There is a place 
of worship for Presbyterians. Two schools afford in- 
struction to about 160 boys and 110 girls; and there 
are also two hedge schools, in which are about 50 chil- 
dren, and three Sunday schools. 

BALFEIGHAN, a parish, in the barony of Upper 
Deece, county of Meath, and province of Leinster, 
1 mile (N.) from Kilcock ; containing 155 inhabitants. 
It is situated on the road from Kilcock to Summerhill, and 
is one mile and a half in length and one mile in breadth. 
Piercetown, the residence of T. Cullen, Esq., is within its 
limits; and the Royal Canal runs through the southern 
verge of the parish. It is a rectory, in the diocese of 
Meath, and forms part of the union of Raddonstown : 
the tithes amount to £87. 13. 9^. In the R. C. divisions 
it is part of the district of Batterstown. There are some 
remains of the old church. 

BALGREE, a hamlet, in the parish of Kilskyre, 
barony of Upper Kells, county of Meath, and pro- 
vince of Leinster ; containing 12 houses and 77 inha- 
bitants. 

BALGRIFFIN.— See BELGRIFFIN. 

BALLAGH, or BAL, a market-town and parish, in 
the barony of Clanmorris, county of Mayo, and pro- 


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vince of Connaught, 6 miles (S. E. by E.) from Castle- 
bar 5 containing 1586 inhabitants, of which number, 343 
are in the town. This town is situated on the road from 
Castlebar to Claremorris, and is intersected by a small 
river, which has its source in the vicinity : it consists 
of one long street containing 75 houses, all of modern 
erection, and has a cheerful and pleasing appearance. 
The market is on Tuesday ; and fairs are held on June 
11th, Aug. 12th, Sept. 26th, and Oct. 15th, which are 
among the largest in the county for cattle and sheep ; 
there are two smaller fairs on the 1st of May and 
7th of October. A penny post has been established 
between this town and Ballyglass. Here is a consta- 
bulary police station; and petty sessions for the district 
are held every Tuesday in the court-house, a neat building 
of modern erection. The lands are partly under tillage 
and partly in pasture, and for fertility are thought equal, 
if not superior, to any in the county. Limestone abounds 
in the parish, and is quarried for building and agricul- 
tural purposes. Athevalla, the seat of the Rev. Sir F. 
Lynch Blosse, Bart., is a handsome mansion nearly ad- 
joining the town ; and Ballagh Lodge, the seat of H. 
Waldron, Esq., and Logatiorn, of W. M. Fitzmorris, 
Esq , are also in the parish. The living is a vicarage, in 
the diocese of Tuam, with the rectories and vicarages 
of Rosslee and Minola episcopally united, forming the 
union of Ballagh, in the patronage of the Bishop : the 
rectory constitutes the corps of the prebend of Ballagh 
in the cathedral church of St. Mary, Tuam : the tithes 
amount to £175, and the prebend is returned as of the 
value of £190 per annum ; and the tithes of the whole, 
both rectorial and vicarial, amount to £395, which is 
received by the prebendary, who is also rector of the 
union. There is neither church, glebe-house, nor glebe. 
Divine service is occasionally performed in the court- 
house. In the R. C. divisions the parish is the head of 
a union or district, comprising also the parishes of 
Drum, Rosslee, and Minola, and containing two chapels, 
one in the town, a good slated building, and the other 
at Balcarra. A school-room has been erected, at an 
expense of £200, in which about 200 boys and 100 girls 
are instructed ; and there are two hedge schools in 
the parish, in which are about 68 boys and 22 girls. 
St. Mochuo, or Cronan, who died in 637, founded a 
monastery here, of which he became the first abbot. 
This place is at present distinguished for the remains of 
an ancient round tower, which, though the upper part is 
wanting, is still about 50 feet high. Near it are the 
ruins of a small church, of the same kind of stone, and 
apparently of similar workmanship, in one of the walls 
of which is a monumental inscription of great antiquity. 
There are two small chapels, built on arches over the 
river that runs through the town, and great numbers of 
people resort thither annually to perform special devo- 
tions. A well, dedicated to the Blessed Virgin, with a 
small chapel attached, is attended by great numbers of 
*he peasantry at patrons held on the 15th of August 
and 8th of September. About two miles from the town 
is Castle Derowil, and about three miles distant is 
Brieze Castle, both square buildings of the ordinary 
character. 

BALLAGHADIREEN, a market and post-town, in 
the parish of Kilcoleman, barony of Costello, county 
of Mayo, and province of Connaught, 12 miles (W. S.W.) 
from Boyle, and 97f miles ( W . by N.) from Dublin; 

102 


containing 1147 inhabitants. This town is situated on 
the new mail coach road from Ballina to Longford, and 
consists of three principal streets, containing about 200 
houses, of which nearly all are neatly built and slated. 
Here are infantry barracks, adapted to the accommoda- 
tion of 4 officers and 92 non-commissioned officers and 
privates. Many improvements have recently taken place 
in the town, which is rapidly rising into importance. 
The market is on Friday ; and fairs are held on March 
25th and 26th, May 1st, June 25th, Aug. 1st, Sept. 8th, 
Nov. 1st, and Dec. 22nd. The market-house is a com- 
modious building ; and a court-house has been erected, 
in which petty sessions are held every Tuesday. A chief 
constabulary police and coast-guard stations have been 
established here, and there is a R. C. chapel. Within a 
mile of the town are the ruins of Castlemore. — See Kil- 
coleman. 

BALLAGHMEIHAN. — See ROSSINVER. 

BALLAGHMOON, a parish, in the barony of Kil- 
kea and Moone, county of Kildare, and province of 
Leinster, 3 miles (S. W. by S.) from Castledermot ; 
containing 311 inhabitants. This parish is situated on 
the confines of the county of Carlow, and comprises 
2042 statute acres, as applotted under the tithe act. It 
is a rectory and vicarage, in the diocese of Dublin, and 
forms part of the union of Castledermot : the tithes 
amount to £110. In the R. C. divisions also it forms 
part of the union or district of Castledermot. 

BALLAGHTOBIN. — See BALLYTOBIN. 

BALLEE, or BALLY, a parish, in the barony of 
Lecale, county of Down, and province of Ulster, 3 
miles (S. E. byE.) from Downpatrick, on the road to 
Ardglass ; containing 2598 inhabitants. It formerly 
comprised, according to the Ordnance survey, 6427f 
statute acres, of which 6282 acres were applotted under 
the tithe act ; but the townlands of Jordan’s Crew and 
Kildare’s Crew have been severed from it under the 
Church Temporalities Act, and united to the parish of 
Ardglass, and Ballystokes has been annexed to Saul, with 
their tithes and cure of souls ; the tithes of Ballyhosit 
have been also appropriated to the incumbent of Ard- 
glass, but the cure of souls remains to the rector of 
Bailee. It is wholly under cultivation ; the land is very 
good, and there is neither waste land nor bog. Bally- 
hosit House, the residence of T. Gracy, Esq., is a large 
and handsome edifice ; Bailee House is in the occupa- 
tion of R, Stitt, Esq. ; the glebe-house is commodious 
and well built, and there are many other good houses, 
principally occupied by wealthy farmers. Until lately it 
formed part of the corps of the deanery of Down, but the 
union was dissolved under the provisions of the Church 
Temporalities Act, which came into operation on the 1st 
of Nov., 1834, and after the preferment of the late 
dean, when a new arrangement was effected by act of 
council. The living is now an independent rectory, in 
the diocese of Down, and in the gift of the Crown. The 
entire tithes of the parish amounted to £598. 14. 3., of 
which, under the new arrangements, £340. 13. is payable 
to the rector of Bailee, subject to a deduction of £25. 3. 
appropriated to the economy fund of the cathedral ; and 
of the remainder, £146 is payable to the dean, £97 to 
the rector of Ardglass, and £14 to the rector of Saul. 
The church is a large plain edifice without a tower, built 
on the foundations of a former structure in 1749- The 
glebe-house was built at an expense of £500, of which 


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£450 was a gift and £50 a loan from the late Board of 
First Fruits, in 1816 ; and there is a glebe of seven 
acres. In the R. C. divisions it is the head of a union 
or district, which also comprises the parish of Bally- 
culter, and contains three chapels, situated respectively 
at Ballycrottle, in Bailee, and at Strangford and Cargagh, 
in Ballyculter. There is a large meeting-house for 
Presbyterians in connection with the Remonstrant Synod, 
of the second class. The parochial school, in which 40 
boys and 28 girls are taught, is supported conjointly by 
the rector and Hugh Johnson, Esq., of London, and there 
are two others. There are also four private schools, in 
which are 113 boys and 90 girls. J. Dunn, an eccentric 
itinerant dealer, by will in 1798, gave £100 in trust to 
A. Gracy, Esq., who purchased with it a chief-rent at 
Ballymote, in the parish of Downpatrick, which is divided 
annually between the Presbyterian poor of Down and 
Bailee. R. Glenny left £100, the interest to be equally 
divided among the poor Catholics, Protestants, and Pres- 
byterians of the parish, but it is not now available ; and 
Mrs. Kelly, of Loughkeland, by will in 1805, gave £100 
in trust to Mr. Gracy, with which he purchased a house 
in Downpatrick, now let on lease at an annual rent of 
£10, which is distributed among the poor at Christmas. 
Near the mountain of Slieve-na-Gridel, which, according 
to the Ordnance survey, rises 414 feet above the level of 
the sea, is a remarkable druidical altar, the table stone 
of which is 1 1 feet long and 9 broad ; and on the town- 
land of Ballyaiton is an ancient burial-ground, in which 
are some curiously inscribed stones. A splendid golden 
torques, richly ornamented and set with gems, was found 
near the glebe in 1834. 

BALLEEN, a parish, in the barony of Galmoy, 
county of Kilkenny, and province of Leinster, 2 miles 
(W. N. W.) from Freshford : the population is returned 
with the parishes of Coolcashin and Sheffin. It com- 
prises about 1409 statute acres, and is a vicarage, in the 
diocese of Ossory, forming part of the union of Fresh- 
ford and prebend of Aghoure ; the rectory is appropriate 
to the Dean and Chapter of St. Canice, Kilkenny. The 
tithes amount to £101. 7- 4., of which £67. 11. 6§. is 
payable to the appropriators, and £33. 15. 9|. to the 
vicar. In the R. C. divisions it is included in the union 
or district of Lisdowney. Here are the picturesque 
ruins of a castle, on a stone of which is inscribed the 
date 1455. 

BALLIBAY, a market and post-town, and a parish, 
partly in the barony of Monaghan, but chiefly in that 
of Cremorne, county of Monaghan, and province of 
Ulster, 8 miles (S. by E.) from Monaghan, and 50 miles 
(N. W. by N.) from Dublin; containing 6685 inhabitants, 
of which number, 1947 are in the town. This place, 
which is situated at the intersection of the roads from 
Castle-Blayney to Cootehill and Clones, and from Car- 
rickmacross to Monaghan, derives its name from a pass 
between the lakes at the southern extremity of the town. 
A battle was fought in the vicinity, at a place called 
Ballydian, between De Courcy, first Earl of Ulster, and 
the Mac Mahons and O’Carrols. Prior to the introduc- 
tion of the linen manufacture the town was of very little 
importance ; but since the establishment of its linen 
market about the middle of the last century, it has ra- 
pidly advanced, and now contains about 400 houses, 
many of which are respectable and comfortably built, 
and has become the principal mart for the inhabitants 
103 


of the surrounding country. The manufacture of linen, 
of a texture from nine to fourteen hundreds, is extensively 
carried on throughout the parish. The market is on Sa- 
turday, and is amply supplied ; great quantities of butter 
are sold, and from October to February inclusive not less 
than from 8000 to 12,000 stone of flax is sold weekly : 
there are also extensive markets for grain on Tuesday 
and Friday. Fairs are held on the third Saturday in 
every month, and are remarkable for large sales of 
horses, horned cattle, and pigs. A reading society was 
established in 1816, and is supported by a proprietary 
of annual subscribers ; the library contains nearly 1000 
volumes. Petty sessions are held in the market-house 
irregularly : and here is a constabulary police station. 

The parish comprises, according to the Ordnance 
survey, 8741^ statute acres, of which 181 are in the 
barony of Monaghan, and 8560^ in that of Cremorne; 
180 acres are under water. It was formed by act of 
council in 1796, by separating from the parishes of Tul- 
lycorbet and Aughnamullen several townlands, ap- 
plotted under the tithe act and valued at £6957 per 
annum. Its surface is studded with lakes and boldly 
diversified with hills and dales. About four miles from 
the town is the mountain of Bunnanimma, at the base 
of which are bleach-greens and mills. The approach to 
the town opens upon an extremely beautiful and pictu- 
resque tract of country. To the east are seen, at the 
distance of 20 miles, the deep blue summits of the lofty 
Slievegullion, with the village, about a quarter of a mile 
beneath, apparently embosomed in hills and situated on 
the margin of a lake a mile in diameter, which forms 
its boundary on the east and south, and is itself 
bounded by a rich amphitheatre of woods. The soil is 
of a fair average quality, but agriculture is not in a very 
forward state : the growth of flax has been much en- 
couraged, and large quantities of very good quality are 
raised. There is no waste land. Very extensive tracts 
of bog supply the inhabitants and the various works 
with abundance of fuel ; so great is the quantity con- 
sumed that many of the manufacturers employ from 60 
to 100 persons for three months every year to dig and 
prepare it. The draining of these bogs, and the numerous 
population around the works, have caused a great change 
in the climate of the Bunnanimma mountain, which 
formerly was liable to be enveloped in thick fogs for 
ten or twelve days successively ; but now the drying of 
the turf is seldom interrupted for a single day. The 
mountain lands, though naturally very poor, have on 
this side been nearly reclaimed. The prevailing sub- 
stratum is whinstone ; slate also exists, and was formerly 
quarried for roofing ; and there are extensive quarries of 
greenstone, called “ Ribbil,” of which the town is built. 
A lead mine was opened at Laragh, about half a mile from 
the town, but it has not been worked since 1826 ; it is 
very rich in ore, and from silver found in it has been 
manufactured some plate in the possession of Col. C. A, 
Leslie. About half a mile from the town is Ballibay 
House, the seat of that gentleman, on whose estate 
the town is built ; it is a handsome and spacious man- 
sion beautifully situated on the border of a lake, and 
backed by some extensive plantations. The other prin- 
cipal residences in the parish are Derry Valley, the seat 
of T. M c Cullagh, Esq. ; Aghralane, of T. Lucas, Esq. ; 
and Lake View, the residence of the Rev. Hercules 
Langrishe, the incumbent. 


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The living is a rectory and vicarage, in the diocese 
of Clogher, and in the patronage of the Bishop : 
the tithes amount to £383. 5. The church is a neat 
edifice occupying a romantic situation on an eminence 
rising abruptly from the lake ; the east window is em- 
bellished with stained glass, and there are some tablets 
to the memory of the Leslie family. The glebe-house 
is a handsome residence, towards the erection of which 
the late Board of First Fruits gave £100: the glebe 
comprises 25 acres. In the R. C. divisions this parish 
forms part of the union or district of Tullycorbet : the 
chapel is situated at Ballintra, about a mile and a half 
from the town ; and there is a small chapel of ease in 
the town, connected with the clergyman’s residence. 
There are two places of worship for Presbyterians in 
connection with the Synod of Ulster; one of which, in 
the town, is a handsome building in the later English 
style, and is of the second class ; the other is about a 
mile distant, and nearly adjoining it is a place of worship 
for Seceders. About 150 boys and 110 girls are taught 
in four public schools; and there are also six hedge 
schools, in which are about 140 boys and 70 girls; and 
two Sunday schools. A dispensary is open two days in 
the week for the gratuitous aid of the poor. 

BALLIBOPHAY, a village, in the parish of Stra- 
norlar, barony of Raphoe, county of Donegal, and 
province of Ulster, 10^ miles (W. by S.) from Lifford, 
and 118 miles (N. W. by N.) from Dublin; containing 
1 68 houses and 874 inhabitants. It is situated on the 
river Finn, and on the road from Donegal to Strabane, 
and consists principally of one street. A market for 
grain and provisions is held in a market-house every 
Thursday; and cattle fairs are held on May 21st and 
Dec. 20th. Here is a chief station of the constabulary 
police. — See Stranorlar. 

BALLICKMOYLER, a village, in the parish of Kil- 
leban, barony of Slieumargue, Queen’s county, and 
province of Leinster, 5 miles (S. S. \V.) from Athy, 
on the road from Maryborough to Carlow ; containing 
249 inhabitants. This place was, previously to the dis- 
turbances in 1798, rapidly increasing in extent and pros- 
perity, and had obtained a patent for holding a weekly 
market ; but during that calamitous period more than 
half of it was laid in ruins and its market abandoned. 
The village contains about 40 houses ; and there are 
some gentlemen’s seats in the vicinity, which are des- 
cribed in the article on the parish. Fairs are held on 
March 16th and Nov. 11th, and petty sessions every 
Wednesday. The village is the chief constabulary police 
station for the barony, and contains a dispensary. — See 
Killeban. 

BALLINA, a sea-port, market, and post-town, in the 
parish of Kilmoremoy, barony of Tyrawley, county 
of Mayo, and province of Connaught, 17% (N. N. E.) 
from Castlebar, and 125 miles (W. N. W.) from Dublin; 
containing 5510 inhabitants. This town, originally called 
Belleek, or the “Ford of the Flags,” owes its origin to 
O’Hara, Lord Tyrawley, who built the first street, of 
which some houses are still remaining ; and is indebted 
for the commencement of its commercial importance to 
the establishment of a cotton-factory here, in 1729, by 
that nobleman, who also obtained for the inhabitants 
the privilege of a weekly market and a fair. During 
the disturbances of 1798 the town was attacked by the 
French under Gen. Humbert, who, having landed on the 
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22nd of August in Kilcummin bay, and made themselves 
masters of that town, sent forward on the day following 
a detachment to assault this place, which on its approach 
to the town, affecting to retreat from a reconnoitring 
party that had been sent out by the garrison, led it into 
an ambuscade, where the Rev. G. Fortescue, nephew 
of Lord Clermont and rector of the parish, who had 
volunteered his services, was shot by a party of the 
French that had concealed themselves under a bridge. 
On the day following, the main body of Gen. Humbert’s 
forces advanced to the town, of which they took pos- 
session on the evening of the 24th, when the garrison, 
under Col. Sir T. Chapman and Major Keir of the Car- 
bineers, retreated to Foxford, a village about eight miles 
distant. 

The town is beautifully situated on the river Moy, 
by which it is separated from the county of Sligo, and 
on the mail coach road from Sligo to Castlebar ; it con- 
sists of several streets, and contains about 1200 houses, 
most of which are regular and well built. The river Moy, 
over which are two stone bridges, is navigable from the 
sea, about six miles distant, for vessels not drawing 
more than 11 feet of water, to within a mile and a half 
of the town. Barracks have been erected, and have lately 
undergone considerable repair. Races are held at Mount 
Falcon, generally in May, on a fine course, the property of J. 
F. Knox, Esq. Within the last ten years great improvements 
have taken place in the town ; many newhouses have been 
built, and are inhabited by merchants and others engaged 
in trade and commerce. A new line of road leading to 
Killala, and continued to Foxford and Swinford, with 
the intention of completing it to Longford, has been con- 
structed by aid of £S000 from Government, and, when 
completed, will shorten the distance between Ballina 
and Dublin at least 10 miles. A new line of road along 
the bank of the river, leading to the quay at Ardnaree, 
has also been made, at an expense of £1500, one-half 
of which was paid by the merchants of this place and 
the other by the county of Sligo ; and another line of 
road on the Ballina side of the river, intended to com- 
municate with the quay at Belleek, has been formed, 
at an expense of £700 raised by subscription, towards 
which Messrs. Armstrong and West largely contributed. 
A new 7 bridge communicating with the lower part of the 
town, at a short distance from the present bridge, is now 
being erected, at an estimated expense of £1200, to be de- 
frayed by subscription, towards which the Earl of Arran, 
proprietor of a large portion of the town, has contributed 
£ 100, and in compliment to whom it will be called Arran 
Bridge. Other improvements are also in progress and 
in contemplation ; the grand juries of the counties of 
Mayo and Sligo have presented £3000 towards the 
erection of a handsome bridge on the site of the present 
old bridge, which is inconveniently narrow. A ship 
canal was formerly commenced by Government, under 
the superintendence of Mr. Nimmo, for bringing vessels 
up to the town, instead of landing their cargoes at the 
present quay ; but after £1000 had been expended, the 
works were discontinued and have been since falling into 
decay. A communication by canal to Lough Conn, and 
thence to Galway, has been projected by Mr. Bald, the 
county surveyor, which would open an abundant source 
of industry and wealth to the inhabitants of these moun- 
tain districts, at present inaccessible from want of roads, 
and greatly increase the commercial interests of the 


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town. The environs are pleasingly diversified ; and 
near the town are numerous gentlemen’s seats, which 
are enumerated in the articles on their respective pa- 
rishes. 

A very extensive tobacco and snuff manufactory was 
established in 1801, by Mr. Malley, who first persevered 
in opening the navigation of the river Moy, and thus 
gave a powerful impulse to the commercial prosperity 
of the town : the manufacture continued to flourish, and 
in 1809 the duties paid to Government amounted to 
£8000. In 1834, Mr. J. Brennan, a merchant from Bel- 
fast, introduced the provision trade, which was pre- 
viously unknown in this neighbourhood, and erected 
spacious premises adjoining the river, and commodious 
stores 350 feet long and 140 feet wide, with complete 
apparatus adapted to a peculiar method of curing : in 
this concern 10,000 pigs are annually killed, and after 
being cured are sent to London j and there are also others 
which carry on an extensive provision trade. There are 
two large ale and porter breweries, and two large oatmeal 
and flour-mills. The weaving of linen is carried on to a 
small extent by weavers who work in their own houses. 
This is the principal port in the county : in 1829 there 
were 119 vessels, of the aggregate burden of 11,097 tons, 
employed in the exportation of grain to the extent, in the 
course of that year, of 10,831 tons of oats, 130 tons of 
wheat, 106 tons of barley, and 30 tons of meal ; and 
during the same period, 66 vessels, of the aggregate 
burden of 5479 tons, were employed in the importation 
of British and foreign goods. The fishery is carried on 
with great success ■, at the falls of the river are salmon 
weirs, which have been rebuilt by Messrs. Little, at an 
expense of £1500, and in which great quantities of fish 
are taken and shipped for Dublin and Liverpool. Farther 
down the river, near the quay, are placed drafting nets, 
in which great numbers are taken ; the fishery is rented at 
£1500 per annum. The market is on Monday ; and 
fairs are held on the 12th of May and the 12th of 
August. Commodious shambles have been erected in 
Mill-street for the use of the market. The Provincial 
Bank and the Agricultural and Commercial Bank have 
each established a branch here. This is a chief station 
of the constabulary police. Courts of petty sessions are 
held every Tuesday ; and a quarter session is held here 
in July every year. The court-house, a neat plain 
building, was erected at an expense of £1000, paid by 
the county. There are places of worship for Baptists 
and Wesleyan Methodists, and a dispensary. On the 
eastern bank of the river are the remains of an abbey, 
founded by St. Olcan or Bolcan, a disciple of St. Patrick; 
they have a large ancient doorway of beautiful design. — 
See Kilmoremoy and Ardnaree. 

BALLINA, a village, in the parish of Templeich- 
ally, barony of Owney and Arra, county of Tippe- 
rary, and province of Munster ; containing 832 
inhabitants. This place is situated on the road from 
Killaloe to Newport, and on the river Shannon, over 
which is a bridge of nineteen arches connecting it with 
the town of Killaloe, in the county of Clare. It contains 
about 110 houses, has a fair on the 24th of March (chiefly 
for pigs), and is a constabulary police station. One of 
the chapels belonging to the R. C. union or district of 
Templeichally and Kilmastulla, otherwise called the 
union of Ballina and Boher, is situated in the village. 
Near the bridge are some remains of an ancient castle, 
Vol. I. — 105 


probably erected to defend the passage of the river. — 
See Templeichally. 

BALLINABOY, a parish, partly in the county of 
the city of Cork, and partly in the baronies of East 
Muskerry and Kerrycurrihy, but chiefly in the 
barony of Kinnalea, county of Cork, and province of 
Munster, 6 miles (S. S. W.) from Cork, on the road to 
Kinsale ; containing 2887 inhabitants. This place, 
which is situated on the river Awinbuoy, formerly be- 
longed to the abbey of St. Finbarr, and, in 1582, was, 
with other lands, granted by Queen Elizabeth to Henry 
Davells ; it subsequently became part of the estate of 
the first Earl of Cork, from whom the property de- 
scended to the Earl of Shannon, the present owner. In 
1600, Florence M c Carthy assembled here 2000 of his 
followers, and made a desperate attack on the English, 
whom he compelled to take refuge behind the walls of 
an old castle. During their retreat a party of English 
musqueteers, having concealed themselves behind the 
bank of a ditch, fired upon the Irish forces, and the 
English cavalry charging them at the same time, put 
them completely to the rout. 

The parish conjprises about 8219 statute acres, as 
applotted under the tithe act, of which 6903 are arable, 
1000 pasture, 300 waste, and 16 woodland. The land 
on the north side of the river is cold and mountainous, 
and 500 or 600 acres are covered principally with heath ; 
the system of agriculture is in a very unimproved state. 
There being no bog, fuel is obtained from the bog of 
Annagh, in the adjoining parish. Ballinaboy House, 
the seat of J. Molony, Esq., is a handsome modern 
mansion surrounded with young and thriving planta- 
tions : the other seats are Tuligmore House, the resi- 
dence of D. Keller, Esq. ; Mount-Mary, of W. Fortune, 
Esq: ; Barretts Hill, of James Donagan, Esq. ; and 
Glenview, of the Rev. T. Beamish. There is a flour-mill 
at Five-mile-bridge belonging to Mr. Herrick ; and 
there is also another in the village of Ballinahassig. 
At a short distance from the latter place a fine arch, 50 
feet in height and nearly of the same span, has been 
thrown over the glen, at the back of Mount-Mary, over 
which the high road passes from Ballinahassig to Inni- 
shannon. A new road now forming from Cork to Kin- 
sale will contribute to the improvement of this place. 
At the Half-way House is a constabulary police station. 
The living is a perpetual curacy, in the diocese of Cork, 
and in the patronage of the Earl of Shannon, the im- 
propriator, who contributes £25 per ann. towards the 
curate’s stipend, which is augmented to £75 from Pri- 
mate Boulter’s fund : the tithes are estimated at £500, 
and have long since merged into the rent. The church 
is a small dilapidated building, said to have been new- 
roofed about 60 years since. There is neither glebe- 
house nor glebe. In the R. C. divisions the parish 
forms part of the union of Ballinahassig, in which there 
are two chapels. There is a pay school, in which are 
50 boys and 20 girls. — See Ballinahassig. 

BALLINACALLY, a village, in the parish of Kil- 
christ, barony of Clonderlaw, county of Clare, 
and province of Munster, 3 miles (N. N. E.) from Kil- 
dysart ; the population is returned with the parish. It 
is situated on the road from Kildysart to Ennis, and 
near the river Fergus, on the banks of which is a small 
quay of rude construction, from which corn, butter, 
pork, and other agricultural produce are sent to Lime- 

P 


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rick, in boats of 10 or 12 tons burden, and where lime- 
stone and sea manure are landed for the supply of the 
neighbourhood. It has a daily penny post to Ennis and 
Kilrush, and a public dispensary : and fairs are held 
on June 14th, Sept. 16th, and Nov. 8th, chiefly for 
cattle. A little to the north of the village is the ruined 
tower or castle of Dangan, the upper part of which is 
supported only by the winding stone staircase. — See 
Kilchrist. 

BALLINACARGY, or BALNACARRIG, a market 
and post-town, in the parish of Kilbixy, barony of 
Moygoish, county of Westmeath, and province of 
Leinster, 7^ miles (W. by N.) from Mullingar, and 
45f miles (W. by N.) from Dublin ; containing 308 
inhabitants. This town is situated on the road from 
Mullingar to Colehill, in the county of Longford, and 
near the right bank of the Royal Canal ; it contains 
about 60 houses, neatly built and roofed with slate. 
Nearly adjoining it is an extensive deer-park belonging 
to Mrs. O’Connor Malone, in whom the fee of the town is 
vested. The markets are held on Wednesday for corn 
and butter, and on Saturday for provisions ; and fairs 
are held on the 9th of May and Oct. 20th. It is a con- 
stabulary police station ; and petty sessions are held 
every Wednesday. The R. C. parochial chapel for the 
union or district of Kilbixy is situated in the town. A 
large school -house was built by Lord Sunderlin, open to 
children of all denominations ; the master’s salary is paid 
by Mrs. Malone. Here is a dispensary. — See Kilbixy. 

B ALLIN ACARRIG, otherwise STAPLESTOWN, a 
parish, partly in the barony of Rathvilly, but chiefly 
in that of Carlow, county of Carlow, and province of 
Leinster, 1 mile (E. N. E.) from Carlow ; containing 
615 inhabitants. This parish, which is situated on the 
river Burren, and on the road from Carlow to Tullow, 
comprises 2576 statute acres, as applotted under the 
tithe act, and valued at £2200 per annum. Two-tliirds 
of the land are arable, and nearly one-third pasture or 
wet grazing land ; there is little waste or unprofitable 
bog ; the state of agriculture is improving. There are 
some quarries of excellent granite for building ; and 
mills at which about 10,000 barrels of flour are annually 
made. The principal gentlemen’s seats are Kilmany, 
the residence of S. Elliott, Esq. ; Staplestown Lodge, of 
H. Waters, Esq. ; and Staplestown Mills, of — Mason, 
Esq. The living is an impropriate curacy, in the dio- 
cese of Leighlin, united by act of council in 1804 to the 
rectories of Tullowmagrinagh and Ballycrogue, consti- 
tuting the union of Staplestown, in the gift of the 
Bishop ; the rectory is appropriate to the Dean and 
Chapter of Leighlin. The tithes amount to £170, of 
which £100 is payable to the dean and chapter, and 
£70 to the impropriate curate : the entire tithes of the 
benefice payable to the incumbent amount to £41 1. 17- 6. 
The church, situated in Staplestown, is a small neat 
edifice, erected in 1821 ; it contains a tablet to the 
memory of Walter Bagenal, the last male representative 
of that ancient family. There is a glebe-house but no 
glebe. In the R. C. divisions the parish is in the union 
or district of Tullowmagrinagh, also called Tinriland. 
There are two schools, in which are about 40 children. 
Some remains of the old church yet exist. Sir Wm. 
Temple resided at Staplestown, from which many of his 
letters are dated ; there are still some remains of the 
house in which he lived. 

106 


BALLINACLASH, a district parish, in the barony 
of Ballinacor, county of Wicklow, and province of 
Leinster, 2f miles (S. W. by S.) from Rathdrum ; 
containing 3855 inhabitants. This district is situated 
on the river Avonbeg, over which there is a bridge, and 
on the road from Rathdrum to Glenmalur. It is of 
recent creation as a parish, and comprehends the con- 
stablewicks of Ballykine and Ballinacor, forming a per- 
petual curacy, in the diocese of Dublin and Glendalough, 
and in the patronage of the Rector of Rathdrum, who 
pays the curate’s stipend. The church, on the townland 
of Ballinaton, is a neat building with a square tower, 
in the later English style of architecture, erected in 
1834, at an expense of £900, granted by the Church 
Temporalities Commission. There is no glebe-house or 
glebe. There are two schools in the village, one a daily 
school and the other a Sunday school. — See Ballykine 
and Ballinacor. 

B ALLIN ACLOUGH. — See BALLYNACLOUGH. 

BALLINACOR, a constablewick or sub-denomina- 
tion of the parish of Rathdrum, barony of Ballina- 
cor, county of Wicklow, and province of Leinster, 
2| miles (W.) from Rathdrum; containing 1221 inha- 
bitants. This place is situated in the mountain district 
leading to Glenmalur, and comprises 27,225 statute 
acres, of which 20,473 are mountain, and 6752 are 
arable and pasture land, and of which also 16,619 acres 
are applotted under the tithe act. Ballinacor, the seat 
of W. Kemmis, Esq., is beautifully situated on the side 
of a hill commanding an extensive view of the vale 
towards the Cormorce copper mines. The military road 
intersects the constablewick, in which are the barracks 
of Drumgoff and Aughavanah. Fairs are held on Feb. 
4th, May 1st, Aug. 4th, and Nov. 4th. As regards its 
tithes, which amount to £103. 17. 6f., this is one of the 
denominations that constitute the union or benefice of 
Rathdrum ; it also forms, with the constablewick of 
Ballykine, the perpetual cure of Ballinaclash, in the 
diocese of Dublin and Glendalough, and in the patronage 
of the Incumbent of Rathdrum. A school is supported 
by Mr. Kemmis, in the village of Grenane. 

BALLINACOURTY, a parish, in the barony of 
Dunkellin, county of Galway, and province of Con- 
naught, 3 miles (S. by W.) from Oranmore ; containing 
3250 inhabitants. This parish is situated on the eastern 
shore of the bay of Galway, and on the road from 
Oranmore to an inlet of the bay forming the approach 
to Claren-Bridge. The inlet of Tyrone or Ballinacourty 
is well sheltered, and has good anchorage for vessels 
drawing not more than ten feet of water, which, how- 
ever, must not venture in when it comes within two 
hours of low water of spring tides, as there are then 
only nine feet in the channel. Westerly winds occasion 
a great swell at the entrance, in which case it should 
not be attempted before half flood, nor after half ebb. 
On the south side of the haven there is a small pier 
called St. Kitt s, built by the Fishery Board, but never 
properly finished, and now in a ruinous condition. Small 
craft sail up three miles further, to a point near Claren- 
Bridge and Kilcolgan. Fairs for pigs and horses are 
held four times in the year at Claren-Bridge. In 
the parish is the Cottage, the residence of J. Ryan, 
Esq. The living consists of a rectory and a perpetual 
curacy, in the diocese of Tuam ; the former is part o, 
the union of St. Nicholas and corps of the wardenship 


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BAI, 


of Galway 5 and the latter is one of four which consti- 
tute the union of Kilcummin. The tithes amount to 
£240, of which £180 is payable to the warden, and £60 
to the perpetual curate. In the R. C. divisions the 
parish is in the diocese of Galway, and forms part of 
the union or district of Oranmore : the chapel is a large 
thatched building, capable of accommodating 1000 per- 
sons. There is a school at Gurrane, in which about 70 
boys and 50 girls are taught ; and there are three private 
pay schools, in which are about 120 children. At the 
village of Ballinacourty are the remains of an old 
church. 

BALLINACOURTY, a parish, in the barony of 
Corkagu iney, county of Kerry, and province of 
Munster, 8^ miles (E. by N.) from Dingle, on the road 
to Tralee ■ containing 1884 inhabitants. It comprises 
2973 statute acres, as applotted under the tithe act. A 
considerable portion is rough mountain pasture, with 
some bog, but mostly reclaimable 3 the remainder is 
under cultivation. A few boats are employed in fishing 
in the bay of Dingle, but for want of proper shelter the 
fishery is very limited. The construction of a small 
pier on this side of the bay would be of great advantage. 
Fairs are held at Ballinelare on the 1st of May and 4th 
of October, for black cattle and pigs. At Anuascall is 
a constabulary police station ; and petty sessions are 
also held there. A seneschal’s court for the barony is 
held at Ballintarmin, generally on the last Wednesday 
in the month, at which debts not exceeding £10 late 
currency are recoverable. The living is a vicarage, in 
the diocese of Ardfert and Aghadoe, and about the year 
1750 was episeopally united to six other vicarages, con- 
stituting the union of Kilflyn ; the rectory is impro- 
priate in the Earl of Cork. The tithes amount to 
£161. 10. 9. The church, situated at Annascall, was 
erected by aid of a loan of £600 from the late Board of 
First Fruits, in 1816. The glebe-house of the union is 
situated here, and was built by aid of a gift of £450 and 
a loan of £200 from the same Board, in 1821 : there 
is also another at Kilflyn. The glebe comprises 14 plan- 
tation acres ; and there is also an old glebe of four acres 
about a mile distant. In the R. C. divisions this parish 
forms part of the district of Ballinvohir ; a chapel is 
now in course of erection at Annascall, at which place is 
a school, principally supported by the Earl of Cork. 
There are still some remains of the old church in the 
burial-ground. 

BALLINACURRA, a village, in the parish of Midle- 
ton, barony of Imokiley, county of Cork, and pro- 
vince of Munster, 1 mile (S.) from Midleton ; con- 
taining 527 inhabitants. This place is pleasantly situ- 
ated on the banks of the Midleton river, and contains 
144 houses. It is well situated for trade ; and several 
large grain stores and malt-houses have been recently 
built, and some excellent quays have been constructed. 
A bridge has been thrown across the creek, over which 
passes the road to Rostellan 3 and several other improve- 
ments are in contemplation. A considerable trade is 
carried on in the exportation of grain, which is chiefly 
sent to Liverpool, Bristol, and London 5 and in the im- 
portation of coal, timber, iron, slate, and other heavy 
goods for the supply of the flourishing town of Midle- 
ton, to which place the navigation might be extended at 
a small expense. Limestone is very abundant through- 
out the neighbourhood, and great quantities are quarried 
107 


for building, and burnt for agricultural purposes. The 
harbour communicates with that of Cove by a passage 
called the East Ferry 3 the tide rises here from eight to 
twelve feet, and brigs of 300 tons burden can safely sail 
up to the quay. There are in the neighbourhood several 
handsome houses, occupied by wealthy individuals ; and 
nearly adjoining the village are the ruins of the ancient 
parish church. — See Midleton. 

BALLINADEE, a parish, in the East Division of the 
barony of East Carbery, county of Cork, and pro- 
vince of Munster, 4 miles (S. E.) from Bandon ; con- 
taining, with the merged parish of Kilgoban, 2800 
inhabitants, of which number, 228 are in the village. It 
comprises 7558 statute acres, as applotted under the 
tithe act, and valued at £4265 per annum. Nearly the 
whole is under tillage : the land is generally good, and 
the system of agriculture has very much improved 3 the 
cultivation of turnips, vetches, and other green crops, 
has been lately introduced with much advantage. Slate 
quarries in different parts are worked, but not to a great 
extent, for the supply of the neighbourhood and the 
town of Bandon, and the produce is sent down the river 
Bandon to be shipped to Cork and other ports. The 
village consists of 42 houses, most of which are small 
but well built, and it contains a large flour-mill of great 
power, which was much improved in 1836. A new line 
of road has been constructed, within the last two years, 
to Ballinspittle, a distance of three miles and a half. 
There are several small quays on the river, at which 
great quantities of sea sand for manure are landed for 
the supply of the adjacent parishes : more than 100 
boats are engaged in raising it, of which about 20 belong 
to this parish. Here are also several weirs on the river 
for taking salmon. The gentlemen’s seats are Rock 
House, that of J. Gillman, Esq., situated on the side of 
a romantic glen, in the centre of some highly improved 
grounds 5 Rock Castle, of E. Becher, Esq. 3 Peafield, of 
George H. Rawlins, Esq. ; Peafield House, of J. Minton, 
Esq. 3 Ballyvolan, of Walter Tresillian, Esq. ; Knockna- 
curra, of Benjamin Gillman, Esq. 5 and the Glebe-house, 
the residence of the Rev. R. N. Perry. Kilgoban Castle, 
at present untenanted, is situated at the side of the river 
Bandon, and is in good preservation, forming a striking 
feature in the surrounding scenery, which in many parts 
is picturesque and very interesting, particularly in the 
vicinity of Rock House, Kilgoban, and the glens near 
the village of Ballinadee. The living is a rectory, 
in the diocese of Cork, united at a period prior to any 
existing record with the denominations of Kilgoban, 
Rathdowlan, and Mackloneigh, which constitute the 
corps of the treasurership in the cathedral church of 
St. Finbarr, Cork, in the patronage of the Bishop : the 
tithes amount to £6l6. 10. 8|., and the gross income of 
the treasurer is returned at £644 per annum. The church 
is a large edifice, built in 1759, and a square tower has 
been recently added. The glebe comprises 5 a. 2 r. 12 p. 
In the R. C. divisions the parish forms part of the union 
or district of Courceys, and contains a chapel, a large 
plain edifice, rebuilt within the last five years, at an ex- 
pense of £400. The male and female parochial schools 
are aided by an annual donation of £10 from the rector: 
there are also a Sunday school and a daily pay school. 
On the lands of Kilgoban is the ruined tower of an 
ancient castle, which belonged to the family of 
M c Carthy, beneath which, by the river’s side, a great 


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quantity of gold and silver coins, with numerous gold 
rings, was dug up in 1824. 

BALLINAFAD, a village, in the parish of Augha- 
nagh, barony of Tiraghrill, county of Sligo, and 
province of Connaught, 2^ miles (N. N. W.) from 
Boyle, on the road to Sligo ; containing 20 houses and 
140 inhabitants. A fair is held on the 29th of August) 
and here is a station of the constabulary police. — See 
Aughanagh. 

BALLINAFAGH. — See BALLYNEFAGH. 

BALLINAGAR, a village, in the parish and barony 
of Geashill, King’s county, and province of Lein- 
ster, 2| miles (S. W.) from Philipstown, on the road 
from Edenderry to Tullamore ; containing 32 houses 
and 153 inhabitants. A large and handsome R. C. 
chapel for the union or district of Ballykean is in course 
of erection, in the ancient English style of architecture. 
— See Geashill. 

BALLINAGERAGH, a village, in the parish of 
Kilcarragh, barony of Clanmaurice, county of 
Kerry, and province of Munster, 7 miles (S. W. by S.) 
from Listowel, on the road to Tralee ; containing 35 
houses and 230 inhabitants. A patron fair, one of the 
largest in the county, is held here on Sept. 29th, and is 
numerously attended. — See Kilcarragh. 

BALLINAGH, a market-town, partly in the parish 
of Ballintemple, but chiefly in that of Kilmore, ba- 
rony of Clonmahon, county of Cavan, and province of 
Ulster, 4 miles (S. W.) from Cavan, on the road to 
Granard ; containing 702 inhabitants. This town was 
entirely destroyed by fire in a disturbance which took 
place in 1794 ; it consists at present of two streets 
crossing each other at right angles, and in 1831 con- 
tained 135 houses, the greater part of which are thatched, 
and of which three only are in the parish of Ballin- 
temple. The market is on Saturday, and is held in a 
neat plain market-house. Fairs are held on March 31st, 
June 6th, Angust 5th, Oct. 3rd, and Dec. 21st. This is 
a station of the constabulary police ; and petty sessions 
are held every alternate Wednesday. There is a R. C. 
chapel ; also a good slated school-house, containing on 
the ground floor a school-room for boys, and on the 
upper story, one for girls. — See Kilmore. 

BALLINAGLERAGH. — See DRUMREILLY. 

BALLINAGORE, a village, in the parish of New- 
town, barony of Moycashel, county of Westmeath, 
and province of Leinster, 2§ miles (N. E.) from Kil- 
beggan, on the road to Mullingar ; containing 35 houses 
and 182 inhabitants. The river Brusna flows through 
the village, and is crossed by a bridge of four arches. 
On its banks is an extensive bleach-green, with a fulling- 
mill, the property of W. H. Mulock, Esq. There are 
also some large flour-mills, capable of grinding 40,000 
barrels of wheat annually, and affording employment to 
70 men. Here is a station of the constabulary police. — 
See Newtown. 

BALLINAHAGLISH. — See BALLYNAHAGLISH. 

BALLINAHASSIG, a village, in that part of the pa- 
rish of Ballinaboy, w'hich is in the barony of Kerri- 
currihy, county of Cork, and province of Munster, 
6 miles (S.) from Cork, on the road to Kinsale ; con- 
taining 147 inhabitants. It was distinguished as the 
scene of a battle which took place in 1600, between a 
party of English and the insurgent forces under the 
command of Florence M c Carthy. Here are mills be- 
108 


longing to Mr. D. Keller, capable of making 7000 barrels 
of flour annually, which, together with three or four 
houses and about twice as many cabins, constitute the 
village. Fairs are held on May 2nd, June 29th, Aug. 
10th, and Sept. 29th; and here is a dispensary. It is 
the head of a R. C. union or district, comprising the 
parishes of Ballinaboy, Dunderrow, and Templemichael- 
de-Duagh, and containing chapels at Ballyheedy and 
Killeedy Hill. — See Ballinaboy. 

BALLINAHINCH, a market and post-town, in the 
parish of Magheradroll, barony of Kinelearty, 
county of Down, and province of Ulster, 8 miles (E.) 
from Dromore, and 74^ (N. by E.) from Dublin; con- 
taining 970 inhabitants. This town was founded by Sir 
George Rawdon, Bart., after the insurrection of 1641, 
as appears by the patent of Chas. II. granting the manor 
of Kinelearty to the Rawdon family, which, after reciting 
that Sir George had built a town and two mills, and had 
repaired the church, and that a large space had been 
appropriated for holding markets and fairs, created that 
manor, with a demesne of 1000 acres and courts leet and 
baron, and granted the privilege of a market to be held 
on Thursday, and two fairs annually. During the dis- 
turbances of 1798, the main body of the insurgents, 
after being repulsed near Saintfield, took post here on 
Windmill-hill and on some high ground in the demesne 
of the Earl of Moira, a descendant of Sir G. Rawdon. 
On the 12th of June, Gen. Nugent marched against them 
from Belfast with the Monaghan regiment of militia, 
part of the 22nd dragoons, and some yeomanry infantry 
and cavalry ; and was joined near this place by Lieut.- 
Col. Stewart with his party from Downpatrick, making 
in all about 1500 men. The insurgents were soon driven 
from their post on the Windmill-hill, and the king’s 
troops set fire to the town. Both parties spent the night 
in preparations for a general action, which took place at 
an early hour on the following morning, and was main- 
tained about three hours with artillery, but with little 
effect. At length the Monaghan regiment of militia, 
posted with two field-pieces at Lord Moira’s gate, was 
attacked with such determined fury by the pikemen of 
the insurgents that it fell back in confusion on the Hills- 
borough cavalry, which retreated in disorder ; but these 
troops having rallied, while the Argyleshire fencibles 
entering the demesne, were making their attack on ano- 
ther side, the insurgents retired to a kind of fortification 
on the top of the hill, which for some time they defended 
with great courage, but at length gave way and dispersed 
in all directions ; the main body fled to the mountains 
of Slieve Croob, where they soon surrendered or retired 
to their several homes, and thus was the insurrection 
terminated in this quarter. 

The town is situated on the road from Dromore to 
Saintfield, and consists of a square and four streets, 
comprising, in 1831, 171 houses, many of which are 
well built. The market is on Thursday, and is well 
supplied ; and fairs are held on the first Thursday in 
January, Feb. 12th, March 3rd, April 5th, May 19th, 
July 10th, Aug. 18th, Oct. 6tli, and Nov. 17th. A 
linen-hall was built by the Earl of Moira, but it has 
fallen into ruins. Here is a station of the constabulary 
police. A court for the manor of Kinelearty was for- * 
merly held, in which debts to the amount of £10 were 
recoverable, but it has fallen into disuse. There is a 
large court-house in the square, built by Lord Moira in 


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1795, but nowin a dilapidated state. The same noble- 
man also built a church in 1772 , which having fallen 
into decay was taken down in 1829, and a new edifice 
was erected on its site, towards which £850 was 
granted by the late Board of First Fruits ; the tower 
and spire of the old building remain on the west side of 
the present church. Opposite to it is a spacious R. C. 
chapel ; and there are three places of worship for Pres- 
byterians, one in connection with the Synod of Ulster, 
and the others in connection with the Seceding Synod. 
A school for girls is supported by voluntary contribu- 
tions. In a picturesque and fertile valley, two miles 
south of the town, is a powerful sulphureous chalybeate 
spring, which is much resorted to during summer, and 
has been highly efficacious in scrophulous disorders : 
there are two wells, one for drinking and the other for 
bathing, but sufficient accommodation is not provided 
for the numbers that repair to the spot. — See Maghe- 

RADROLL. 

BALLINAKILL. — See BALLYNAKILL. 

BALLINAKILL, a market and post-town (formerly 
a parliamentary borough), in the parish of Dysart- 
gallen, barony of Cullinagh, Queen’s county, and 
province of Leinster, 10 miles (S. S. E.) from Mary- 
borough, and 50 miles (S. W.) from Dublin ; containing 
1927 inhabitants. This is a place of some antiquity, 
but was not made a market-town till the year 1606, 
when a grant of a market and fair was made to Sir T. 
Coatch, proprietor of the manor of Galline. In 1612 
it was incorporated by Jas. I., and was invested with 
considerable privileges, to foster the plantation made 
here by Sir T. Ridgway, Bart. The castle, of which 
there are still some remains, fell into the possession of 
the R. C. party during the insurrection of 1641, and 
when Cromwell’s troops overran the island, being 
bravely defended by its garrison, it was cannonaded 
from the Warren-Hill, adjoining Heywood demesne, by 
Gen. Fairfax, and the garrison was at length compelled 
to surrender. The town is situated in a fertile district, 
the soil of which is principally composed of a deep clay 
adapted both for the dairy and for tillage. To the east 
is Heywood, the seat of Major- Gen. Sir F. W. Trench, in 
a richly varied demesne ornamented with plantations 
and artificial sheets of water. The manufacture of woollen 
stuffs, formerly more extensive, is still carried on to a 
limited degree ; and a brewery has been established more 
than 50 years by the present proprietor, Mr. Comerford. 
The market is on Saturday, and has somewhat declined 
since the establishment of a market on the same day at 
Abbeyleix, a few years since : there is a good market for 
butter on Tuesday. The market-house is kept in repair 
by Earl Stanhope, the lord of the manor. Fairs are held 
on the 16th of Jan. and Feb., 22nd of March and April, 
J 3th of May, first Thursday after Whit-Sunday, 13th of 
June and July, 12th of Aug., and 16th of Sept., Oct., 
Nov., and Dec. ; that in Nov. is a large fair for bullocks. 
Here is a station of the constabulary police. 

Under the charter of Jas. I. the corporation con- 
sisted of a sovereign, twelve burgesses, and an unlimited 
number of freemen, and returned two members to the 
Irish parliament until the Union. Quarter and petty 
sessions were formerly held in the town, but have been 
removed to Abbeyleix, about three miles distant. The 
parish church, situated in the town, is a handsome 
edifice with a tower and spire ; the east window which 
109 


is of stained glass and very handsome, was purchased 
on the Continent and presented by the late Fras. Trench, 
Esq. Ballinakill is the head of a R. C. district, com- 
prising the parish of Dysartgallen and parts of Abbey- 
leix and Ballyroan, and containing chapels at Ballina- 
kill (a spacious edifice) and Knockardigur. Here are a 
national school and a dispensary. 

BALLINAKILLY, or BALLYNAKILTY, a parish, 
in the barony of Killian, county of Galway, and pro- 
vince of Connaught, 5^ miles (W. by S.) from Ballina- 
more, on the road from Tuam to Ballinasloe ; contain- 
ing, with the parish of Aghiart, 1630 inhabitants. It 
is a rectory and vicarage, in the diocese of Tuam, and 
forms part of the union of Moylough ; the tithes, in- 
cluding those of Aghiart, amount to £148. 10. 8^. In 
the R. C. divisions it is part of the union or district of 
Mount-Bellew. There is a hedge school, in which about 
40 boys and 16 girls are taught. 

BALLINALaCK, a village, in the parish of Leney, 
barony of Corkaree, county of Westmeath, and pro- 
vince of Leinster, 8 miles (N. W. by N.) from Mullin- 
gar ; containing 51 houses and 334 inhabitants. This 
place is situated on the banks of the river Inny, over 
which is a bridge of five arches, and on the road from 
Mullingar to Longford. It is a chief constabulary 
police station, and contains the parochial school, which 
is under the patronage of J. Gibbons, Esq. 

BALLINAMAGHERY, a hamlet, in the parish of 
Carlingford, barony of Lower Dundalk, county of 
Louth, and province of Leinster; containing 16 
houses and 94 inhabitants. 

BALLINAMARA. — See BALLYNEMARA. 

BALL1NAMONA. — See MOURNE. 

BALLINAMORE, co. Galway.— See KILLIAN. 

BALLINAMORE, a market and post-town, in the 
parish of Outragh, barony of Carrigallen, county 
of Leitrim, and province of Connaught, 19| miles 
(W.) from Cavan, and 77| miles (N. W. by W.) from 
Dublin ; containing 312 inhabitants. This town, which 
is situated on the road from Killyshandra, and inter- 
sected b^ a small river, consists of 63 neatly built 
houses, and a considerable number of straggling cot- 
tages. It was formerly the seat of the iron manufac- 
ture, and works were established for smelting the ore 
found in the vicinity. The market, which is on Tues- 
day, is one of the largest in the county for grain and 
provisions ; and fairs are held on the 15th of February, 
May 12th, Aug. 16th, and Nov. 12th. It is a con- 
stabulary police station ; petty sessions are held irre- 
gularly ; and the quarter sessions for the southern 
division of the county are held here in April and 
October. A court-house has been recently erected, 
to which is attached a bridewell containing four cells, 
with apartments for the keeper ; the cost of the build- 
ing was £2200, of which £1200 was lent by Govern- 
ment, to be repaid by instalments : it is also in con- 
templation to build a market-house. The parish church, 
a R. C. chapel, and a place of worship for Methodists, 
are situated in the town. Near it is Garadise Lough, 
a considerable sheet of water, on the shore of which 
is Garradice, the seat of W. C. Percy, Esq. ; and' 
there are several other lakes in the vicinity. — See 
Outragh. 

BALLIN AMUCK, a village, in that part of the 
parish of Killoe, which is in the barony and county 


B A L 


B A L 


of Longford, in the province of Leinster, 8 miles (N.) 
from Longford, on the road from Newtown-Forbes to 
Arvagh ; containing 30 houses and 163 inhabitants. 
The remainder of the French army under Gen. Hum- 
bert, which had landed in Kilcummin bay on the 22d of 
August, 1798, for the assistance of the insurgent forces, 
made a final stand in the neighbourhood, where, being 
surrounded by the English army under Lord Cornwallis, 
they were compelled to surrender on the 9th of the 
following month. Having arrived on the preceding 
evening, the French forces were closely pursued by Col. 
Crawford and Gen. Lake ; while Lord Cornwallis, with 
the grand army, crossing the river at Carrick-on-Shan- 
non, advanced to St. Johnstown to intercept their pro- 
gress to Granard. Col. Crawford having attacked their 
rear, about 200 of the infantry surrendered themselves 
prisoners ; the remainder continued to defend them- 
selves for about half an hour, when, on the appearance 
of the main body of the army under Gen. Lake, they 
also surrendered. The number of Gen. Humbert’s 
army at the time of their surrender was reduced to 
96 officers and 748 privates. Here is a station of the 
constabulary police, also a quarry of fine freestone. — 

Cop K tt t rj 

BALLINARD. — See BALLYNARD. 

BALLINASAGGART. — See ERRIGALL - KE- 
ROGUE. 

BALLINASLOE, a market and post-town, partly in 
the parish of Creagh, barony of Moycarnon, county 
of Roscommon, but chiefly in the parish of Kilcloony, 
barony of Clonmacnoon, county of Galway, and pro- 
vince of Connaught, 12 miles (W. by S.) from Athlone, 
and 71f miles (W. by S.) from Dublin, on the road to Gal- 
way ; containing 4615 inhabitants. This town is situated 
on the river Suck, which divides it into two unequal 
parts, of which the larger is in the county of Galway. 
It appears to have arisen under the protection of its castle, 
which in the reign of Elizabeth was one of the strong- 
est fortresses in Connaught, and the ruins of which are 
situated on the Roscommon side of the river, and is now 
one of the most flourishing towns in the south and west 
of Ireland. In 1831 it comprised 632 houses, nearly all 
slated, of which 265 were built during the ten years 
preceding. The two portions are connected by a line of 
two bridges and causeways crossing some small islands, 
and about 500 yards in length, in which are 16 arches. 
Here are three tanyards, a flour and three oatmeal-mills, 
a manufactory for felt hats, a coach-manufactory, two 
breweries, and a large establishment for curing bacon ; 
and in the vicinity are some quarries of excellent lime- 
stone. An extension of the Grand Canal has been formed 
within the last few years from Shannon harbour to this 
town, through the bogs on the south side of the river 
Suck, which not only affords a regular conveyance for 
passengers to Dublin and other places, but greatly faci- 
litates the trade of the town. The Ballinasloe Horticul- 
tural Society for the province of Connaught was founded 
in 1833, under the patronage of the Earl of Clancarty, 
and holds its annual meetings on the first Monday in 
March ; three public shows take place in the year, when 
prizes are awarded for the best specimens of various 
kinds of fruit, flowers, and vegetables. The annual 
meetings of an Agricultural Society are also held here 
in October. Garbally Park, in the immediate vicinity, 
is the seat of the Earl of Clancarty, the proprietor of the 
110 


town : the mansion is situated in a well-wooded demesne, 
and was rebuilt in 1819 ; it contains a good collection 
of paintings, and the public are allowed free access both 
to the house and grounds. Near the town, also, is 
Mackna, the seat of his lordship’s brother, the Hon. and 
Ven. Chas. le Poer Trench, D.D., Archdeacon of Ardagh. 
The market is on Saturday, and is well supplied with 
corn. The celebrated fair of Ballinasloe is the greatest 
cattle mart in the kingdom ; it is held on the Galway 
side of the river, from the 5th to the 9th of October. 
The black or horned cattle are exhibited in an extensive 
area set apart for the fair outside the town ; and a plot 
of ground in Garbally Park is appropriated to the show 
of sheep on the day before the fair, when very extensive 
purchases are made, and those that remain unsold are 
driven to the fair green. Great quantities of wool were 
formerly sold, but the establishment of factors in Dub- 
lin and other large towns has altered the channel of this 
branch of trade. The number and variety of goods ex- 
hibited for sale render the fair a great resort for all 
classes of dealers. The number of sheep exhibited in 
1835 was 61,632, of which 54,974 were sold; and of 
cattle, 7443, of which 6827 were sold. Fairs for live 
stock are also held on May 7th and July 4th ; and on 
the 6th of July there is a large fair for wool, which has 
been lately revived, and lasts four days : the wool fairs 
formerly continued from two to five weeks. Petty ses- 
sions are held every Wednesday and Saturday in a court- 
house attached to the bridewell, an old house not adapt- 
ed either for confinement or security. This is the 
head-quarters of the Galway constabulary police; and a 
company of infantry, for whose accommodation there is 
a barrack for 56 men, and two companies of cavalry are 
occasionally stationed here. 

The church of the union of Creagh occupies an ele- 
vated site in the town. In the R. C. divisions this place 
is the head of a union or district, comprising the parishes 
of Kilcloony and Creagh, and containing a chapel in 
each ; that of Kilcloony is situated at the extremity of 
the market-square. There are places of worship for 
Primitive and Wesleyan Methodists. Three schools for 
boys and girls, one for girls only, and an infants’ school, 
are chiefly supported by the Earl of Clancarty, and from 
other sources, at an expense of about £150 per annum ; 
and there is a national school for both sexes, under the 
patronage of the R. C. clergyman. The lunatic asylum 
for the province of Connaught, situated here, was opened 
in 1833, and is capable of accommodating 150 inmates; 
it is built of limestone, in the form of the letter X, with 
a handsome cupola, and the ground attached to it com- 
prises 14 plantation acres enclosed by a wall; the entire 
expenditure, including cost of building and purchase of 
site and furniture, was £27,130. 4. 6. Here is also a 
dispensary, and a Benevolent Society has been formed. 
The remains of the castle consist of the outer walls only, 
enclosing a square area, with a round tower in one angle, 
which has been converted into a neat residence called Ivy 
Castle, the seat of J. T. Maher, Esq. ; the most picturesque 
portion is a bridge across the fosse to a gateway. The 
townland of Dunlo, on which the Galway portion of the 
town is built, gives the inferior title of Viscount to the 
Earl of Clancarty. — See Kilcloony and Creagh. 

BALLINAVOREN, a hamlet, partly in the parish 
of Ardagh, barony of Morgallion, and partly in that 
of Drumcondra, barony of Lower Slane, county of 


B AL 


B A L 


Meath, and province of Leinster, 4 miles (N.) from 
Nobber ; containing 14 houses and 83 inhabitants. Here 
is a plain R. C. chapel, which it is in contemplation to 
rebuild. 

BALLINCALLA, or BALLIMCHOLLA, a parish, 
partly in the barony of Ross, county of Galway, but 
chiefly in that of Kilmaine, county of Mayo, and pro- 
vince of Connaught, 2 miles (S. W.) from Ballinrobe, 
on the road to Cong; containing 3031 inhabitants. 
It comprises 7102 statute acres, as applotted under 
the tithe act : about one-half of the land is under 
tillage, one-fourth is pasture, and the remainder waste 
mountain and bog. A fair is held at Lough Mask, 
on the 20th of September. It is a rectory and 
vicarage, in the diocese of Tuam, and forms part of 
the union of Kilmolara : the tithes amount to £328. 
The glebe-house of the union is situated here, and 
was erected by aid of a gift of £400 and a loan of 
£398 from the late Board of First Fruits, in 1819 : the 
glebe comprises 20 acres. In the R. C. divisions it is 
part of the union or district called the Neale. There is 
one pay-school, in which are about 30 males and 15 
females. On the borders of Lough Mask are some 
remains of an old castle. 

BALLINCLARE, a small hamlet, in the parish of 
Ballinacourty, barony of Corkaguiney, county of 
Kerry, and province of Munster, 8 miles (E. by N.) 
from Dingle, on the road to Tralee; containing 13 
houses and 88 inhabitants. Fairs are held on May 1st 
and Oct. 4th, chiefly for cattle and pigs. 

BALLINCOLLIG, a post-town, in the parish of 
Carrigrohane, barony of Barretts, county of Cork, 
and province of Munster, 5* miles (W.) from Cork, 
and 130§ miles (S. W.) from Dublin, on the road from 
Cork to Macroom ; containing 875 inhabitants. This 
place is chiefly distinguished as a military depot, and 
for its extensive gunpowder- mills, formerly carried on 
under the superintendence of Government, but, after 
having been for some years discontinued, recently pur- 
chased by the present proprietors, and now in full 
operation. The artillery barracks form an extensive 
quadrangular pile of buildings, having in the eastern 
range the officers’ apartments, and on the western side 
an hospital and a neat church, built in 1814, in which 
divine service is regularly performed by a resident chap- 
lain. The buildings contain accommodation for 18 
officers and 242 non-commissioned officers and privates, 
and are adapted to receive eight field batteries, though 
at present only one is stationed here, to which are 
attached 95 men and 44 horses : in the centre of the 
quadrangle eight gun sheds are placed in two parallel 
lines, and near them are the stables and offices ; within 
the walls is a large and commodious school-room. Im- 
mediately adjoining the barracks, and occupying a space 
of nearly four miles in extent, are the gunpowder-mills, 
16 in number. At convenient distances are placed the 
different establishments for granulating and drying the 
gunpowder, making charcoal, refining sulphur and salt- 
petre, making casks and hoops and the various ma- 
chinery connected with the works ; the whole commu- 
nicating with each other, and with the mills, by means 
of small canals constructed for facility of carriage, and 
for preventing such accidents as might occur from other 
modes of conveyance. In appropriate situations, and 
adjoining these establishments, are the residences of the 
111 


different persons superintending the works ; and at the 
eastern extremity of the ground, but at a considerable 
distance from the mills, are two ranges of comfortable 
cottages for a portion of the work-people, now tenanted 
by 54 families, which obtain a comfortable livelihood. 
The number of persons employed is about 200, and the 
quantity of gunpowder manufactured annually is about 
16,000 barrels. The police depot, for the province of 
Munster is situated here ; the men are drilled till they 
become efficient, and then drafted off to the different 
stations in the province. There is a R. C. chapel, to 
which is attached a school. To the south of the town, 
and on a limestone rock rising abruptly from the sur- 
rounding meadows, are the remains of Ballincollig castle, 
of which one of the towers is in tolerable preservation. 
— See Carrigrohane. 

BALLINCUSLANE, a parish, in the barony of 
Trughenackmy, county of Kerry, aud province of 
Munster, \\ miles (S. E. by S.) from Castleisland ; 
containing 4700 inhabitants. The parish, which is 
situated on the west bank of the river Blackwater, and 
on the confines of the county of Cork, is intersected by 
the old and new roads from Castleisland into that 
county, the latter being the road to King-William’s- 
Town, now in progress at the expense of Govern- 
ment. It comprises 37,118 statute acres, as applotted 
under the tithe act, a large portion of which consists of 
rough mountain pasture and bog, which is mostly re- 
claimable : the arable land is of good quality, and 
limestone is found in abundance near Ardnagragh, and 
is used principally for manure. The only gentlemen’s 
seats are Derreen, a lodge belonging to J. Bateman, Esq., 
and Mount-Eagle, the sporting residence of C. G. Fair- 
field, Esq., who, with Col. Drummond, are proprietors 
of one-sixth of the seigniory of Castleisland, and have 
made considerable improvements by planting, draining, 
and the construction of new roads. The living is a 
rectory, in the diocese of Ardfert and Aghadoe, and 
till lately was one of the four that constituted the union 
of Castleisland, in the patronage of the Proprietors of 
that seigniory ; but the union has been divided into 
three separate livings, confirmed by act of council in 
1836 : the tithes amount to £460. 12. 7- Divine ser- 
vice is regularly performed at Derreen ■ but it is ex- 
pected that a church will be built in the parish. In the 
R. C. divisions the parish, with the exception of a small 
portion attached to Knocknagashel, forms part of the 
union or district of Castleisland ; the chapel, a plain 
but commodious building, is situated at Cordel, near 
Ardnagragh. A school-house has been lately built near 
Mount-Eagle, for 120 children ; and there are six pri- 
vate schools, in which about 100 boys and 50 girls are 
educated. At Ardnagragh are the ruins of Desmond’s 
chapel, with a burial-ground attached, now called Kil- 
nananima ; here the remains of “ The Great ” Earl of 
Desmond (who was slain in 1583) were interred. Near 
this spot are the ruins of Kilmurry castle, which was 
taken by Col. Phaire, of Cork, in 1650 : this and the 
castles of Kilcushnan and Bally-Mac-Adam, situated 
within half a mile of each other, were inhabited by three 
brothers named Fitzgerald, of the Desmond family, be- 
tween whom such enmity subsisted that none of them 
would suffer the others to pass unmolested through his 
lands. 

BALLINDANGAN. — See CROSSBOYNE. 


B A L 


B A L 


BALLINDERRY, a parish, in the barony of Upper 
Massareene, county of Antrim, and province of 
Ulster, 3| miles (N.) from Moira; containing 5356 
inhabitants. At Portmore, an extensive castle was 
erected by Lord Conway, in 1664, on the site of a more 
ancient fortress : it contained accommodation for two 
troops of horse, with a range of stabling 140 feet in 
length, 35 feet in breadth, and 40 feet in height ; the re- 
mains consist only of the ancient garden wall, part of the 
stables, and the ruins of one of the bastions. During 
the Protectorate the learned Jeremy Taylor retired to 
this place, and remained at the seat of Lord Conway 
till the Restoration, when he was promoted to the bishop- 
rick of Down and Connor. On a small island in the 
lough are still some remains of a summer-house, in 
which he is said to have written some of the most im- 
portant of his works, and in the neighbourhood his 
memory is still held in great respect. The parish is 
situated on the road from Antrim to Dublin, and is in- 
tersected by the mail coach road from Lurgan to An- 
trim : it comprises, according to the Ordnance survey, 
10,891 statute acres, of which 283| are in Portmore 
Lough. The land is almost all arable and in a good 
state of cultivation ; the system of tillage is improving. 
There is little or no waste land ; in the north-east and 
south- w 7 est parts of the parish are some valuable bogs. 
The weaving of linen and cotton affords employment to 
a considerable number of persons, but the greater num- 
ber of the inhabitants are engaged in agriculture. The 
Lagan canal from Lough Neagh, on the north-west, to 
Belfast passes within the distance of a mile. The 
parish is within the jurisdiction of the manorial court 
of Killultagh, held at Lisburn. 

The living is a vicarage, in the diocese of Connor, 
and in the patronage of the Marquess of Hertford, in 
whom the rectory is impropriate : the tithes amount to 
£480, of which £400 is paid to the vicar, and £80 to 
the impropriator. The church was erected in 1827, 
through the exertions of Dean Stannus, at an expense 
of £2200, of which the Marquess of Hertford gave 
£1000, and the late Board of First Fruits the re- 
mainder ; it is a handsome edifice, in the later style of 
English architecture, with a tower and spire 128 feet 
in height, and is beautifully situated on rising ground 
near the small village of Upper Ballinderry. There is 
a glebe of eight acres, but no glebe-house. In the 
R. C. divisions the parish forms part of the union or 
district of Aughagallon and Ballinderry : the chapel is a 
small building. There is a place of worship for Pres- 
byterians in connection with the Synod of Ulster, of the 
third class ; also a Moravian meeting house. In addi- 
tion to the parochial school, there are schools at Lower 
Ballinderry, Killultagh, and Legartariffe ; all, except 
the last, were built within the last ten years, chiefly 
through the benevolent exertions of Dean Stannus, at 
an expense of £600 ; they are well conducted, and will 
accommodate 300 children : there are also several 
private pay schools. — Murray, Esq., bequeathed £100 
British ; J. Moore Johnston, Esq., £83. 6. 8. ; and 
Hugh Casement, Esq., £25 Irish currency, to the 
poor of the parish. The old parish church, which was 
built after the Restoration of Chas. II., still remains ; 
and on the eastern side of it is a burial-place, called 
Templecormack, in the centre of which the foundations 
of a small building may be traced. There are also some 
112 


remains of an ancient church close to Portmore Lough, 
at the western extremity of the parish. The manor of 
Killultagh gives the title of Baron Conway of Killultagh 
to the Seymour family. 

BALLINDERRY, or BALLYDERRY, a parish, 
partly in the barony of Dungannon, county of Tyrone, 
but chiefly in the barony of Loughinsholin, county 
of Londonderry, and province of Ulster, 7 miles 
(S. E. by E.) from Moneymore ; containing 3163 inhabi- 
tants. This parish is situated on the Ballinderry river, 
which here separates the above-named baronies and 
counties, and falls into the north-western portion of 
Lough Neagh. It comprises, according to the Ordnance 
survey, 8177 statute acres, of which 2268| are in the 
county of Tyrone, and 5908| are in Londonderry ; 
2978 acres form a portion of Lough Neagh. The 
greater part belongs to the Salters’ Company, of Lon- 
don ; part belongs to the see of Derry ; and some of 
the lands are held under Cromwellian debentures, and 
are the only lands in the county of Londonderry, west 
of the river Bann, that are held by that tenure. A 
castle was built by the Salters’ Company at Salters- 
town, in 1615, soon after they had obtained the grant 
of those lands from Jas. I. ; and in the insurrection of 
1641 it was surprised by Sir Phelim O’Nial, who put 
all the inmates to death, with the exception of the 
keeper, who, with his wife and family, effected their 
escape to Carrickfergus, where, taking refuge in the 
church, they were finally starved to death. It continued 
for some time in the possession of the insurgents, who, 
being ultimately driven from their post, destroyed it, 
together with the church adjoining. Nearly the whole 
of the land is arable and under an excellent system of 
cultivation ; a valuable tract of bog produces excellent 
fuel, and there is no waste land. There are several 
large and well-built houses in the parish ; but the only 
seat is Ballyronan, that of J. Gaussen, Esq. The inha- 
bitants combine with agricultural pursuits the weaving 
of linen and cotton cloth ; and at Ballyronan an ex- 
tensive distillery has been lately established by Messrs. 
Gaussen, situated on the shore of Lough Neagh, close to 
the little port of Ballyronan. The living is a rectory, 
in the diocese of Armagh, and in the patronage of the 
Lord-Primate : the tithes amount to £192. 6. 2. The 
church, a large edifice in the later English style of 
architectui-e, was erected in 1707- The glebe-house, 
nearly adjoining, w r as built at an expense of £980, of 
which £100 was a gift from the late Board of First 
Fruits, in 1795 : the glebe comprises 413 acres of well- 
cultivated arable land. The R. C. parish is co-extensive 
with that of the Established Church ; there is a chapel 
at Ballylifford, and at Derryaghrin is an altar in the 
open air. Near the church is a place of worship for 
Wesleyan Methodists. The parochial school, in which 
are about 40 boys and 20 girls, is aided by a donation 
of £10 per annum from the rector ; and there are three 
Sunday schools, one of which is held in the R. C. 
chapel, and three daily pay schools, in which are about 
80 children. The ruins of the castle at Salterstown, 
situated on the margin of the lake, present a picturesque 
and interesting appearance, but are fast mouldering 
away. Adjoining the bridge over the river are the re- 
mains of an ancient iron forge, erected by the Salters’ 
Company in 1626, but which soon after fell into disuse. 
At Salterstown, near the site of the old church and 


B A L 


B A L 


close to the shore of Lough Neagh, is a chalybeate 
spring, which has been found efficacious in cutaneous 
disorders, and was formerly much resorted to ; but hav- 
ing become mixed with other water, its efficacy is greatly 
diminished. At Ballyronan is a large ancient fortress 
in good preservation. 

BALLINDERRY, a hamlet, in the parish of Terry- 
glass, barony of Lower Ormond, county of Tippe- 
rary, and province of Munster, 5 miles (N. W.) from 
Burrisokane, on the river Shannon ; containing 7 houses 
and 54 inhabitants. 

B ALLINDE RRY, county of Wi c klo w.— See RATH- 
DRUM. 

BALLINDOON, a parish, in the barony of Balli- 
nahinch, county of Galway, and province of Con- 
naught, 6 miles (S. W.) from Clifden ; containing 4943 
inhabitants. This parish is situated on the Connemara 
or western coast, and within its limits are the bays of 
Mannin and Bunowen, Slyne Head, and the islands of 
Innisdanrow, Innisdoogan, Innisinan, Lyin, Carrigaroon, 
Doonglass, Immul, Duck, Horse, Islannora, and Fox. 
In the famine that prevailed on this part of the coast, 
in 1831, the inhabitants were reduced to extreme want 
and destitution, and but for the timely aid of the Lon- 
don Relief Committee, it would have been, in the words 
of the parish priest, “ a desert and uninhabited country.” 
The manufacture of kelp was formerly carried on to a 
very great extent, and was a source of lucrative em- 
ployment, till the alteration in the duties took place, 
since which time it has been altogether discontinued. 
At present agriculture and fishing are the chief occupa- 
tions of the inhabitants, of whom almost all have por- 
tions of land ; the females make a red flannel for 
domestic use, and many are employed in knitting wool- 
len stockings, which are celebrated as the Connemara 
hose, but the price is so low as scarcely to repay their 
labour, they being unable to earn more than three-half- 
pence daily. In Bunowen bay a vessel may ride in 
moderate weather ; the entrance is on either side of a 
rock called Carrigascoilty. From Ross point, on the 
main land, to Islannora a range of rocks extends to 
Slyne Head, which is situated in latitude 53° 24' 30" 
(N.), and longitude 10° 7' 40" (W.), and runs off to the 
westward in five or six small islets, the outermost of 
which is Island Immul, which has deep water close in 
shore : there are two sounds among these isles that 
may be passed with boats. On this point the commis- 
sioners for improving the port of Dublin have erected 
a lighthouse. Rounding Slyne Head are Mannin bay 
and the harbour of Ardbear or Clifden. The living is 
a rectory and vicarage, in the diocese of Tuam, and 
forms part of the union of Ballynakill : the tithes 
amount to £40. In the R. C. divisions the parish is 
included in the union or district of Clifden j the chapel 
is a neat building. There are four pay schools, situated 
respectively at Errislannin, Ballindoon, Aldbrack, and 
Ballyconnelly, in which are about 250 children. 

BALLINEA, a village, in the parish of Mullingar, 
barony of Moycashel and Magheradernan, county 
of Westmeath, and province of Leinster, 2f miles 
(W. by S.) from Mullingar, on the road to Athlone ; 
containing 18 houses and 109 inhabitants. It is a con- 
stabulary police station. 

BALLINECARGY, a village, in the parish of 
Drung, barony of Tullaghgarvey, county of Cavan, 
Yol. I.— 113 


and province of Ulster, 6 miles (S. W.) from Cootehill, 
on the road to Cavan ■, containing 25 houses and 150 
inhabitants. 

BALLINGADDY, a parish, in the barony of Cost- 
lea, county of Limerick, and province of Munster, 
C Z\ miles (S.) from Kilmallock, on the road to Kilfin- 
nan ; containing 1031 inhabitants. It comprises 5615 
statute acres, as applotted under the tithe act, of which 
about 400 are mountain, and the remainder is generally 
in a good state of cultivation. Mount-Russel, the resi- 
dence of J. Russell, Esq., is beautifully situated at the 
foot of the mountain range, commanding an extensive 
view over a very rich vale. It is a rectory and vicarage, 
in the diocese of Limerick, and forms part of the union 
of Kilmallock : the tithes amount to £280. The ruins 
of the old church are situated near Riverfield ; and 
adjoining the churchyard are 24 acres of excellent glebe. 
In the R. C. divisions it forms part of the union or dis- 
trict of Kilmallock ; the chapel is a small thatched 
building. There is a pay school, in which are about 40 
boys and 30 girls. 

B ALLIN GARRY, a parish, in the barony of Cost- 
lea, county of Limerick, and province of Munster, 
3 miles (E. N. E.) from Kilfinnan, on the road to Gal- 
bally ; containing 2497 inhabitants. The land is gene- 
rally good, and some recent improvements in tillage 
have been introduced by Mr. Gabbef, who has an ex- 
cellent farm managed upon the most approved princi- 
ples of modern agriculture. The surface is varied, and 
there are some hills of considerable elevation, of which 
the Black mountain and Slieve-Reagh are the principal, 
stretching westward towards Kilfinnan, and every where 
affording excellent pasture for numerous herds of young 
cattle and flocks of sheep. Near Grierston, on the 
border of the parish, is a very extensive and valuable 
bog ; in the midst of it rises a copious stream flowing 
southward towards Mitchelstown, and also another 
flowing northward and forming part of the Daun. Fairs 
are held at Ballinvreena, also on the border of the pa- 
rish, on April 21st, June 2lst, Aug. 31st, and Nov. 
19th, for horses, cattle, and pigs. There are several 
large and handsome houses, the principal of which are 
Annagurra, the residence of Thos. T. Adams, Esq., and 
Grierston, the fine old family mansion of the Masseys. 
It is a rectory, in the diocese of Emly, and forms part 
of the union and corps of the prebend of Killenellick 
in the cathedral church of Emly : the tithes amount to 
£250. The church is a ruin situated on a gentle eleva- 
tion, and forming a conspicuous object. The glebe com- 
prises six plantation acres. The R. C. parish is co-ex- 
tensive with that of the Established Church ; the chapel 
is a large modern edifice in the village of Glenbrohane. 
There are two pay schools, in which are about 160 chil- 
dren. 

BALLINGARRY, a market and post-town, and a 
parish, in the barony of Upper Connello, county of 
Limerick, and province of Munster, 16 miles (S. W. 
by S.) from Limerick, and 1 1 1-§ miles (S. W. by W.) from 
Dublin ; containing 865 1 inhabitants, of which number, 
1685 are in the town. Several religious houses appear 
to have been founded here at a very early period, and have 
been greatly confounded with each other by various 
writers. The earliest of which any account is preserved 
is one founded by Donough Carbrae O’Brien, for Con- 
ventual Franciscans, a little eastward of the town, but 

Q 


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generally attributed to Fitzgerald, Lord of Clenlis ; the 
walls, which are tolerably perfect, and a beautiful square 
tower, are still remaining. A preceptory of Knights 
Templars was founded in 1172, which, after the sup- 
pression of that order in 1304, was granted to the 
Knights Hospitallers ; and in the immediate vicinity 
was a Cistertian abbey, founded by the Fitzgeralds, in 
1198, and dedicated to the Blessed Virgin, which after- 
wards became a cell to the abbey of Corcomroe ; it was 
also called Kilson, and from the similarity of the name 
has often been mistaken for the abbey of Kilsane. There 
was also a convent for sisters of the order of St. Augus- 
tine, of which no vestiges can be traced. The town is 
situated on the road from Rathkeale to Charleville, and 
in a pleasing and sheltered valley which opens towards 
the west ; it consists of one long irregular street and 
several smaller, and contains 2/6 houses, of which the 
greater number are small but tolerably well built. A 
building called the Turret was erected by a branch of 
the De Lacy family, and repaired by Col. O’Dell in 
1683, as appears by a stone in the chimney; it was 
lately the residence of Major O’Dell. Near the town 
are the Fort-William flour-mills, the property of Mrs. 
Graves ; and three miles to the east are the Kilmore 
flour-mills, the property of John Tuthill, Esq., of Kil- 
more House, adjacent to which is a good bridge, built 
by his grandfather. The markets are on Tuesday and 
Friday, chiefly for the sale of vegetables ; there is no 
market-house, and the public scales are in the open 
street. Fairs are held on Easter-Monday, Whit- Mon- 
day, July 4th, and Dec. 5th, chiefly for the sale of 
horses, horned cattle, and pigs. Here is a station of the 
constabulary police ; and petty sessions are held every 
Saturday. 

The parish comprises 16,219| statute acres, as ap- 
plotted under the tithe act, and valued at £16,013 per 
annum. About 100 acres are common lands; and of 
the remainder, a large proportion is good arable land 
under an improved state of agriculture, but the greater 
portion is pasture ; there is scarcely any bog or waste 
land. The soil is very variable, in some parts remark- 
ably fertile, and in others rocky, sterile, and cold ; it is 
for the greater part based on a substratum of silicious 
grit rising from the limestone vales into hills of consi- 
derable elevation in three different parts of the parish. 
To the south-west of the town rises the hill of Kilna- 
mona, on which is a lake, supposed to have been formed 
by the excavation of a coal mine, and called Lough-na- 
Gual, or “the lake of coal.” Directly opposite is Knock- 
fiernha, which commands a most extensive prospect. 
The principal seats are Ballyno Cox, the handsome resi- 
dence of W. Cox, Esq. ; Glenwilliam Castle, of W. H. 
Massy, Esq. ; Ballino Kane, of W. Scanlan, Esq. ; the 
Grove, of Major O’Dell; Odell Ville, of T. A. O’Dell, 
Esq. ; Rossmore, of Capt. J. W. Shelton ; Mount Brown, 
of J. S. Brown, Esq. ; Heathfield, of E. Lloyd, Esq. ; 
Fort-William, of T. O’Dell, Esq. ; Liskennet.t, of R. K. 
Sheehy, Esq. ; Woodstock, of Rich. D. Graves, Esq. ; 
Ash Grove, of D. D. Power, Esq. ; Frankfort of R. 
Standish, Esq. ; the Glebe, of the Rev. T. Gibbings ; 
Ballynail, of J. Cox, Esq. ; Kilbeg, of H. Scanlan, Esq. ; 
and Spring Mount, of E. Fitzgerald, Esq. There are 
also many neat villas in the parish. The living is a rec- 
tory and vicarage, in the diocese of Limerick, and in 
the patronage of the Earl of Cork : the tithes amount to 
114 


£900. The church, a small but very neat edifice in the 
early English style, with a lofty square tower, was built 
in 1S20. The glebe-house was built by aid of a loan of 
£500 from the late Board of First Fruits, in 1822. The 
R. C. parish is co- extensive with that of the Established 
Church ; there are three chapels, one in the town, one 
near Knockfiernha, and one near the south-eastern ex- 
tremity of the parish. The parochial school for male 
and female children is aided by the rector, who pro- 
vides the school-house rent-free ; and there are eight 
pay schools, in which are about 420 children. A dis- 
pensary is supported by subscriptions. Adjoining the 
town are the remains of a very beautiful castle, of which 
the original name and the history are unknown ; it is 
now called Parson’s Castle, having been, previously to 
the erection of the glebe-house, the residence of the 
rector. About a mile to the north are the ruins of 
Lisamoota castle, and in the Grove demesne are those 
of Bonistoe (now commonly called Woodstock) castle. 
Within the limits of the parish are slight traces of other 
castles and of two small churches ; on the summit of 
Lisduan hill are the remains of Jackson’s Turret ; and 
on- Knockfiernha is a conical pile raised on the spot 
where stood the ancient temple of Stuadhraicin. 

BALLINGARRY, a parish, in the barony of Lower 
Ormond, county of Tipperary, and province of Mun- 
ster, 4 miles (E. by N.) from Burrisokane ; containing 
1767 inhabitants, of which number, 85 are in the hamlet, 
which consists of 13 houses. This parish is situated 
on the high roads from Roscrea to Portumna and from 
Nenagh to Parsonstown, and comprises 3498 planta- 
tion acres, divided into nearly equal portions of tillage 
and pasturage ; the state of agriculture is much im- 
proved, and green crops are partially cultivated. There 
is a considerable extent of bog ; and limestone of good 
quality abounds and is used for building. Knocksha- 
gowna, or “the Hill of the Fairies;” connected with 
which are some interesting legends, rises to a consider- 
able height in the parish, and is an excellent landmark 
to the surrounding country ; its summit, on which is a 
small tower, commands a very extensive view into 
several adjacent counties; on the east and west sides it 
is well planted, and the land on its north-eastern de- 
clivity is of excellent quality. A lake, surrounded by a 
large bog, and called Lough-na-Inch, is said to be very 
deep ; near the centre is a small island formed artifi- 
cially by piles of wood, but for what purpose is matter of 
conjecture. The principal seats are Lisbryen, situated 
in a well-planted demesne, that of T. Bunbury, Esq. ; 
South Park, of C. Atkinson, Esq. ; Ballymona, which 
is extensively planted, of Ralph Smith, Esq. ; Fairy 
Hill, also well planted, of W. H. Cox, Esq. ; Ballingarry 
Castle, of Marmaduke Thompson, Esq. ; Clifton and 
White Hall, the former the seat and the latter the pro- 
perty of Capt. Shepherd ; and Fairy Mount, the resi- 
dence of the Rev. J. H. Saunderson, the vicar. Lis- 
macrory, the ancient residence of the family of Smith, 
is now the property of Mr. Bunbury. Here is a station 
of the constabulary police. 

The living is a vicarage, in the diocese of Killaloe, 
to which the vicarage of Uskeane was episcopally united 
in 1772 and 1809, and in the patronage of the Bishop ; 
the rectory is impropriate in M. Thompson, Esq. The 
tithes amount to £263. 2. 6., of which £159 is payable 
to the impropriator, and £104. 2. 6. to the vicar; and 


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the entire tithes of the benefice, payable to the vicar, 
are £208. The church is an ancient edifice with a 
spire and minarets, for the repair of which the Ecclesi- 
astical Commissioners have lately granted £157- There 
is neither glebe-house nor glebe. In the R. C. divisions 
this parish forms part of the union of Burris-o-kane : 
the chapel is situated at the Pike, and is of recent erec- 
tion. A school was established in 1834 by the vicar, 
by whom, aided by a few private subscriptions, it is 
supported. There are some remains of the ancient 
castle of Ballingarry, from which it appears to have been 
of great strength and magnitude. 

BALLINGARRY, or GARE, a parish, in the barony 
of Slievardagh county of Tipperary, and province 
of Munster, 5 miles (E. by N.) from Killenaule ; con- 
taining 5872 inhabitants. This parish, which is situated 
on the southern portion of the great coal field of Sliev- 
ardagh, and is the property of Matthew Pennefather, 
Esq., comprises 13,325 statute acres, as applotted under 
the tithe act, and chiefly in pasture ; there is neither 
bog nor waste land. The village has arisen within the 
last 20 years, and consists of nearly 100 neatly built 
houses inhabited principally by persons connected with 
the adjacent collieries. Fairs are held on Whit-Monday, 
July 23rd,Nov. 1 1th, and Dec. 12th, and are well supplied 
with cattle and pigs. There is a constabulary police 
station in the village. The principal seats are Coal 
Brook, that of H. Langley, Esq., a handsome residence ; 
Harley Park, of J. P. Poe, Esq., pleasantly situated in a 
richly planted demesne ; and Ballyphilip, of Ambrose 
Going, Esq., the demesne of which is tastefully laid out. 
The living is a vicarage, in the diocese of Cashel, and 
in the patronage of the Bishop ; the rectory is impro- 
priate in the Rev. — Hayden ; the tithes amount to 
£738. 9- 2f., of which £492. 6. if. is payable to the 
impropriator, and the remainder to the vicar. The 
church, a neat plain edifice with a tower, was erected 
by aid of a gift of £470 from the late Board of First 
Fruits, in 1811. The glebe-house was built by a gift of 
£350 and a loan of £450 from the same Board, in 1814 : 
the glebe comprises 17§ acres, subject to a rent. The 
R. C. parish is co-extensive with that of the Established 
Church : the chapel, which is situated in the village, is 
a handsome and spacious edifice, erected in 1828 on a 
site of about two acres of land given by the late Col. 
Pennefather ; in the chapelyard is a school-house. A 
school-house under the trustees of Erasmus Smith’s 
foundation was erected at an expense of £300, and two 
acres of land were assigned to it by the late Col. Penne- 
father ; and there are three other schools, supported by 
private subscription. These schools afford instruction 
to about 250 boys, and 120 girls ; and there are also 
six pay schools, in which are about 270 boys and 170 
girls. 

The coal field, of which a considerable portion is 
within this parish, extends 7 miles in length and 3 miles 
in breadth : the coal is found in three distinct seams of 
12, 18, and 24 inches in thickness, lying above each 
other at intervening distances varying from 90 to 140 
feet, dipping to a common centre, and appearing at the 
surface on all sides : the extreme depth of the lowest 
seam is about 700 feet. The coal beds lie about 1800 
feet over a mass of limestone rock of great thickness, 
which shews itself at the surface all round on an average 
within two miles of the pits. The coal field is divided 
115 


among various proprietors in portions varying from 
1000 to 1500 acres, each of whom is the owner of the 
coal upon his own land. Some of the mines have been 
drained and worked by the proprietors, by means of day 
levels or adits, for which the undulation of the surface 
is extremely favourable ; and of late years several of the 
collieries have been let on lease to the Mining Company 
of Ireland, who have erected steam-engines for raising 
the water from the deeper parts of the mines, and made 
various other improvements for working them to greater 
advantage. The collieries on the estate of Coalbrook 
had been worked upon a judicious plan and with great 
success by the late proprietor, Charles Langley, Esq., 
for the last 30 years, and are still carried on in a similar 
manner by the present proprietor. On the estate of 
Kilballygalavin, also in this parish, and the property of 
the Earl of Carrick, are mines under lease to the Mining 
Company, which are now being opened ; and on the 
estate of Boulintlea, belonging to Edward Cooke, Esq., 
are others under lease to the same Company, which are 
now in operation, and for working which, on a more 
extensive scale, preparations are now in progress. The 
mines on the estate of Ballyphilip are very extensive, 
and the coal is of good quality ; they have not latterly 
been worked to advantage, but arrangements are now in 
progress for opening them to a greater extent and work- 
ing them upon a more improved plan. The average 
price of large coal at the pit is 15s. per ton, and of 
culm, 7s. The coal, which is of the non-flaming kind, is 
in great request with malsters and millers for drying 
corn ; and is also esteemed very profitable for culinary 
uses, for which it is carried to a great distance. About 
three-fourths of the produce of the mines is culm, which 
is used chiefly for burning lime. The entire produce of 
the coal field at present is valued at about £25,000 per 
annum ; but the returns are likely to be much aug- 
mented by the more extensive working of the mines 
and the increased demand arising from the progres- 
sive improvements in agriculture. 

BALLINGLEY.— See BALLYINGLEY. 

BALLINLOGHY, or BALLINLOUGH, a parish, in 
the barony of Small County, county of Limerick 
and province of Munster, 6 miles (E. N. E.) from 
Bruff ; containing 1286 inhabitants. This parish, which 
is situated on the road from Pallas-Greine to Bruff, 
comprises 2007 statute acres, as applotted under the 
tithe act, and is the joint property of the Earls of Sand- 
wich and Aldborough. The land is in general good, 
and is subdivided into a great number of small farms ; 
the inhabitants are amply supplied with fuel from three 
bogs in the neighbourhood. It is a vicarage, in the 
diocese of Emly, and forms part of the union of Aney : 
the rectory is impropriate in the Earl of Limerick. 
The tithes amount to £243. 16. 10., of which two-thirds 
are payable to the impropriator and the remainder to 
the vicar. There is neither church nor glebe-house : the 
glebe comprises 12 acres of excellent land, which are 
wholly claimed by the Earl of Kenmare. In the R. C. 
divisions it is part of the union or district of Hospital 
and Herbertstown. Here are two eminences, one called 
Cromwell’s Hill and the other Cromwell’s Moat ; both 
have traces of works on them, but apparently of much 
greater antiquity than the time of Cromwell. 

BALLINLONDRY, or BALLINLANDERS, a pa- 
rish, in the barony of Costlea, county of Limerick, 

Q2 


# 


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and province of Munster, 3 miles (N. W.) from Gal- 
bally, on the road to Kilfinane ; containing ‘2999 in- 
habitants, of which number, 281 are in the village, which 
is large and of modern erection, consisting of good 
houses built of stone and roofed with slate ; it is a con- 
stabulary police station. The parish is the property of 
the Earl of Kingston. The land is generally good and 
is mostly under tillage, producing abundant crops : there 
is a considerable tract of bog, in the centre of which 
rises a very copious spring supplying two streams, 
one flowing to the north and the other to the south, and 
both forming a boundary between this parish and that 
of Ballingarry. It is a rectory and vicarage, in the 
diocese of Emly, and forms part of the union of Dun- 
trileague, and the corps of the prebend of Killenellick 
in the cathedral of Emly : the tithes amount to £250. 
The old church has long since fallen into decay, and is 
now a picturesque and venerable ruin near the village ; 
in the churchyard is a remarkably fine ash tree. The 
glebe comprises three acres of excellent land. The R. 
C. parish is co-extensive with that of the Established 
Church ; the chapel, a large handsome building, is 
situated in the village. There are three pay schools, in 
which are about 150 children ; and a dispensary is sup- 
ported in the usual way. 

BALLINLOUGH, a village, in the parish of Kil- 
skyre, barony of Upper Kells, county of Meath, and 
province of Leinster, 1 mile (N.) from Crossakeel ; con- 
taining 117 inhabitants. It is situated on one of the 
roads from Kells to Oldcastle, and comprises about 20 
houses, besides the R. C. chapel of the district. 

BALLINLOUGH, a village, in the parish of Kil- 
tullagh, barony of Ballintobber, county of Roscom- 
mon, and province of Connaught, 5 miles (W. by S.) 
from Castlerea ; containing 130 inhabitants. It is situ- 
ated about half a mile from Lough Aelwyn, and consists 
of about 45 small houses and cabins built in detached 
groups and upon uneven ground. It has rather a pic- 
turesque appearance, and derives a considerable degree 
of interest from the parish church, a new and handsome 
edifice, situated upon an eminence immediately behind 
it. A fair is held on Sept. 29th. Ballinlough House 
is the residence of the Rev. J. Le Poer Trench ; and 
between the village and the lake is Willsborough House, 
a small ancient mansion, formerly the seat of the Wills 
family. A constabulary police force has been established 
here. There are two schools. 

BALLINODE, a village, in the parish of Tydavnet, 
barony and county of Monaghan, and province of 
Ulster, 3 miles (N. W.) from Monaghan; its popula- 
tion is included in the return for the parish. This place 
is situated on the road from Monaghan to Enniskillen, 
by way of Brookborough, and on a small river, over 
which there is a good stone bridge ; and contains the 
parochial church and school, the former of which is 
a neat edifice with a steeple, and a dispensary. It has 
a patent for a fair for cattle on the first Saturday in 
every month, but no fairs are now held. 

BALLINODE, a village, in the parish of Calry, ba- 
rony of Upper Carbery, county of Sligo, and pro- 
vince of Connaught, 2 furlongs (E.) from Sligo, on the 
road to Manor-Hamilton ; containing 17 houses and 85 
inhabitants. 

BALLINONTY, a hamlet, in the parish of Kil- 
cooley, barony of Slievardagh, county of Tipperary, 
116 


and province of Munster, l| mile (N.) from Kille- 
naule ; containing 171 inhabitants. This place, which 
is the property of W. Going, Esq., is situated on the 
north-west confines of the Slievardagh coal field, and con- 
tains 12 houses, or cabins, inhabited by persons employed 
in the coal-works. There is a good sessions-house in 
the hamlet, in which the road sessions for the barony of 
Slievardagh, and the petty sessions for the division are 
held, the former, as occasion requires, and the latter 
weekly. There is also a dispensary. 

BALLINROBE, a market and post-town, and a pa- 
rish, in the barony of Kilmaine, county of Mayo, and 
province of Connaught, 14 miles (S. by E.) from Cas- 
tlebar, and 116§ miles (W.byN.) from Dublin; contain- 
ing 8923 inhabitants, of which number, 2604 are in the 
town. A monastery for friars of the order of St. Au- 
gustine was founded here some time prior to 1337, in 
which year it is mentioned in the registry of the Do- 
minican friary of Athenry, under the name of the 
monastery de Roba. The town is situated on the river 
Rohe, from which it derives its name, and on the road 
from Hollymount to Cong ; it consists of one principal 
street, from which two others diverge, and, in 1831, 
contained 441 houses, of which nearly all are well built 
and slated, and several are of handsome appearance. 
There are barracks for cavalry and infantry ; the former 
adapted to the accommodation of 8 officers and 106 
non-commissioned officers and privates, with stabling 
for 84 horses ; the latter for 6 officers and 96 non- 
commissioned officers and men, with an hospital for 20 
patients. A considerable trade is carried on in corn ; 
and large quantities of wheat and potatoes, the latter of 
excellent quality, are sold in the town. There are a large 
flour-mill, an extensive brewery and malting establish- 
ment, and a tanyard, all in full operation. The market 
is on Monday, and is well supplied with corn and pro- 
visions ; and fairs are held on Whit-Tuesday and the 
5th of December, chiefly for sheep and cattle. A chief 
constabulary police station has been established here. 
There is a patent for a manorial court, but none is held ; 
petty sessions are held every Monday, and general ses- 
sions take place in June and December. The court- 
house is a neat building well adapted to the purpose, 
and affording also accommodation for the market. The 
bridewell contains four cells, three day-rooms, and two 
airing-yards, with other requisite accommodation. 

The parish, which is situated on the loughs Mask 
and Carra, comprises 13,504 statute acres, as applotted 
under the tithe act, of which 7290 are arable, 3888 
pasture, 324 woodland, 1120 bog, and 882 acres waste 
land. The land under cultivation has been greatly im- 
poverished by burning and other defective modes of 
management, and the pastures might be much im- 
proved by draining ; the system of agriculture, however, 
is gradually improving. The plantations are mostly on 
rushy land ; and of the waste, about 400 acres are a 
limestone rock. Limestone of very good quality is 
quarried for building and for agricultural purposes. 
The surrounding scenery, particularly towards Lough 
Mask, is very pleasing; the mountains of Joyce’s coun- 
try, rising in the distance on the west side of the lake, 
and the east side being embellished with numerous 
handsome demesnes. Among the gentlemen’s seats are 
Curramore, the residence of Jeffrey Martin, Esq., plea- 
santly situated on Lough Mask ; and on the same lake. 


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Cuslough House, formerly the seat of Lord Tyrawley, 
and now of R. Livesey Esq.; and Creagh, that of J. 
Cuff, Esq. On Lough Carra is Lakeview, the residence 
of Mrs. Blake. Robe Villa is the seat of Courtney Kenny, 
Esq., in the demesne of which, and on the bank of the 
river, are the remains of the abbey; Lavally House, of R. 
Fair, Esq. ; Springvale, of Henry Joseph Blake, Esq. ; 
and Cluna Castle, the residence of J. Gildea, Esq. The 
living is a rectory and vicarage, in the diocese of Tuam, 
and in the patronage of the Archbishop ; the tithes 
amount to £480. The church, a neat plain building, 
was repaired in 1815, towards which the late Board of 
First Fruits granted a loan of £300 ; and the Ecclesi- 
astical Commissioners have lately granted £251 for 
its further repair. The glebe-house, a handsome resi- 
dence, was built by aid of a gift of £100 and a loan of 
£1050 from the late Board ; the glebe comprises 10 
acres. The R. C. parish is co-extensive with that of the 
Established Church : the chapel, a large slated building 
with a lofty square tower, was erected in 1815 by sub- 
scription, towards which the late Lord Tyrawley gave 
£50 and one acre of land. There is a place of worship 
for Baptists. Two schools in the town are aided by 
donations from C. N. Knox, Esq., and afford instruction 
to about 200 children ; and there are seven private pay 
schools in the parish, in which are about 320 children, 
and a Sunday school. There is also a dispensary. Nu- 
merous remains of ancient forts may be traced ; and on 
the grounds of Mr. Clendinning and Mr. Rycroft are 
chalybeate springs. 

BALLINSPITTLE, a village, in the parish of Ring- 
rone, barony of Courceys, county of Cork, and pro- 
vince of Munster, 4 miles (W. S. W.) from Kinsale, on 
the road to Kilbritain : containing 105 inhabitants. It 
has recently been much improved by J. B. Gibbons, 
Esq., who has erected a square of slated houses. There 
is a court-house, in which petty sessions are held on 
alternate Tuesdays ; and it is a constabulary police sta- 
tion. Fairs are held on May 14th and September 
25th, and a large fair for pigs commences on St. Ste- 
phen’s day, and is held every Monday for about a 
month. A road is being formed from the village to 
the ferry of Kinsale. The R. C. chapel for the union or 
district of Courceys is situated here, and has been 
recently repaired by a bequest of £200 from the late 
T. Rochford, Esq., of Garretstown. Near it is a large 
school, built in 1833 by a gift of £200 from Mr. Roch- 
ford, on land given by Mr. Gibbons. A dispensary has 
been erected for the parishes of Ringrone, Kilbritain, 
Ballinadee, and the remainder of the barony of Cour- 
ceys. Ballinspittle House is the residence of J. Barry 
Gibbons, Esq., and around the village are several other 
handsome houses, which are noticed in the article on 
Ringrone. 

BALLINTAMPLE, a village, in the parish of Ahamp- 
lish, barony of Lower Carbery, county of Sligo, 
and province of Connaught, 13 miles (N.) from Sligo ; 
containing 20 houses and 1 10 inhabitants. It is situated 
on the peninsula of Mullaghmore, and is a station of the 
coast-guard. 

BALLINTEMPLE, a parish, in the barony of Clon- 
mahon, county of Cavan, and province of Ulster, 
6f miles (S. by W.) from Cavan, containing, with part 
of the town of Ballinagh, 4982 inhabitants. This parish 
is situated on the road from Virginia to Killyshandra, 
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and comprises, according to the Ordnance survey, in- 
cluding 54^ under water, 10,657-f statute acres, of which 
8074 are applotted under the tithe act. It is a vicarage, 
in the diocese of Kilmore, and forms part of the union 
and corps of the deanery of Kilmore ; the rectory is im- 
propriate in the representatives of Richard, Earl of West- 
meath. The tithes amount to £259, of which £104 is 
payable to the impropriators, and the remainder to the 
vicar. The church was erected in 1821 by aid of a 
loan of £1200 from the late Board of First Fruits. The 
glebe comprises 103a. lr. 29 p. of profitable land, valued 
at £87. 13. 10. per annum. The R. C. parish is co-ex- 
tensive with that of the Established Church ; there are 
three chapels, called respectively the upper and lower 
chapels and the chapel of ease. The parochial school 
and two others afford instruction to about 180 boys 
and 60 girls ; and there are also three private pay 
schools, in which are about 170 boys and 50 girls. — See 
Ballinagh. 

BALLINTEMPLE, a parish, in the barony of Kil- 
nemanagh, county of Tipperary, and province of 
Munster, 6 miles (N. E.) from Tipperary, on the road to 
Thurles; containing 786 inhabitants. It comprises about 
3600 statute acres, principally under an improved sys- 
tem of tillage. Dundrum, the handsome seat of Vis- 
count Hawarden, who is proprietor in fee of the barony, 
is beautifully situated in a fine demesne, comprising 
more than 2400 statute acres, of which nearly 800 are 
well planted ; the grounds are tastefully laid out, and 
there is a profusion of fine old timber on the estate. A 
new line of road from Dundrum to Cappaghmore is in 
progress, which will there unite with a road to Limerick, 
and thus open a more direct line of communication with 
that city, by which a saving of about five miles will be 
effected in the distance. At the junction of this road 
with that from Thurles to Tipperary, and at the base of 
the Kilnemanagh hills, is situated the modern village of 
Dundrum or Newtown-Dundrum. Fairs are held here 
at Whitsuntide, and on the second Tuesday in October ; 
and it is a station of the constabulary police. The living 
is a rectory and vicarage, in the diocese of Cashel, to 
which the rectories and vicarages of Rathlynan, Ough- 
terleague, and Kilpatrick were united by act of council in 
1795, forming the union of Ballintemple, in the patron- 
age of the Bishop. The tithes of the parish amount to 
£240, and of the benefice to £726. 9. 2f. The church 
is a plain modern edifice, situated nearly in the centre 
of the union. There is a glebe-house, with a glebe of 
20 acres. Here is a R. C. chapel. Near Dundrum is a 
school for both sexes, supported by Viscount Hawarden, 
with a house and garden ; and there is another school 
aided by private subscriptions, together affording in- 
struction to about 220 children : also a dispensary. 

BALLINTEMPLE, a parish, in the barony of Ark- 
low, county of Wicklow, and province of Leinster, 
4| miles (N. W. byW.) from Ark low ; containing 1021 
inhabitants. This parish is situated on the road from 
Arklow to Carlow, and on the river Derry, which meets 
the Ovoca at the Wooden Bridge hotel in the village, 
thence called the second “Meeting of the Waters.” The 
soil is fertile, and the system of agriculture improving. 
Some of the streams descending from the mountain 
Croghan-Kinshela, which towards the close of the last 
century was explored for gold, run through this parish ; 
and shafts have been sunk for copper, with a prospect 


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of success, though they are stopped at present from a 
disputed claim to the royalty between the Earl of Carys- 
fort and the Marquess of Ormonde. The living is a rec- 
tory, in the diocese of Dublin and Glendalough, and in 
the patronage of William Brian, Esq. : the tithes 
amount to £103. 16. 11. The church, built by aid of a 
gift of £S00 and a loan of £50 from the late Board of 
First Fruits, in 1816, is in a state of dilapidation from 
the dry rot. The glebe-house commands a beautifully 
picturesque view of the woods of Ballyarthur and 
Knockname, and from the upper grounds is an exten- 
sive and pleasing prospect over the Yale of Ovoca : the 
glebe comprises 2^ acres. In the R. C. divisions the 
parish is included in the union or district of Arklow ; 
the chapel is at Ballycowgue, and attached to it is a 
school. The parochial school is supported by weekly 
payments from the children. There is also a hedge 
school. In the centre of the parish is an ancient 
cemetery. 

BALLINTOBBER, a parish, in the barony of Carra, 
county of Mayo, and province of Connaught, 8 miles 
(N. N. W.) from Ballinrobe ; containing 6212 inhabit- 
ants. This parish, the name of which signifies in the 
Irish language the “ town of the well,” probably derived 
that appellation from a spring which descends from a 
natural arch in a rock, with such force as to act like 
a shower bath, and near which is no other stream 
whatever. Cathol O’Conogher, King of Connaught, in 
1216, founded an abbey here for Canons Regular of the 
order of St. Augustine, which he dedicated to the Holy 
Trinity; it was burned in 1263, but was restored, and 
continued to flourish till the dissolution; in 1605 a 
lease of it was granted in reversion for 50 years to 
Sir John King, Knt. This abbey is said to have been 
erected on the site of an ancient castle, in which were 
buried the former lords of Mayo ; and part of its re- 
mains are now converted into a R. C. chapel. The 
buildings appear to have been truly magnificent, and 
many of the ruined portions are still entire in their 
principal features ; though the principal tower has 
fallen, the lofty arch on which it was supported is 
still remaining, and nearly 50 feet high ; the doorway 
is a beautiful specimen of the pointed receding arch, 
supported on each side by a range of five columns. The 
parish is situated on the road from Castlebar to Bal- 
linrobe. There is a wide extent of mountain, exclu- 
sively of which the land is nearly equally divided be- 
tween arable and pasture ; and there is a considerable 
tract of wood and flooded lands. The living is a rec- 
tory, in the diocese of Tuam, entirely appropriate to 
the vicars choral of the cathedral of Christ Church, 
Dublin ; the tithes amount to £240. In the R. C. di- 
visions the parish is united to those of Burriscarra and 
Towaghty : the chapel is at Killavalla. There are three 
daily pay schools, in which are about 170 boys and 40 
girls. 

BALLINTOBBER, a parish, partly in the half- ba- 
rony of Ballymoe, but chiefly in the barony of Bal- 
lintobber, county of Roscommon, and province of 
Connaught, 6 miles (S. E. by S.) from Castlerea; con- 
taining 2480 inhabitants. This place is supposed to 
derive its name, signifying “the town of the wells,” from 
some fine springs near the village. It is uncertain at 
what period the castle, now in ruins, was built : tradi- 
tion ascribes its erection to Cathol Creudfarag O’Conor, 
118 


in the 13th century; but Ledwich attributes it to Sir 
John King, to whom the property was granted in 1605. 
The same writer asserts that the place had its origin 
in an abbey founded in 1216 by O’Conor, King of 
Connaught. In 1590, Hugh O’Conor Don or Dun, 
having incurred the hatred of his sept by accepting an 
English knighthood and remaining in allegiance to 
Queen Elizabeth, was besieged in the ancient castle by 
Hugh Roe O’Donnell, and was taken prisoner and de- 
prived of his chieftaincy. In the war of 1641, Lord 
Ranelagh, Lord-President of Connaught, led a force of 
900 foot and two or three troops of horse against the 
castle, then the principal strong hold of the O’Conor 
Don, near which were assembled 3000 horse and foot 
of the Mayo forces under Butler, and the insurgents of 
this county under O’ Conor himself. The lord-president, 
to draw them into the plain ground, feigned a retreat 
for about three miles, and was pursued by the enemy ; 
but turning round, he charged and routed them. The 
parish is situated on the river Suck, and on the road 
from Roscommon to Castlerea; and comprises 4274 
statute acres, as applotted under the tithe act. Con- 
siderable tracts of bog are spread over its surface ; and 
there is a quarry of excellent limestone. The village 
contains about twenty-six dwellings, all cabins except 
three ; and behind it to the west, at the extremity of a 
limestone ridge, are the grand and picturesque ruins of 
the castle. The principal seats are Willsgrove, the 
property of W. R. Wills, Esq. ; Enfield, the seat of 
P. O’Connor, Esq. ; French-dawn, of Mrs. French, Fort- 
william, the residence of P. Teighe, Esq. ; Willsgrove, 
of Fras. Glaney, Esq. ; and Tenny Park, the seat of 
T. T. Byrne, Esq. A large fair for horses, formerly 
much resorted to for the sale of yarn, is held on Aug. 
25th. Petty sessions are also held here, generally 
monthly. The living is a rectory and vicarage, in the 
diocese of Elphin, forming the corps of the prebend of 
Ballintobber in the cathedral church of Elphin, and 
united by act of parliament of the 9th of Queen Anne 
to the vicarages of Baslick and Kilkeevan, which three 
parishes constitute the union of Ballintobber or Kil- 
keevan, in the patronage of the Bishop : the tithes 
amount to £200 ; and the gross tithes of the benefice 
to £625. The church of the union is in Kilkeevan : it 
is a neat edifice of ancient English architecture, built in 
1818 by a loan of £2500 from the late Board of First 
Fruits. The glebe-house, also situated in that parish, 
was built by aid of a gift of £100 and a loan of £825 
from the same Board : the glebe comprises 14a. 3r. 30j o. 
The R. C. parish is co-extensive with that of the Esta- 
blished Church : the chapel is situated in the village. 
There is a school at Willsgrove under the patronage of 
W. R. Wills, Esq., by whom the school-house was built, 
in which about 80 boys and 40 girls are taught ; and 
there are two hedge schools, in which are about 130 boys 
and 40 girls. The remains of the castle consist of a 
quadrangular enclosure, 270 feet in length and 237 in 
breadth, defended by strong polygonal towers at each 
angle, and by two others, one on each side of the prin- 
cipal gateway, facing an esplanade at the end of the 
limestone ridge on which they are situated ; they are 
surrounded by a deep fosse, over which was a draw- 
bridge from a postern. The towers much resemble 
those of Caernarvon castle, and that on the south-west 
is very imposing and picturesque. 


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BALLINTOGHER, a village, in the parish of Kil- 
lery, barony of Tiraghrill, county of Sligo, and 
province of Connaught, 3§ miles (S. W.) from Dro- 
mohair; containing 201 inhabitants. This place, which 
is situated on the road from Dromohair to Collooney, 
comprises about 40 thatched dwellings, and contains the 
parish church, a small plain building, and the parochial 
Roman Catholic chapel, a large and commodious edifice. 
Fairs are held on Jan. 22nd, June 8th, July 28th, Oct. 
ljth, and Dec. 8th 3 and here is a station of the consta- 
bulary police. Near it is Oldcastle, the residence of E. 
Loftus Neynoe, Esq. ; occupying the site of the ancient 
castle of Kingsfort. Iron ore has been found in the 
vicinity ; and in the mountains of West Lough Gill are 
indications of coal, manganese, iron, and copper, besides 
a great variety of clays. — See Killer y. 

BALLINTOY, a parish, in the barony of Carey, 
county of Antrim, and province of Ulster, 4 miles 
(N.W.) from Ballycastle ; containing 4061 inhabitants, 
of which number, 278 are in the village. This parish is 
situated on the most uorthern part of the coast of 
Antrim, which is here diversified with creeks and bays, 
and with cliffs and headlands of singular and romantic 
appearance. It lies opposite to the north-west point 
of the island of Rathlin, and comprises, according to the 
Ordnance survey, 12,753f acres (including Sheep and 
Carrickarede islands), of which about one-half is arable, 
one-third pasture, and the remainder bog. The surface 
is boldly varied : immediately above the village rises the 
lofty hill of Knocksoghy, covered with rock and furze 3 
there is also another hill called Croaghmore, which 
rises to a great height, and may be seen at a great dis- 
tance 5 its sides are arable, and on the summit, which 
is fine pasture, without any heath, are a cairn of stones 
and some graves. The land about the village and near 
White Park bay is in a high state of cultivation. Sea- 
weed, of which some is made into kelp, and shell sand 
and lime are the chief manures. The village contains 
about 60 houses : the road from Ballycastle to Bush- 
mills passes through the parish, and commands some 
pleasantly diversified scenery and some highly romantic 
views, among which are White Park bay and the beau- 
tiful windings of the shore studded with detached masses 
of basaltic rock and limestone. Near it is Mount Druid, 
the residence of the Rev. Robert Trail, a handsome 
mansion deriving its name from the Druidical relic on 
the hill above it. In the hills are found mines of wood- 
coal, which seems to be peculiar to this part of the coast: 
it is found in strata generally under basalt, varying 
from two inches to two feet in thickness, and displays 
the grain, knots, roots, and branches of timber 3 it is 
generally used as domestic fuel, but its disagreeable 
smell renders it very ineligible for that purpose. These 
mines belong of right to the Antrim family, who are 
lords in fee 3 but their claim has never been asserted to 
prevent the tenants raising as much coal as they might 
require. There are extensive quarries of good stone, 
which is obtained for building and also for repairing the 
roads 3 and limestone abounds in the parish. Some of 
the inhabitants are employed in spinning yarn and 
weaving, but the greater number are engaged in agri- 
culture. There are salmon fisheries at Portbraddon, 
Carrickarede, and Laryban, on the coast. The insulated 
rock of Carrickarede is separated from the main land by 
a chasm 60 feet wide and more than 80 feet deep ; at 
119 


this place the salmon are intercepted in their retreat to 
the rivers. The fishing commences early in spring and 
continues till August : a rude bridge of ropes is every 
year thrown across the chasm, which remains during 
the season, and a singular kind of fishery is carried on, 
which is generally very productive. The other fish taken 
off this coast are glassen, grey gurnet, cod, lythe, ling, 
sea trout, mackerel, and turbot : a species of red cod, 
and a small thick red fish of indifferent quality, called 
murranroe, are also found here. About 30 boats are 
employed in the fishery, which are drawn up in the 
several creeks along the shore ; there are also several 
bays, into one of which, called Port Camply, vessels 
of light tonnage occasionally sail from the Scottish 
coast. At Port Ballintoy there is a coast-guard station, 
which is one of the eight stations that form the district 
of Ballycastle. Fairs are held in the village for horses, 
Scotch ponies, cattle, pigs, and pedlery, on June 3rd, 
Sept. 4th, and Oct. 14th. The parish is within the 
jurisdiction of the manorial court of Ballycastle, which 
is held there every month. 

The living is a rectory, in the diocese of Connor, 
and in the patronage of the Bishop : the tithes amount 
to £415. 7. 8. The church, a plain edifice with a spire, 
was rebuilt on the site of the ancient structure, in 1813, 
by aid of a gift of £800 from the late Board of First 
Fruits 5 it is romantically situated on a plain on the 
sea-shore, backed by lofty hills. The glebe-house was 
built by the present incumbent in 179U and is situated 
on a glebe of 40 acres, subject to a rent of £25. 5. late 
currency. In the R. C. divisions this parish is united 
to that of Armoy, and contains a small chapel. There 
is a place of worship for Presbyterians in connection 
with the Synod of Ulster. A parochial school was 
founded and endowed by Mrs. Jane Stewart, under 
whose will the master is appointed by the vestry held 
at Easter, and has a salary of £15 per annum. At 
Prollisk and Island Macallen are two schools, supported 
by a society of which the late Dr. Adams was the ori- 
ginator, which, with the parochial school, afford instruc- 
tion to about 240 boys and 80 girls ; and there are also 
three private schools, in which are about 90 boys and 
30 girls. The splendid ruins of Dunseverick castle, one 
of the earliest Scottish fortresses, situated on a bold 
and isolated rock projecting into the sea, at the north- 
west extremity of the parish, and formerly the seat 
of the O’Cahans, form an interesting feature on the 
coast ; traces of the outworks are still visible, and the 
remains of the keep, consisting only of part of the shell 
crowning the summit of the rock, which has been ren- 
dered more inaccessible by clearing away immense mas- 
ses from the base, in order to make it the more precipi- 
tous, derive much interest from the singularity of their 
situation. At Port Coan, near the Giants’ Causeway, 
is a singular cavern, the sides and roof of which are 
formed of round pebbles imbedded in a matrix of basalt 
of great hardness. At the other extremity of the parish, 
on the sea- coast to the east of the village, and about a 
mile from the road leading to Ballycastle, are the ruins 
of Mac Allister’s castle, a small fortress erected by the 
native chieftain whose name it bears, but at what precise 
period is not known ; it is situated on the verge of a 
frightful chasm, on the lower extremity of an abrupt 
headland connected with the shore by a narrow isthmus, 
which is perforated at its base by several caverns, in one 


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of which are some basaltic columns. There are some 
remains of the ancient church of Templeastragh, the 
burial-ground of which is still in use. 

BALLINTRA, a village, in the parish of Drtjm- 
holm, barony of Tyrhugh, county of Donegal, and 
province of Munster, 4| miles (N. N. E.) from Bally- 
sliannon ; containing 439 inhabitants. This village, 
which is situated on the road from Ballyshannon to 
Donegal, and at an equal distance from both those 
towns, consists of one street containing about 90 houses, 
and has a daily penny post to Donegal and Bally- 
shannon. Within a mile is Brown Hall, the seat of the 
Rev. Edward Hamilton, a handsome mansion in a beau- 
tifully picturesque demesne, through the groves of 
which winds a river that in some parts rushes down 
thickly wooded precipices, and within view of the house 
is a small lake. This scenery, which is called the Pullins, 
is strongly contrasted with the dreary tracts of country 
that surround it, especially on the south and east. 
Fairs are held on the 1st of February, March 25th, 
May 20th, June 24th, Aug. 1st, Oct. 3rd, and Nov. 30th, 
for general farming stock. This is a station of the con- 
stabulary police ; petty sessions are held on alternate 
Mondays : and in the village are situated the parish 
church, a place of worship for Wesleyan Methodists, and 
a dispensary. — See Drumholm. 

BALLINTUBBER, or FONSTOWN, a parish, in 
the barony of Ballyadams, Queen’s county, and pro- 
vince of Leinster, 3j miles (W. by S.) from Athy : the 
population is returned with the parish of Ballyadams. 
This parish is situated on the road from Maryborough 
to Carlow ; agriculture is improving, there is a small 
quantity of bog, and limestone is quarried for building. 
Kelly ville, the residence of the late Judge Kelly, is now 
the property of Thos. Kelly, Esq. It is a rectory and 
vicarage, in the diocese of Leighlin, united to that of 
Ballyadams, and its tithes are included in the composi- 
tion for that parish. The church of the union, a neat 
small edifice in good repair, is situated here, and 
adds greatly to the pleasing appearance of the village. 
In the R. C. divisions also it forms part of the union or 
district of Ballyadams. The schools are noticed in the 
description of that parish. 

BALLINURE. — See BALLYNURE. 

BALLINVANA, a parish, in the barony of Costlea, 
county of Limerick, and province of Munster, 3 miles 
(S .E.) from Kilmallock, on the road to Knocklong ; 
containing 2710 inhabitants. In ecclesiastical concerns 
this place is not known as a parish, but is considered 
as forming part of the parishes of Emly Grenan, Kil- 
breedy, and Athnassey, and is annexed to the union of 
Kilmallock. In the R. C. divisions it forms part of the 
union of Athnassey. On the summit of a gentle emi- 
nence are the ruins of Fauntstown castle, erected by the 
Faunt family in the reign of Jas. I. ; and not far distant 
are the remains of an old church, near which is a holy 
well, much frequented on the 25th of March, the patron 
day : close to the well is an ash tree, of which the 
branches are weighed down by the numerous offerings 
placed on them by the votaries. 

BALLINVARRY.— See BALLYYARY. 

BALLINVOHIR, a parish, in the barony of Corka- 
guiney, county of Kerry, and province of Munster, 
12 miles (E.) from Dingle ; containing 2924 inhabitants. 
This parish, which is situated on the bay of Dingle, and 
120 


on the road from Dingle to Tralee, comprises 13,190 
statute acres, as applotted under the tithe act, a large 
portion of which consists of coarse mountain pasture, 
with some patches of bog. The mountain of Lack, 
from the summit of which is obtained a panoramic view 
of the various mountains on this side of the bay, and of 
the Iveragh mountains on the opposite shore, is within 
its limits ; and at the foot of Acres mountain is a small 
portion of the parish, which is entirely detached from 
the rest. A new road, about three English miles in 
length, is about to be constructed from Inchbridge, in 
this parish, through Glaunaheera, to the mail coach 
road from Dingle to Tralee, by which travellers from 
Dingle to Cork may pass through Killarney, instead of 
the more indirect way through Tralee, now in use. The 
system of agriculture is gradually improving ; and from 
the abundance of sea manure on the shores of the bay, 
for the conveyance of which this new road will afford 
greater facility, there is every prospect that the greater 
portion of the waste land will be brought into cultiva- 
tion. Some of the inhabitants are employed in the 
fishery. The living is a rectory, in the diocese of 
Ardfert and Aghadoe, constituting the corps of the 
archdeaconry of Ardfert, in the patronage of the Bishop. 
The tithes of the parish amount to £203. 1. 6., and of 
the entire benefice to £253. 18. 11.: the Blasquet 
Islands are included in the payment of tithes for this 
parish. There is neither church nor glebe-house, but 
there is a glebe of 22a. 3?'. 14 p. The Protestant parish- 
ioners attend the church of Ballinacourty, and the occa- 
sional duties are performed by the curate of that parish. 
In the R. C. divisions the parish partly forms the head 
of a union or district, in which is also included the 
parish of Ballinacourty, and is partly in the union of 
Cappaclough or Kilgobbin : there is a chapel at Lack, 
and a new chapel is in course of erection at Annescall, 
in the former parish. A school is held in the chapel 
at Lack, and other children of the parish attend the 
school at Annescall ; there are also three pay schools in 
the parish. At Inch are the ruins of a church, or 
chapel, overshadowed by a white thorn tree of large 
size ; there are no remains of the parish church, but the 
old burial-ground near Annescall lake is still used. 

BALLISAKEERY, a parish, in the barony of Tyraw- 
ley, county of Mayo, and province of Connaught, 2§ 
miles (S. E.) from Killala ; containing 5730 inhabitants. 
This parish, which is situated on the river Moy, and on 
the mail coach road from Ballina to Killala, comprises 
11,281 statute acres, as applotted under the tithe act, 
and valued at £4705 per annum. The lands are prin- 
cipally under tillage ; the system of agriculture is very 
much improved, and there is little waste land but what 
is very deep and irreclaimable bog, of which there are 
very large tracts. Limestone is found in some parts 
of the parish. There are several gentlemen’s seats, of 
which the principal are Reserk, the residence of Cowen 
Green, Esq. ; Broadlands Park, of P. C. Howley, Esq. ; 
Netley Park, of H. W. Knox, Esq. ; Ballybrooney, of 
J. Perkins, Esq.; and Farrow, of T. Waldron, Esq. 
The river Moy, which is celebrated for the abundance 
and quality of its salmon, is navigable on the border of 
the parish, and forms the pool of Ballisakeery, which is 
accessible to vessels of small burden. The living is a 
vicarage, in the diocese of Killala, to which the vicarage 
of Rathrea was united by act of council in 1807, and in 


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the patronage of the Bishop ; the rectory is appropriate 
to the deanery and archdeaconry of Killala. The tithes 
amount to £368. 11. 8§., of which £175. 7- 8§. is paid 
to the impropriators, and the remainder to the vicar ; 
the entire tithes of the benefice amount to £273. 4. 
The church is a neat plain edifice, erected by a loan of 
£1025 from the late Board of First Fruits, in 1810} 
the Ecclesiastical Commissioners have lately granted 
£131 for its repair. The glebe-house, a handsome resi- 
dence, was built by aid of a gift of 400 and a loan of 
£400 from the same Board, in 1820 : the glebe com- 
prises 29 acres. The R. C. parish is co-extensive with 
that of the Established Church ; a chapel is now in 
process of erection in the village of Cooncal, and will be 
completed in a short time. There are places of worship 
for Presbyterians, Wesleyan Methodists, and Baptists. 
There are five public schools, of which a female school 
is supported by the Misses Knox, of Rappa, and in 
which about 200 boys and 200 girls are taught ; also 
two hedge schools, in which are about 100 boys and 30 
girls. There are some remains of the ancient abbey of 
Rosserick or Reserk, near the river Moy, founded by 
one of the sept of Joyce, for friars of the Franciscan 
order } they consist of the ruins of the church and a 
burial-ground ; in the centre of the gable end is a square 
tower, and in the monastery is a closet of hewn stone 
for two confessors. 

BALLON, a parish, in the barony of Forth, county 
of Carlow, and province of Leinster, 3| miles (S. E.) 
from Tullow } containing 1439 inhabitants, of which 
number, 1 6 1 are in the village. This parish is situated 
on the road from Newtown-Barry to Carlow, and com- 
prises 3520 statute acres, as applotted under the tithe 
act : it is principally grazing land } the state of agricul- 
ture is much improved } and in Ballon hill is a quarry 
of fine granite. The gentlemen’s seats are Larogh, the 
residence of J. O’Brien, Esq. ; and Altamount, of Nelson 
St. George, Esq. Fairs are held here on March 28th, 
and Aug. 12th. It is a vicarage, in the diocese of 
Leighlin, and is part of the union of Aghade : the rec- 
tory is impropriate in Lord Cloncurry. The tithes 
amount to £220 of which £140 is payable to the im- 
propriator, and £80 to the incumbent. In the R. C. 
divisions, this parish forms part of the union or district 
of Gilbertstown, called also Ballon and Ratoe : the 
chapel, situated in the village of Ballon, is in good re- 
pair. In the village is also a school for boys and girls, 
for which the school-house was built by R. Marshall, 
Esq. } and there is another at Conaberry. These 
schools afford instruction to about 160 boys and 160 
girls } and there are two hedge schools, in which are 
about 190 boys and 130 girls. 

BALL’S -BRIDGE, a village, in that part of the 
parish of St. Mary, Donnybrook, which is within the 
county of the city of Dublin, in the province of Lein- 
ster, \\ mile (S. E.) from the Post-office, Dublin : the 
population is returned with the parish. This place 
derives its name from a bridge of three arches erected 
here over the Dodder, in 1791, and rebuilt in 1835. It 
is pleasantly situated on the high road from Dublin to 
Kingstown and Bray, and on the left or west bank of 
the river, which issues from the mountains near Rock- 
brook, and falls into the Liflfey near Ringsend. In the 
immediate vicinity, and on the right of the road from 
Dublin, stood Baggot-rath Castle, which was seized du- 
Vol. I.— 121 


ring the night by the forces of the Marquess of Ormonde, 
on his meditated investiture of the city, in 1649 j but 
soon after daybreak on the following morning, the 
assailants were driven out by the garrison of Dublin 
and pursued and completely defeated. In 1651 the 
castle was taken by storm by Oliver Cromwell. All 
remains of it have long since disappeared } and within 
the last few years several handsome houses have been 
erected on its site. Adjoining the village, on the south, 
and along the banks of the Dodder, are works for print- 
ing linen, calico, and cotton, established about the year 
1740, and since greatly extended and improved by 
Messrs. Duffy and Co., who for more than 40 years have 
been the sole proprietors. They are at present capable 
of finishing 100,000 pieces annuall} r , are worked by the 
water of the Dodder and by steam-engines of 40-horse 
power, and afford constant employment to more than 
400 persons. Near the village are the Hammersmith 
iron-works, established in 1834 by Mr. R. Turner : the 
front of this extensive establishment is 200 feet long, 
presenting a handsome fa£ade towards the road ; and 
at the back are numerous dwelling-houses for the work- 
men, which are called the Hammersmith cottages. The 
road on which these works are situated has been greatly 
improved } wide footpaths have been formed, and the 
whole is lighted with gas. Nearly adjoining the works 
are the botanical gardens belonging to Trinity College. 
The village is within the jurisdiction of the Dublin 
Court of Conscience for the recovery of small debts, and 
for all criminal matters within that of the metropolitan 
police. In the post-office arrangements it is within the 
limits of the twopenny-post delivery. An infants’ 
school, a neat building with apartments for a master 
and mistress, was erected chiefly at the expense of Mr. 
and Mrs. Patten : here is also a dispensary. — See Don- 
nybrook (St. Mary). 

BALLY.— See BALLEE. 

BALLYADAMS, a parish, partly in the barony of 
Stradbally, but chiefly in that of Ballyadams, 
Queen’s county, and province of Leinster, 3| miles 
(S. W.) from Athy } containing, with the parish of Bal- 
tintubber, 2165 inhabitants. This parish, which gives 
name to the barony within which it is chiefly included, 
and is also called Kilmakedy, is situated on the road from 
Carlow to Maryborough; and comprises 6811 statute 
acres, as applotted under the tithe act, of which about 
30 are woodland, 260 bog, and the remainder good arable 
land. The state of agriculture is improving ; limestone 
is quarried for building and burning ; there are some 
quarries of good flag-stone, and coal is found in the 
parish. The principal seats are Ballyadams Castle, the 
residence of Capt. Butler ; and Popefield of Capt. 
Pope. To the north of the old castle is Southville, for- 
merly a residence of the late Richard Grace, of Boley, 
Esq. The living is a rectory and vicarage, in the dio- 
cese of Leighlin, with the rectory and vicarage of Bal- 
lintubber united from time immemorial ; the patronage 
is disputed, and in the mean time the Bishop presents. 
The tithes of the united parishes amount to £553. 16. 11. 
The church of the union is at Ballintubber ; the old 
parish church is a ruin situated on an eminence, and 
containing a monument with the recumbent effigies of 
Sir Robert Bowen, of Ballyadams Castle, and his lady, 
and one to the memory of the late Major-Gen. Sir Ed- 
ward Butler. There is neither glebe nor glebe-house. 

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In the R. C. divisions the parish is the head of a union 
or district which comprises also the parishes of Ballin- 
tubber, Tullowmoy, and Kilclonbrook, with parts of 
Rathaspeck, Tecolme, Killeban, and Fossy, and contains 
three chapels, one of which is in this parish. There 
is a school of about 80 boys and 50 girls. A school 
at Ballintubber was founded towards the close of the 
last century by Bowen Southwell, Esq., who endowed it 
with £20 per annum ; and there are three pay schools. 
Near the remains of the church are the ruins of the old 
castle of Ballyadams, which was besieged in 1641 ; they 
consist of embattled walls with projecting towers, and 
a lofty keep, and present a very interesting appearance. 
Near the castle are two very ancient wells sunk a few 
feet in the solid limestone rock, the water of which is 
supposed to have had medicinal properties imparted to 
it by St. Patrick. Cobler’s Castle, bordering on the 
barony of Stradbally, was built on the summit of a lofty 
hill, to give employment to the neighbouring poor in a 
season of scarcity. 

BALLYAGHRAN.— See AGHERTON. 

BALLYANE, or BALLYANNE, a parish, in the 
barony of Bantry, county of Wexford, and province 
of Leinster, 2 miles (N. E. by N.) from New Ross ; con- 
taining 1096 inhabitants. This place is memorable for 
a battle which took place at Ballanveigga, in 1643, be- 
tween the king’s troops commanded by the Marquess of 
Ormonde, after their retreat from New Ross, and the 
insurgent forces under Gen. Preston, in which the latter 
were defeated and compelled to effect their escape across 
the river Barrow. The parish is situated on the high 
road from New Ross to Newtown-Barry, and is bounded 
on the west by the Barrow, from which a small creek 
navigable for lighters affords a facility of conveyance for 
limestone for the supply of the neighbouring country. 
It comprises 6480 statute acres, consisting of nearly 
equal proportions of arable and pasture land ; there 
is a very little woodland, no waste, and only about 
40 acres of bog at Gobbinstown. The soil is generally 
light and on the higher grounds shingly, but fertile ; 
the system of agriculture has been greatly improved. 
Ballyane, the handsome seat of Victor O’Farrell, Esq., 
is finely situated on the brow of a richly wooded emi- 
nence, from which there is an extensive prospect ; and 
Berkeley, the seat of J. Berkeley Deane, Esq., is a good 
mansion embosomed in thriving plantations, and com- 
manding a distant view of the White mountains. It is 
a rectory, in the diocese of Ferns, and is part of the 
union of St. Mary’s, New Ross ; the tithes amount to 
£243. 3. 6§. The church is in ruins ; In the R. C. 
divisions it forms part of the union or district of Cushins- 
town, or Carnagh ; the chapel is a neat building, and 
attached to it is a residence for the clergyman. There is 
a school at Rathganogue, founded by the late Henry 
Houghton, Esq., who endowed it with £15 per annum 
charged on the demesne of Ballyane ; the school-house, 
a handsome building, was erected on a site given by 
Edmund Sweetman, of Sweetmount, Esq., and about 
100 children are educated in the school. 

BALLYBACON, a parish, in the barony of Iffa and 
Offa West, county of Tipperary, and province of 
Munster, 4 miles (E. by S.) from Clogheen : contain- 
ing 2970 inhabitants. This parish is situated on the 
mail coach road from Cork to Dublin, and near the river 
Suir; and comprises 4158 statute acres, as applotted 
J92 


under the tithe act. The river Tarr flows through it ; 
and within its limits is Kilgrogy, the residence of S. 
Ciutterbuek, Esq. The living is a rectory and vicarage, 
in the diocese of Lismore ; the rectory is part of the 
union of Kilrush and corps of the archdeaconry of Lis- 
more, and the vicarage is united to that of Tubrid. The 
tithes amount to £461. 10. 1., of which £283. 0. 10. is 
payable to the archdeacon, and £178. 9. 3. to the vicar. 
There is no church ; the glebe, which belongs to the 
archdeacon, comprises 17f acres. In the R. C. divisions 
this parish forms part of the union of Ardfinnan : two 
chapels are now being erected. There are two pay 
schools, in which are about 100 boys and 80 girls. 
Here is a well, called Poul-a-Tarr, 48 feet in depth, 
from which there is a constant and copious flow of 
water. 

BALLYBARRACK, a parish, in the barony of Upper 
Dundalk, county of Louth, and province of Leinster, 
l£ mile (S. S. W.) from Dundalk, on the road to Ardee ; 
containing 444 inhabitants. It comprises, according 
to the Ordnance survey, IOIS5 statute acres ; the lands 
are principally under tillage, and there is neither bog 
nor waste. It is a rectory, in the diocese of Armagh, 
and wholly impropriate in P. Coleman, Esq : the tithes 
amount to £186. 2. 6. There is no church nor any pro- 
vision for the cure of souls. In the R. C. divisions it 
is in the union or district of Kilcurley, or Haggards- 
town, where the chapels are situated. There is a hedge 
school, in which are about 50 boys and 20 girls. 

BALLYBEG, or BALLYBEGSHANAGH, a parish, 
in the barony of Orrery and Kilmore, county of Cork, 
and province of Munster, 1 mile (S.) from Buttevant, 
with which parish its population is returned. This 
place, which appears to have merged into the parish of 
Buttevant, is situated on the river Awbeg, and on the 
mail coach road from Cork to Limerick, which towards 
Mallow winds for some distance through a rocky glen re- 
cently embellished with plantations, and at the northern 
opening of which are situated the venerable remains of 
the abbey of St. Thomas. This establishment was a 
priory for Canons Regular of the order of St. Augustine, 
founded by Philip de Barry, who, in 1229, endowed 
it with ample revenues, in remembrance of which his 
equestrian statue of brass was erected in the church. 
The endowment was subsequently augmented, in 1235, 
by Sir David de Barry, who founded the friary of But- 
tevant. The priory and its possessions were, in the 10th 
of Jas. I., granted to Sir. J. Jephson, whose descendant, 
C. D. O. Jephson, Esq., is the present proprietor of the 
parish. The parish comprises 2045 statute acres, as 
applotted under the tithe act, and valued at £1693 per 
annum. The only seat is Springfield, the residence of 
J. Norcott, Esq. The living is an impropriate rectory, 
in the diocese of Cloyne ; the tithes, being wholly the 
property of Mr. Jephson, are not under composition ; 
the occasional duties of the parish devolve on the 
incumbent of Buttevant. In the R. C. divisions it is 
included in the union or district of Buttevant. The 
remains of the abbey consist of the steeple, part of 
the chancel with the east window, and a lofty tower 
detached from the rest of the building, of which it 
originally formed a part, and which shews the whole to 
have been an extensive pile. Close to the abbey are 
the vestiges of an ancient round tower. Many years 
since a stone coffin was excavated from the ruins of the 


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abbey, containing a skeleton ornamented with a cross 
and chains of gold. 

BALLYBENARD.— See FENNAGH. 
BALLYBOFEY.— See BALL1BOPHAY. 

BALLYBOG. — See KILCROHANE, county of 
Kerry. 

BALLYBOGGAN, or DE-LAUDE-DEI, a parish, 
in the barony of Upper Moyfenragh, county of Meath, 
and province of Leinster, 2| miles (S. W.) from Clo- 
nard, on the river Boyne, and on the road from Kinne- 
gad to Edenderry • containing 1477 inhabitants. A 
priory for Augustine Canons was founded here in the 
12th century by Jordan Comin, and dedicated to the 
Holy Trinity ; it was consumed by fire in the begin- 
ning of 1446, and in the following year its prior died of 
the plague. In the 33rd of Hen. VIII. it was granted 
with various other possessions, to Sir William Berming- 
ham, afterwards created Lord Carbrey, in capite, at an 
annual rent of £4. 3. 4. ; and the reversion was, in the 
41st of Elizabeth, granted to Edward Fitzgerald and 
his heirs : there are some remains of the buildings on 
the north-west bank of the river Boyne. There is a 
small quantity of bog in the parish. New Park is the 
property of the Rev. J. Digby. A fair for cattle is held 
on the 25th of September. It is a perpetual curacy, in 
the diocese of Meath, episcopally united to that of 
Castlejordan ; the rectory is impropriate in the Gifford 
family. The tithes amount to £220, the whole payable 
to the impropriator, who allows the perpetual curate 
£30 per annum. In the R. C. divisions the parish also 
forms part of the union or district of Castlejordan. There 
are two pay schools, in which are 80 boys and 1 1 girls ; 
and a dispensary. 

BALLYBOGHILL, a parish, in the barony of Bal- 
rothery, county of Dublin, and province of Lein- 
ster, 4 miles (N. W. by N.) from Swords, on the road 
from Dublin, by Naul, to Drogheda ; containing 664 in- 
habitants, of which number, 144 are in the village, in 
which is a station of the constabulary police. It is a 
vicarage, in the diocese of Dublin, and forms part of 
the union and corps of the prebend of Clonmethan in 
the cathedral of St. Patrick, Dublin ; the rectory is im- 
propriate in the Crown. The tithes amount to £275. 15. 
of which £141 is payable to the crown, and £134. 15. 
to the vicar. The church is in ruins. In the R. C. 
divisions it is in the union or district of Naul, also called 
Damastown ; the chapel is a neat building. A school- 
house was erected in the village by subscription, and 
there are two private schools in the parish. 

BALLYBOUGHT, a parish, in the barony of Upper- 
cross, county of Dublin, and province of Leinster, 
2 miles (S. W.) from Ballymore-Eustace ; containing 
207 inhabitants. This parish is situated on the road 
from Ballymore to Hollywood, and is chiefly under an 
improving system of tillage and pasturage ; it forms 
part of the lordship and manor of Ballymore. White 
Lays is the seat of J. M. Lynch, Esq. It is a vicarage, in 
the diocese of Dublin, and is one of four which consti- 
tute the union of Ballymore ; the rectory is appropriate 
to the treasurership in the cathedral of St. Patrick, Dub- 
lin. The tithes amount to £41. 3. 1., of which £11. 18. 9. 
is payable to the treasurer, and £29- 4. 4. to the vicar. 
The church is in ruins ; and there is neither glebe nor 
glebe-house. In the R. C. divisions also it is included 
in the union or district of Ballymore. Near Broad Lays 
123 


is a rath or moat, in which, on its being opened a few 
years since, was discovered, about twenty feet from the 
surface, a large circular flagstone placed over several 
compartments, each having a small flag at the top and 
containing ashes and burnt bones. Near White Lays 
there is a circle of large blocks of granite, which must 
have been brought hither, as there is no granite in the 
parish ; in the centre were several upright stones, which 
have been removed ; it is supposed to be a druidical 
relic. 

BALLYBOY, a parish, in the barony of Ballyboy, 
King’s county, and province of Leinster, comprising 
the market and post-town of Frankford, and containing 
4182 inhabitants. This parish is situated on the road 
from Tullamore to Parsonstown, adjacent to the Silver 
river, and comprises 8861 statute acres, as applotted 
under the tithe act. It gives name to the barony, and 
had formerly a castle of some note, which, in 1690, 
being garrisoned by six companies of Lord Drogheda's 
regiment of foot, was attacked by a detachment of Gen. 
Sarsfield’s army encamped between Limerick and Ath- 
lone ; but after a sharp conflict, in which the garrison sus- 
tained great loss, the assailants were at length compelled 
to retreat. On the north and south are very extensive 
bogs, of which 3000 acres are within the parish : with 
the exception of a small portion of pasture and meadow, 
the remainder of the land is arable, and though of inferior 
quality, is under an improved system of cultivation; 
the only woodland is Ballinacrig, containing 13f acres. 
There are a distillery and brewery, and a flour- mill; 
and in addition to the market and fairs at Frankford, 
fairs are held at the village of Ballyboy on May 4th and 
Dec. 6th. Petty sessions are held every alternate 
Saturday. The gentlemen’s seats are Castlewood, that 
of N. Fitzsimon, Esq. ; Greenhills, of T. Hobbs, Esq. ; 
Ridgemount, of R. J. Drought, Esq. ; Temora, of T. 
L’Estrange, Esq. ; Barnaboy, of R. Chadwick, Esq. ; 
Derrinboy, of A. Gamble, Esq. ; and Williamfort, of W. 
Whitfield, Esq. It is a vicarage, in the diocese of Meath, 
and forms part of the union of Fircall ; the rectory is 
impropriate in the Marquess of Downshire : the tithes 
amount to £227. 8. 10f., of which £146. 4. 3§. is pay- 
able to the impropriator, and the remainder to the vicar. 
The church, situated in the centre of the parish, was 
built by a loan of £900 from the late Board of First Fruits, 
in 1815, and has been lately repaired by a grant of £279 
from the Ecclesiastical Commissioners : it is served by 
a stipendiary curate. There is no glebe-house ; but 
there is a glebe comprising 367 acres of profitable land, 
valued at £321. 1. 7- per annum. In the R. C. divisions 
the parish is the head of a union or district, called 
Frankford, comprising the parishes of Ballyboy and 
Killaughy, each containing a chapel ; that of Ballyboy 
is situated in the town of Frankford. The parochial 
school is aided by an annual donation of £10 from the 
vicar : there is a national school, aided by a donation of 
£6 per annum from the Marquess of Lansdowne ; and 
a school at Castlewood is supported for the benefit of 
his own tenants by Mr. Fitzsimon, who allows the 
master £25 per annum. About 170 children are taught 
in these schools ; and there are also six private pay 
schools, in which are about 150 children. An alms- 
house for five widows was founded by Mrs. Stoney ; and 
there is a dispensary. On the lands of Barnaboy is a 
mineral spa. — See Frankford. 

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BALLYBOYS, in the barony of Lower Dundalk, 
county of Louth, and province of Leinster, on the 
north side of the bay of Dundalk ; the population is 
returned with Ballymascanlan. It comprises, according 
to the Ordnance survey, 1435f statute acres, and con- 
tains within its limits Bellurgan Park, the seat of £. 
Tipping, Esq., in which is a picturesque eminence com- 
manding views of a bold and striking character. In the 
R. C. divisions it forms a separate district, called “The 
Lordship;” the chapel is situated near the bay, on the 
road to Riverstown. 

BALLYBRACK, a hamlet, in that part of the parish 
of Rossmere which is within the barony of Decies- 
without-DauM, county of Waterford, and province 
of Munster, 2 miles (S. E.) from Kilmacthomas ; con- 
taining 28 dwellings and 165 inhabitants. 

BALLYBRAZILL, a parish, in the barony of Shel- 
burne, county of Wexford, and province oI'Leinster, 
5 miles (S. E.) from New Ross ; containing 384 inhabi- 
tants. This small parish is situated on the road from 
Wexford, by Ballinlaw Ferry, to Waterford, and was, 
during the disturbances of 1798, visited by the insur- 
gent army, which, after the battle of New Ross, en- 
camped at Slieve Keiltre, which is partly within its 
limits, and took possession of Ballysop, now the seat of 
the Rev. W. Gifford, which they made the head-quarters 
of the commander in chief. The lands are principally 
in tillage, and the system of agriculture is generally im- 
proving. A small domestic manufacture of woollen 
cloth is carried on, affording employment to a few per- 
sons. It is an impropriate curacy, in the diocese of 
Ferns, and is part of the union of St. Mary’s, New 
Ross ; the rectory is impropriate in the Marquess of 
Ely: the tithes amount to £100, payable to the im- 
propriator, who pays annually to the curate £2 late 
currency. The church is in ruins. In the R. C. divisions 
it is included in the union or district of Suttons, of 
which the chapel is at Horeswood, in the parish of 
Kilmokea. 

BALLYBRENNAN, a parish, in the barony of 
Forth, county of Wexford, and province of Leinster, 
5 miles (S. S. E.) from Wexford ; containing 260 inha- 
bitants. This parish is situated on the southern channel 
of Wexford haven, and on the road from Wexford to 
Rosslare Fort. It comprises 1030 statute acres; the 
system of agriculture has much improved, principally 
through the exertions of Messrs. H. and R. Jones, the 
latter of whom has reclaimed from the harbour about 
five acres of land, now forming a thriving plantation. 
A few of the inhabitants, during the season, are employed 
in the herring fishery. Ballybrennan Castle is the pro- 
perty of the Earl of Rathdown, and is occupied by Mr. 
R. Jones, who has a large corn store here, and has 
lately erected a windmill. The remains of the ancient 
castle, except a wall incorporated in the modern dwell- 
ing-house, have been taken down by the present tenant ; 
several human bones were recently found near its site. 
The living is a rectory and vicarage, formerly included 
in the Wexford union, from which it was separated in 
1831, in the diocese of Ferns, and in the patronage of 
the Bishop : the tithes amount to £57. 15. 6f., in addi- 
tion to which the incumbent receives £14. 1. 5|. out of 
the tithes of Killinick. The church is in ruins. In the 
R. C. divisions the parish is within the union or district 
of Tagoat. 

124 


BALLYBRICKEN.— See CAHIRELLY. 

BALLYBRITTAS, a village and post-town, in 
the parish of Lea, barony of Portnahinch, Queen’s 
county, and province of Leinster, 6| miles (N. E.) 
from Maryborough, and 33 miles (S. W. by W.) from 
Dublin; containing 168 inhabitants. This place is cele- 
brated for a battle which was fought here, in the reign 
of Elizabeth, between a part of the army of the Earl of 
Essex and the Irish, led by the chieftains O’Dempsey 
and O’Moore, in which the former was defeated ; and 
from the circumstance of the latter cutting off the high 
plumes worn by the English, the scene of the conflict 
was called “the Pass of Plumes.” The village, which is 
situated on the high road from Dublin to Maryborough, 
consists of about 30 houses neatly built, and has a 
pleasing appearance. In the vicinity are Bellegrove, the 
residence of G. Adair, Esq. ; Glenmalire, of H. Trench, 
Esq. ; Rath, of T. Trench, Esq. ; the Derries, of R. M. 
Alio way, Esq. ; and Ashfield, of H. Birch, Esq. Fairs 
are held on March 25th, May 12th, and Aug. 15th; petty 
sessions are held every Monday ; and here is a station of 
the constabulary police, also a dispensary. Near the 
village were formerly the remains of an ancient castle, 
which belonged to the O’Dempseys, Lords of Glenmalire, 
and was destroyed in the time of Cromwell. 

BALLYBROOD, a parish, in the barony of Clan- 
william, county of Limerick, and province of Mun- 
ster, 3 miles (S.) from Cahirconlish ; containing 1520 
inhabitants. This parish, which is situated on the road 
from Cahirconlish to Herbertstown, comprises 2224 
statute acres, as applotted under the tithe act : about 
one-half is arable, and the remainder is meadow and 
pasture, with a small quantity of valuable bog. The 
soil is mostly fertile, and the system of agriculture 
improved ; the principal crops are wheat, barley, oats, 
and potatoes. Basalt forms the principal substratum, 
and rises to a considerable elevation, forming the hill of 
Ballybrood : it assumes in some places a shivery slaty 
appearance, and in others is tabular and compact, but 
is suddenly terminated by a small rivulet between the 
church and the glebe-house, where the limestone for- 
mation commences. The limestone is of good quality, 
and great quantities are quarried and burnt upon the 
spot for manure. The principal residences are Bally- 
brood House, that of S. Maunsell, Esq. ; Mount Mi- 
nute, of W. Gabbet, Esq. ; and Caherline House, now 
occupied by a farmer : there are also several large and 
well-built farm-houses. Fairs are held here on June 
12th and Oct. 11th ; two others named in the charter 
are discontinued. A constabulary police force is sta- 
tioned here ; the barrack has a small castellated tower. 
The living is a rectory and vicarage, in the diocese of 
Emly, with the vicarage of Isertlaurence, the rectories 
and vicarages of Kilteely, or Listeely, and Rathjordan, 
and the entire rectory of Aglishcormick united at a 
period prior to any known record, which five parishes 
constitute the union of Ballybrood, and the corps of 
the precentorship of the cathedral of Emly, in the 
patronage of the Archbishop of Cashel : the tithes 
amount to £150, and of the whole benefice to £689. 6. 9?. 
The parish church, built by aid of a gift of £500 from 
the late Board of First Fruits, in 1807, was burnt by the 
Rockites in 1822; and the present handsome edifice, 
in the early English style, with a tower surmounted 
with an octagonal spire, was erected in the following 


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year. The glebe-house was built by aid of a gift of 
£100 and a loan of £1500 from the same Board, in 
1818: the glebe comprises 26 acres, of which 12 were 
procured in exchange for 12 acres of glebe at Isertlau- 
rence, in 1815, when 14 more were added, subject to a 
rent of £4. 4. per acre. Independently of the glebe lands 
of the union, there are 221a. 3r. 2 6p. of land at Emly 
belonging to the precentorship, and let on lease at a 
rent of £31. 12. 4. per annum, making the entire value 
of the dignity, as returned by the Ecclesiastical Com- 
missioners, £821. In the R. C. divisions this parish 
forms part of the union or district of Cahirconlish. A 
large school-house is now being built. 

BALLYBUNNIAN, or BALLYBUNYAN, a village, 
in the parish of Killeheny, barony of Iraghticon- 
nor, county of Kerry, and province of Munster, 8 
miles (W. N. W.) from Listowel : the population is re- 
turned with the parish. This village, which is situated 
on a small bay, to which it gives name, in the mouth of 
the Shannon, has recently become a place of resort for 
sea-bathing, and is also much frequented on account of 
the highly interesting and romantic caverns with which 
its cliffs are indented. The bay is about 500 paces in 
breadth, and from it to Kilconly Point stretches a fine 
range of cliffs, presenting a line of coast of the most 
picturesque character : on the summit of one of the 
loftiest are vestiges of the old castle of Ballybunnian, 
with subterranean passages. The cliffs in many places 
are pierced with extensive caverns and rocky inlets 
of singular form and variety ; those immediately con- 
tiguous to the bay, extend in numerous intricate pas- 
sages, through which a boat may pass for a considerable 
distance parallel with the coast, without entering the 
open sea. Beyond these are others of greater depth 
and height, in one of which pyrites of copper abound ; 
one of the insulated rocks is perforated with an arch, 
through which is a passage for boats ; another extreme 
point is penetrated by a still loftier arch, and near 
it is a vast pillar of rock, rising out of the sea from 
a narrow base, and called the “ Devil’s Castle,” or 
the “ Eagle’s Nest.” One of the caverns is about 60 
feet high in the interior ; and there are several beauti- 
ful waterfalls from the summit of the cliffs, on one of 
which are the remains of Doon castle. These caverns 
and the geological formation of the coast were the 
subject of a treatise by W. Ainsworth, Esq., of Dublin, 
in 1834. Some of the mineral substances of part of the 
cliffs ignited spontaneously in 1753, and burnt for a 
considerable time, leaving curious traces of the action 
of the fire. Ballybunnian House, the property of the 
Gun family, is occasionally fitted up as an hotel ; and 
there are several lodging-houses for the accommodation 
of visiters during the bathing season. A very profit- 
able salmon fishery, the property of Christopher Julian, 
Esq., is carried on : the fish is of very fine quality, and 
great quantities are cured and sent to London in kits 
weighing about 40lb. each. Vessels of 50 tons’ burden 
may enter the river at high water and sail up nearly a 
mile from the beach : and lighters pass up the Cashen 
a distance of eight miles, with the tide, with sand and 
sea-weed for manure. — See Killehenny. 

BALLYBUR, a parish, in the barony of Shille- 
logher, county of Kilkenny, and province of Lein- 
ster, 4 miles (S. W.) from Kilkenny ; containing 237 
inhabitants. It is situated on the road from Kilkenny 
125 


to Callan, and comprises 655 statute acres, as applotted 
under the tithe act. During the prelacy of David 
Hacket, who presided over the see of Ossory from 1460 
to 1478, this place, which at that time had its own 
church, was annexed to the cathedral of St. Canice, 
Kilkenny, at the instance of its patron, R. Vole, Esq. 
It is a vicarage, in the diocese of Ossory, and forms 
part of the union of St. Canice, which is served by the 
vicars choral of the cathedral, to whom the rectory is 
appropriate. The tithes amount to £43. 8. 4. In the 
R. C. divisions it is partly in the union or district of 
St. Canice, and partly in that of Danesfort. 

BALLYBURLE Y, or PRIMULT, a parish, partly 
in the barony of Lower Philipstown, but chiefly in 
that of Warrenstown, King’s county, and province 
of Leinster, 3^ miles (W. S. W.) from Edenderry; 
containing, with the parish of Coolcor, 1672 inhabitants. 
This parish is situated near the road from Edenderry 
to Philipstown, and comprises 5291 statute acres, as 
applotted under the tithe act. The arable land is ex- 
cellent, and in a very high state of cultivation : the 
Scottish system of agriculture, including a rotation of 
corn and green crops, with drill husbandry, was ex- 
tensively and successfully introduced about twenty years 
since by G. and S. Rait, Esqrs. Limestone abounds, and 
is chiefly used for building and for making roads ; a por- 
tion is burnt for lime. The parish is bounded on one side 
by the Yellow river, a stream deriving its name from 
the quantity of oxyde of iron with which the water is 
impregnated ; on the north passes the Grand Canal, in 
its course to Tullamore. The principal seats are Bally- 
burley, that of J. Wakely, Esq., a fine old mansion in the 
Elizabethan style ; Green Hill, of F. Longworth Dames, 
Esq. ; Rathmoyle, of G. Rait, Esq . ; Clonin, of S. Rait, 
Esq. ; and Coolville, of T. Grattan, Esq. Petty sessions 
are held every alternate Wednesday at Fahy, near the 
village of Rhode. The living is a rectory, in the dio- 
cese of Kildare, to which the rectory of Coolcor was 
united by act of council, forming by prescription one 
benefice in the patronage of J. Wakely, Esq. : the tithes 
amount to £285. The church is a small neat building, 
erected in 1686 by J. Wakely, as appears from a stone 
over the doorway, bearing a rude sculpture of the 
founder’s arms and a Latin inscription ; the Ecclesiasti- 
cal Commissioners have lately granted £136 for its re- 
pair. Within is a curious ancient monument repre- 
senting in rude relief the family arms and the effigy of 
a warrior dressed in the full military costume of the age, 
with an inscription underneath, purporting that it was 
erected by T. Wakely, Esq., of this place, in memory 
of his wife Maud, daughter of Alderman W. Handcock, 
of Dublin, who died May 3rd, 1617, and also to the 
memory of himself and Catherine Cusack, sister of 
Maud : it further states that Thomas was the son of 
John Wakely, Esq., captain of 100 horse and 100 foot 
in the beginning of Queen Elizabeth’s reign, which he 
governed to the advancement of her highness’ service. 
There is neither glebe nor glebe-house. In the R. C. 
divisions this parish forms part of the union or district 
of Castropetre, or Edenderry : the chapel, which is 
situated at Rhode, is a large and well-built edifice 
in the form of a T. There is a school in connec- 
tion with the Established Church, supported by sub- 
scription, to which children of all denominations are 
admissible. 


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BALLYCAHANE, a parish, partly in the barony of 
Small County, but chiefly in that of Pubblebrien, 
county of Limerick, and province of Munster, 3 
miles (N. by E.) from Croom ; containing 1242 inha- 
bitants. It is situated on the road from Limerick to 
Charleville, by way of Manister ; and comprises 2103 
statute acres, of which 1 140 are under tillage, and about 
800 are meadow and pasture ; the remainder is bog or 
marshy land near Garran and on the boundary of the 
parish, near Tory hill, much of which is dug out, and 
the whole may be drained and cultivated at a trifling 
expense, as there is an ample fall to the Maigue river. 
The entire parish is based on a substratum of limestone, 
and several quarries are worked extensively. There are 
several handsome houses and cottages, the principal of 
which are Maryville, the residence of Hugh F. Finch, 
Esq. ; Fort Elizabeth, of the Rev. J. Croker ; and Bal- 
lycahane House, of Capt. Scanlon. The living is a 
rectory, in the diocese of Limerick, forming the corps 
of the prebend of Ballycahane in the cathedral church 
of St. Mary, Limerick, in the patronage of the Bishop ; 
the tithes amount to £166. 3. Of. The church is a large 
edifice, in the early English style, with a tower, built in 
1823 by aid of a loan from the late Board of First Fruits. 
There is no glebe-house : the glebe comprises five acres 
of excellent land. In the R. C. divisions the parish is 
included within the union or district of Fedamore : the 
chapel is a large plain edifice situated at Caherduff. 
The male and female parochial schools are principally 
supported by subscriptions from the rector, curate, and 
Mr. Finch, of whom the last-named gentleman gave the 
land on which the school-house was built by subscrip- 
tion. There are also two private schools in the parish. 
Not far from the church are the ruins of the ancient 
castle of Ballycahane, built by the family of O’ Grady 
in 1496, near which numerous ancient silver and copper 
coins have been found ; and near Tory hill are the re- 
mains of a church once belonging to the Knights Tem- 
plars, and subsequently to the abbey of Nenagh. Near 
these is a lake, respecting which some strange traditions 
are extant. 

BALLYCAHILL, a parish, in the barony of Elio- 
garty, county of Tipperary, and province of Mun- 
ster, 4 miles (W.) from Thurles, on the road from 
Nenagh to Cashel j containing 1818 inhabitants, of 
which number, 39 are in the hamlet. It comprises 3884 
statute acres, as applotted under the tithe act : the lands 
are principally under tillage ; part of the bog of Bally- 
naliow is within its limits ; and there is abundance of 
limestone, which is quarried for building and burning. 
Castle Fogarty, the ancient seat of the O’Fogarty family, 
from whom it descended to its present proprietor, J. 
Lanigan, Esq., is a square castellated mansion, with 
embattled towers at the angles, and is situated in a fine 
demesne, comprising 450 statute acres, and richly em- 
bellished with wood. Prior Lodge, the property and 
residence of the Rev. Dr. Prior, is situated in a small 
but tastefully disposed demesne ; and Montalt, the pro- 
perty of J. Lanigan, Esq., is now in the occupation of 
William Ryan, Esq. The hamlet is a constabulary 
police station. It is a rectory, in the diocese of Cashel, 
entirely impropriate in Mrs. Carrol and Mr. Fogarty. 
The tithes amount to £246. 6. 10|., payable to the im- 
propriators, who allow a stipend of £7 per annum to the 
curate of Holycross for the performance of the clerical 
126 


duties. The church is in ruins ; the Protestant inhabi- 
tants attend divine service at the churches of Holycross 
and Moyaliffe. In the R. C. divisions it is united with 
Holycross ; the chapel is a spacious and neat structure 
with a tower. There are three pay schools, in which are 
about 150 children. The remains of the castle of Bally- 
nahow consist chiefly of a circular tower. 

BALLYCALLAN, a parish, in the barony of Cra- 
nagh, county of Kilkenny, and province of Leinster, 
4^ miles (W. by S.) from Kilkenny, on the road to Kil- 
lenaule ; containing 1807 inhabitants, and 5278 statute 
acres. An attempt was some years since made to dis- 
cover coal, and a little culm was raised, but the under- 
taking was ultimately relinquished. Bellevan, now in the 
occupation of J. Waring, Esq., was the residence of the 
late J. Evans, Esq., who bequeathed about 1100 acres of 
land here, and a very large sum of money in trust for 
the benefit of the different charities and public institu- 
tions of Kilkenny. Here is a station of the constabu- 
lary police. It is a rectory and vicarage, in the diocese 
of Ossory, and forms part of the union of Callan : the 
tithes amount to £413. 3. 1. The church serves as a 
chapel of ease to that at Callan, and is in bad repair. 
Contiguous to it there is a glebe of two acres. In the 
R. C. divisions it is the head of a union or district, 
which comprises also the parishes of Kilmanagh and 
Killaloe, and part of Callan, and contains three chapels, 
situated respectively at Ballycallan, Kilmanagh, and 
Killaloe. There are two private pay schools, in which 
about 340 boys and 230 girls are taught. 

BALLYCANNEW, a parish, in the barony of 
Gorey, county of Wexford, and province of Lein- 
ster, 4 miles (S.) from Gorey, on the road to Ferns, and 
near the river Owen-a-varra ; containing 1167 inha- 
bitants, of which number, 345 are in the village. It 
comprises 3600 statute acres. The village contains 
about 60 houses, and fairs are held on April 23rd, July 
25th, Sept. 21st, Oct. 2nd, and Nov. 30th, for cattle. It 
is a rectory, in the diocese of Ferns, and is part of the 
union of Leskinfere, or Clough, and the corps of the 
treasurership in the cathedral of Ferns ; the tithes 
amount to £192. The church is served by a curate ap- 
pointed by the rector of Leskinfere ; the Ecclesiastical 
Commissioners have lately granted £208 for its repair. 
There is a glebe of 4 \ acres, on which is a small house. 
In the R. C. divisions it forms part of the union or dis- 
trict of Camolin, a considerable village in the parish of 
Tomb, where the chapel is situated. There is a place 
of worship for Primitive Wesleyan Methodists in the 
village, built a few years since. The parochial school is 
aided by a donation of £5 per annum from the rector : 
the school-house, with apartments for the master, was 
built at an expense of £80, defrayed partly by subscrip- 
tion and partly by a grant from the lord-lieutenant’s 
fund ; the master has in addition an acre of ground 
rent-free. The rector also contributes to the support 
of another school in the parish. A bequest of £3 per 
annum, late currency, by Mr. Windass, chargeable on 
the lands of Mangan, in the parish of Kiltrisk, is 
distributed annually among the poor. On clearing 
away a Danish fort, on a farm in this parish, two urns 
of unbaked clay were discovered, containing ashes and 
burnt bones. 

BALLYCARANEY, or BALLYCRANA, a parish, 
in the barony of Barrymore, county of Cork, and 


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province of Munster, 8 miles (S. S. E.) from Rath- 
cormac ; containing 1036 inhabitants. It comprises 
6461 statute acres, as applotted under the tithe act, and 
valued at £3240 per annum : a very small portion is in 
pasture, and the remainder is under tillage. The gen- 
tlemen’s seats are Lemlara House, that of Garrett Stand- 
ish Barry, Esq., situated in a well-cultivated and highly 
improved demesne ; Ballinaclashy, of the Rev. G. E. 
Cotter j and Ballycrana, of Jos. Wilson, Esq. It is a 
rectory, in the diocese of Cloyne, and forms part of the 
union of Lisgoold and corps of the precentorship in the 
cathedral of Cloyne : the tithes amount to £184. 12. 3f. 
In the R. C. divisions also it is included in the union 
or district of Lisgoold. 

BALLYCARNEY, a district parish, in the barony 
of Scarawalsh, county of Wexford, and province of 
Munster, 3 miles (W. by S.) from Ferns : the popula- 
tion is returned with the parishes of Ferns, Temple- 
shambo, and Monart, out of which this district parish 
has been recently formed. The village, which is in the 
parish of Ferns, is situated on the eastern bank of the 
Slauey, over which is a neat stone bridge, and on the 
road from Enniscorthy to Newtownbarry : it has a 
penny post from Ferns, and is a constabulary police 
station. The district church is a handsome structure in 
the later English style of architecture, recently erected : 
the living is a perpetual curacy, in the diocese of Ferns, 
and in the patronage of the Rectors of Ferns and 
Templeshambo. 

BALLY CARRY, a village, in the parish of Temple- 
corran, barony of Lower Belfast, county of Antrim, 
and province of Ulster, 4| miles (N. E.) from Carrick- 
fergus ; containing 247 inhabitants. This village is 
pleasantly situated about a mile from the shore of Lough 
Larne, opposite to Island Magee, and on the road from 
Cariickfergus to Larne : it comprises about 50 houses, 
and the inhabitants are partly employed in the spinning 
of yarn and weaving of linen cloth, and partly in agri- 
culture. There is a penny post to Carrickfergus and 
Larne ; and fairs are held on June 21st, Aug. 19th, and 
Oct. 31st. Here are the ruins of the ancient parish 
church, formerly a spacious and handsome cruciform 
structure. 

BALLYCASTLE, a sea-port, market and post-town, 
in the parish of Ramoan, barony of Carey, county of 
Antrim, and province of Ulster, 9j miles (N. E. by E.) 
from Dervoclc, and 132 miles (N.) from Dublin : con- 
taining 1683 inhabitants. This place, in the Irish lan- 
guage called Ball// cashlain, or “Castletown,” derived that 
name from a castle built here in 1609 by Randolph, Earl 
of Antrim, who was directed by Jas. I. to raise “faire 
castels” at reasonable distances on his vast estates, that 
the country might be the more speedily civilized and 
reduced to obedience. The town is advantageously situ- 
ated on the northern coast, at the head of the fine bay 
to which it gives name, and in a beautiful valley at the 
foot of Knocklayd, opposite to the island of Ratlilin. It 
consists of the Upper and Lower Town, of which the 
latter, called the Quay, is separated from the former by 
a road bordered with fine trees, which, sheltered by the 
hills intervening between them and the coast, have 
attained a stately and luxuriant growth. The houses, 
amounting, in 1831, to 275 in number, are in general 
neatly built, and in both portions of the town are several 
of handsome appearance. Within the distance of half 
127 


a mile from Ballycastle are the elegant seats of C. 
M c Gildowny, Esq., Capt. Boyd, A. and J. M c Neale, 
Esqrs., and several others. It was formerly a place of 
great manufacturing and commercial importance, abound- 
ing with various works upon a large scale, among which 
were extensive breweries, glass-houses, salt-works, and 
spacious warehouses ; and in the immediate neighbour- 
hood were extensive collieries, the produce of which 
formed a material article in its trade. In 1730, endea- 
vours were made in the Irish parliament to erect it into 
a place of import and export, but were successfully 
opposed by the Irish Society and the corporation of 
Londonderry. It had a spacious harbour, in which 
74-gun ships could anchor in safety in any weather, 
and upon the improvement of which £130,000 had been 
expended ; also a pier and quay, the construction of 
which cost £30,000. But this high degree of prosperity, 
which the town attained under the auspices of Hugh 
Boyd, Esq., began to decline soon after that gentleman’s 
decease, and all that at present remains of its trade is a 
small fishery carried on by a few boats in the bay. The 
harbour is now completely choked up ; the pier and 
quay are a heap of ruins ; the custom-house has been 
converted into a whiskey shop, the breweries are un- 
tenanted, the glass-houses have been converted into 
a carpenter’s shops, and the mansion-house is a parish 
school. The collieries, which extended nearly a mile in 
length along the coast, and from which from 10,000 to 
15,000 tons were annually exported, subsequently de- 
clined ; the estate is now in chancery, and the works, 
which had been conducted with success from a very 
remote period, are discontinued. They were situ- 
ated in the adjoining parish of Culfeightrin, but were 
always called the Ballycastle collieries, and occupied 
the northern face of Cross Hill, an eminence nearly 500 
feet in height, of which about 150 feet are formed by 
a cap of columnar basalt resting on alternating of strata 
sandstone and clay-slate, extending 150 feet in depth, 
immediately under which is the bed of coal, at an 
elevation of 200 feet above the level of the beach. No 
manufactures are carried on at present, with the excep- 
tion of a few webs of linen, which are woven in the 
houses of some of the farmers ; a little fishing is carried 
on in the bay, but the inhabitants are principally em- 
ployed in agriculture. The market is on Tuesday, and 
a great market is held on the first Tuesday in every 
month ; the fairs are on Easter-Tuesday, the last Tues- 
days in May, July, and August, Oct. 25th, and Nov. 
22nd, for Raghery ponies, horses, cattle, sheep, pigs, 
linen yarn, and pedlery. Here is a station of the con- 
stabulary police ■, also a coast-guard station, which is 
the head of a district comprising also the stations of 
Port Rush, Port Ballintrae, Port Ballintoy, Rathlin 
Island, Tor Head, Cushendun, and Cushendall, and 
under the charge of a resident inspecting commander. 
A manorial court is held by the seneschal every month, 
for the recovery of debts and the determination of pleas 
to the amount of £20 by attachment and civil bill pro- 
cess j its jurisdiction extends over the entire barony of 
Carey, with the exception of Armoy. A court baron is 
also held in April and October ; and petty sessions are 
held every alternate Tuesday, There is a very good 
market-house, and a commodious court-house, in which 
the courts and petty sessions are held. 

A handsome church, in the Grecian style of architec* 


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ture, with a lofty octagonal spire, was erected in 1756, 
at the sole expense of H. Boyd, Esq. : the stone for 
building it was procured from the quarries in the parish, 
which were then worked on that gentleman’s estate. It 
is a chapelry, in the diocese of Connor, endowed with 
£60 per ann., of which £20 per ann. is paid by the 
trustees of Primate Boulter’s augmentation fund, and 
the remainder by the patron, H. Boyd, Esq., descendant 
of the founder. There is neither glebe-house nor glebe. 
The R. C. chapel is a small building ; and there are places 
of worship for Presbyterians and Wesleyan Methodists 
the former in connection with the Synod of Ulster and of 
the third class. There are several schools in the town, 
principally supported by the resident gentry. H. Boyd, 
Esq., in 1762, built and endowed with the rental of the 
townlands of Camside and Ballylinney, reserving only 
£40 for the incumbency of Ballycastle, 20 almshouses 
near the church, for poor men, or the widows of poor 
men who had worked eight years in the collieries or other 
works on his estate ; they are still maintained, and are 
tenanted by the deserving poor of the town under the 
superintendance of the Primate, the Bishop, and the 
Chancellor of Connor for the time being, whom he 
appointed trustees for the management of the lands. 
There are some ruins of the castle from which the town 
derived its name ; also some ruins of Bona Margy, a 
religious house founded in 1509 by Charles Mac Donnell, 
for monks of the Franciscan order, and one of the 
latest of those establishments which were founded in 
Ireland ; the remains of the chapel are the most per- 
fect. This is the burial-place of the Antrim family, 
who have put a new roof upon a small oratory erected 
over the ashes of their ancestors, over the window of 
which is a Latin inscription scarcely legible, importing 
that it was built in 1621 by Randolph Mac Donnell, 
Earl of Antrim. In 1811 was found, by the side of a 
rivulet near the town, a flexible rod of gold composed 
of twisted bars 38 inches long, hooked at each end, and 
weighing 20 ounces and a half ; it was undoubtedly a 
Roman torques, and probably brought hither by some 
of the Danish or Scottish ravagers of Roman Britain. 
There is a strong chalybeate spring near the town ; and 
on the shores are found chalcedony, opal, jasper, and 
dentrites. 

BALLYCASTLE, a village, in the parish of Dun- 
feeny, barony of Tykawley, county of Mayo, and 
province of Connaught, 15 miles (N. W.) from Ballina : 
the population is returned with the parish. This place 
is situated on the north-west coast, and commands a 
fine view of Downpatrick Head : the beach affords 
excellent accommodation for sea-bathing, and by the 
outlay of a little capital it might be made a delightful 
watering-place. Several improvements have already 
been made ; many new houses have been built, a market- 
place is in course of erection, and a new line of road is 
now being constructed through the mountains to Bel- 
mullet, which will materially add to the advantages of 
the place. Petty sessions are held every Wednesday ; 
it is a constabulary and chief revenue-police station, 
and has six fairs in the year, and a penny post to 
Killala. 

BALLYCLARE, a market and post-town, partly in 
the parish of Ballynure, but chiefly in that of Bally- 
easton, barony of Lower Belfast, county of Antrim, 
and province of Ulster, 93| miles (N.) from Dublin ; 

128 


containing 824 inhabitants. This place is situated close 
to the Six-mile-water, and at the extremity of the mail 
coach road, which branches off from that between Bel- 
fast and Antrim. The town, which is neatly built, 
contains about 180 houses, and is noted for its monthly 
linen market, and for its horse fairs, which are held on 
May 24th, July 19th, Aug. 23rd, and Nov. 22nd. 
There are places of worship for Presbyterians and 
Wesleyan Methodists, the former in connection with 
the presbytery of Antrim, and of the second class. 

BALLYCLERAHAN, a parish, in the barony of Iffa 
and Offa East, county of Tipperary, and province of 
Munster, 4 miles (S. W.) from Fethard ; containing 568 
inhabitants. This parish, which forms part of the lands 
belonging to the see of Cashel, is situated on the road 
from Cashel to Clonmel, and is chiefly remarkable for 
its castle of great strength, said to have been built by 
Mocklerough More, or the “ great Mockler,” whose ter- 
ritories extended from this place to Nine-mile House, 
or, as it was then called, Mockler’s Grange. This castle, 
opposite to which the Butler family erected a strong 
fortress on their own estate, was besieged by Cromwell, 
who in vain attempted to make any impression upon it, 
from an eminence since called Crugg Denial Noi, or the 
“ Rock of the Nine Soldiers,” from the loss of nine of 
his men who were killed by a discharge from the castle ; 
but changing his position during the night, he assaulted 
it in the morning and obtained possession of it after an 
obstinate resistance. Mockler and his second son fell 
bravely defending the castle, and his eldest son, being 
taken prisoner, was hanged at the gate ; another of his 
sons with a few of the family, escaped to France, but 
the rest of the garrison were put to the sword. The 
remains consist of a lofty square tower in one of the 
angles of the court, which is enclosed with very strong 
and high walls of stone ; also part of a dwelling-house 
within the area, and, on the outside, the ruins of a 
chapel near the gateway. The parish comprises 1038 
statute acres, as applotted under the tithe act. It is a 
rectory, in the diocese of Cashel, and forms part of the 
union and corps of the deanery of Cashel ; the tithes 
amount to £75. 0. 8. There is no church ; the inhabi- 
tants attend divine service in the adjoining parish of 
Newchapel. The glebe comprises 11 acres. The R. C. 
parish is co-extensive with that of the Established 
Church ; the chapel is a spacious building. There are 
two pay schools, in which are about 70 boys and 20 
girls. 

BALLYCLOG, or BALLYNECLOG, a parish, in 
the barony of Dungannon, county of Tyrone, and 
province of Ulster, 2 miles (N.) from Stewarts -town, 
on the road to Moneymore ; containing 2786 inhabi- 
tants. This place formed part of the lands granted by 
Jas. I. to Sir Andrew Stewart, and with the exception 
of the lands belonging to the primate, which are in the 
manor of Cookstown,is wholly included within the manor 
of Stewarts-town. The parish is situated on Lough 
Neagh, and comprises, according to the Ordnance sur- 
vey, 7796f statute acres, of which 3092J are in the 
lough. The lands are chiefly under tillage ; there are 
about 15 acres of woodland and 20 of bog; the system 
of agriculture is in a highly improved state, and there 
is not a single acre of waste land in the parish. Coal, 
limestone, freestone, basalt, and quartz prevail ; and 
many rare plants grow here, which are not found in any 


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other part of the country. Among the gentlemen’s 
seats the principal are Steuart Hall, the residence of the 
Earl of Cast.lesteuart ; Belmont, of A. T. Bell, Esq. ; 
and Drumkirn, of E. H. Caulfield, Esq. The lands of 
Belmont are an original freehold held by the Bells and 
Darraghs for more than three hundred years by allodial 
tenure, being the only lands in the country held by 
that title. The living is a rectory, in the diocese of 
Armagh, and in the patronage of the Lord- Primate ■ 
the tithes amount to £1S4. 12. 3f. The church is a 
small plain ancient structure with a tower and spire ; 
and in the churchyard are the family vaults of the 
Steuarts of Steuart Hall, and the Bells of Belmont, to 
whom some handsome monuments of freestone have 
been erected. The glebe-house was built by aid of a 
gift of £100 from the late Board of First Fruits, in 
1792 : the glebe comprises 97 acres, of which 7 are 
exhausted bog and altogether unprofitable. In the R. C. 
divisions this parish forms part of the union or district of 
Steuart’s-town : the chapel is situated at the northern 
extremity of the parish. The Presbyterians have a place 
of worship at Brae. There is a school under the Trus- 
tees of Erasmus Smith’s Charity ; also three schools, 
situated respectively at Upper Back, Eirey, and Ochill, 
aided by annual donations from the Countess of Cas- 
tlesteuart ; and a school at Drumkirn supported by Mrs. 
Caulfield. These schools afford instruction to about 
230 boys and 200 girls ; and there is also a private school 
of about 30 children at Drumbanaway. A considerable 
rivulet in this townland disappears beneath a hill and 
appears again on the shore of Lough Neagh, at a dis- 
tance of three miles ; and in the townland of Brae is a 
spring of excellent water issuing from between the basalt, 
freestone, and limestone strata, producing ?90 gallons 
per minute, and ebbing and flowing at the new moon. 

BALLYCLOGHY.— See MONEMOINTER. 

BALLYCLOUGFI, or LAY AN, a parish, partly in 
the barony of Duhallow, but chiefly in that of Or- 
rery and Kilmore, county of Cork, and province of 
Munster, 3| miles (W. N. W.) from Mallow ; contain- 
ing 3853 inhabitants. In March, 1691, a body of native 
forces in the interest of Jas. II. posted themselves at 
this place and began to throw up entrenchments ; but 
on the approach of Major Culliford from Cork, with a 
detachment of 400 men, they were compelled to aban- 
don their works. The village is situated on a gentle 
eminence at the opening of a vale, through which flows 
the river Finnow, formed by a collection of various 
springs, in its course to the Blackwater. Adjoining are 
the extensive boulting-mills of Messrs. Haines and Smith, 
driven by the Finnow, and generally giving employment 
to 25 persons. Fairs are held on Easter Monday, June 
21st, Aug. 5th, and Sept. 19th, chiefly for cattle and 
pigs. A constabulary police force is stationed here. 
The new line of road from Mallow to Kanturk and New- 
market, runs through the parish, which comprises 9641 
statute acres, as applotted under the tithe act, and 
valued at £7905 per annum : the lands are chiefly 
arable, and there is neither mountain nor bog. Lime- 
stone abounds, and forms the substratum of the 
eminence on which the village is situated; and on the 
estate of Col. Longfield are indications of culm, but it 
has not yet been worked. The principal seat is Longue- 
ville, the noble mansion of Col. Longfield, representative 
of the late Viscount Longueville, who derived his title 
Vol. I.— 129 


from this place : the house, consisting of a centre and 
two spacious wings, is beautifully situated on the 
northern bank of the Blackwater, in the midst of some 
very rich and varied scenery. Near the village is Blos- 
somfort., the neat residence of J. Smith, Esq. ; and in 
the parish are Waterloo, the residence of H. Longfield, 
Esq. ; Summerville, of J. N. Wrixon, Esq.; Kilpatrick, 
of W. J. M c Cormick, Esq., M.D. ; and Ballythomas, of 
R. Bullen, Esq. 

The living is a vicarage, in the diocese of Cloyne, 
with that of Drumdowney episcopally united, and in the 
patronage of the Bishop ; the rectory is impropriate 
in Col. Longfield. The tithes amount to £781. 10., of 
which £381. 10. is payable to the impropriator, and 
£400 to the vicar, and the tithes of the whole benefice 
amount to £430. The church, a neat edifice with a 
square embattled tower crowned with pinnacles, was 
erected in 1830, partly by subscription, towards which 
the late Lord Lisle contributed £100 and Lord Arden 
and Col. Longfield £50 each, partly by a loan of £730 
from the late Board of First Fruits, and partly by the 
sale of the pews. The glebe-house, a handsome and 
commodious residence, was built by the Rev. John Ches- 
ter, the present incumbent : the old glebe, comprising 
only half an acre, has been enlarged by the addition of 
13a. 3r. 13p., plantation measure, in reduction of the 
rent of which, at six per cent., a fine of £200 was paid 
by the late Board of First Fruits. In the R. C. divi- 
sions this is one of the four parishes that constitute 
the union or district of Kilbrin, also called Ballyclough ; 
the chapel, a thatched building in the village, is about 
to be converted into a school, and a new chapel erected. 
A school of about 20 boys and 40 girls is supported by 
subscription ; a Sunday school of 10 boys and 20 girls 
is supported by the vicar, and there are four pay schools, 
in which are about 180 boys and 116 girls. A bequest 
of £4 per ami. late currency, from Nicholas Lysaght, 
Esq., is regularly paid by Lord Lisle and distributed 
among the poor. A lofty square tower in excellent 
preservation, and inhabited by the steward of R. E. P. 
Coote, Esq., formed part of Ballyclough Castle, built by a 
branch of the family of Barry, called Mac Roberts or Mac 
Robert-Barry : it is situated in a well-planted demesne, 
which has been laid out with a view to building, and was 
completely repaired about 30 years since, and a range 
of substantial out-offices has been subsequently added. 
Mount North, a fine old mansion of the Lysaght family, 
has been deserted for many years, and is now in a very 
dilapidated state. Near the high road was an obelisk, 
erected on four arches by the first Lord Lisle, which was 
destroyed by lightning in the winter of 1834, and the 
stones were thrown to a great distance. Near the vil- 
lage is a strong chalybeate spring, partly overflowed by 
a brook ; and at Kilpatrick is another. At Kilgubbin 
is a planted Danish rath, which has been from time 
immemorial used as a cemetery for still-born children ; 
the numerous graves of diminutive length, with pro- 
portionably small tombstones, have a very interesting 
appearance. The churchyard is the burial-place of the 
family of Lysaght, of Mount North, ennobled in the 
person of John, created Baron Lisle, of Mount North, 
Sept. 18th, 1758, and also of the Longfields of Longue- 
ville. 

BALLYCLUG, a parish, in the barony of Lower 
Antrim, county of Antrim, and province of Ulster , 

S 


B AL 


B A L 


containing, with part of the post-town of Ballymena, 
called the village of Henryville, 3692 inhabitants. This 
place, with a district extending many miles around it, 
was the property of the ancient and princely sept of the 
O’Haras, who settled here during the reign of Hen. II., 
and whose ancient mansion still occupies the summit of 
a gently rising eminence near the village of Crebilly. 
During the insurrection in 1641, Cromwell wrested from 
them a considerable portion of the manor of Crebilly, 
or the “ Kearte,” which he divided among several of his 
adherents. Some of the timber about Crebilly is of very 
ancient growth ; and there are several traces of the 
former splendour, and many traditions of the princely 
hospitality of the chiefs of the O’Hara sept. The parish 
comprises, according to the Ordnance survey, 82681- 
statute acres, about one-fifth of which is brush-wood 
and mountain, which is gradually being brought into 
cultivation; 150 acres are bog, 30 acres are woodland, 
and the remainder is arable and pasture. The soil is 
fertile, and the system of agriculture is greatly improved ; 
the cultivation of wheat, for which the land is well 
adapted, has been recently introduced with success. 
Fairs are held at Crebilly on the 26th of June and 21st 
of August, for horses, black cattle, sheep, and pigs ; 
they were formerly the largest in the province, but are 
now indifferently attended. Courts leet and baron are 
held annually ; and a manorial court for the district of 
Kearte is held monthly by the seneschal, for the re- 
covery of debts, with jurisdiction over the whole of this 
parish and parts of the parishes of Connor and Rath- 
caven. The living is a rectory and vicarage, in the 
diocese of Connor, formerly belonging to the chancel- 
lorship, but episcopally united to the impropriate curacy 
of Kirkinriola on the death of the late Dr. Trail ; the 
tithes amount to £129. 4. In the R. C. divisions 
this parish is united to Ballymena : the chapel, situated 
at Crebilly, was erected in 1810, near the ancient seat 
of the O’Haras. A school was built at Caugherty in 
1829, one at Ballavaddan in 1800, and a parochial 
school is now being built under the management and 
patronage of the rector : there are also two other public 
schools, and a private and three Sunday schools. Col. 
O’Hara, in 1759, bequeathed £20 per annum to the 
poor of this parish, which is regularly distributed ac- 
cording to the will of the, testator. There are some 
remains of the ancient parish church, also of Dunavad- 
dan chapel ; besides numerous remains of forts, in- 
trenchments, and Druidieal altars, and several moats 
and tumuli, scattered over the surface of this parish. 

BALLYCOLLON.— See COOLBANAGHER. 
BALLYCOLLONBEG— See MOUNTMELLICK. 

BALLYCOMMON, a parish, in the barony of Lower 
Philipstown, King’s county, and province of Leins- 
ter, 3 5 miles, (W.) from Philipstown, on the road from 
Dublin to Tullamore, containing 1226 inhabitants. It 
comprises about 6730 statute acres, of which 4244 are ap- 
plotted under the tithe act : about 2503 acres are pasture, 
and 1743 arable land; and there are 2430 acres of bog, 50 
of waste, and 5 or 6 of woodland. The living is a rectory, 
in the diocese of Kildare, and in the patronage of the 
Crown ; the tithes amount to £138. 9. 2f. The church 
has been lately repaired by a grant of £335 from the Ec- 
clesiastical Commissioners. The glebe-house was built 
by aid of a gift of £450 and a loan of £160, in 1817, 
from the late Board of First Fruits ; the glebe com- 
130 


prises 3a. Ir. 15 p. In the R. C. divisions the parish 
forms part of the union or district of Philipstown. 
There is a school aided by private subscriptions, 
also a hedge school, in each of which are about 40 
children. 

BALLYCONNELL, a market and post-town, in the 
parish of Tomregan, barony of Tullaghagh, county 
of Cavan, and province of Ulster, 12^ miles (N. W. 
by W.) from Cavan, and 68 miles (N. W. by W.) from 
Dublin ; containing 453 inhabitants. This place had 
its origin in the English settlement in the time of Jas. 
I., when Capt. Culme and Walter Talbot received 1500 
acres, on which, at the time of Pynnar’s survey in 16 1 9, 
was a strong bawn 100 feet square and 12 feet high, 
with two flanking towers and a strong castle, three 
stories high, the whole occupying a site well adapted for 
the defence of the surrounding country. The town is 
situated on the road from Belturbet to Swanlinbar, and 
consists of two streets, together containing about 80 
houses. The market is on Friday, and is well supplied 
with corn and provisions ; and fairs are held on Jan. 
3rd, Feb. 13th, March 17th, April 18th, May 16th, 
June 24th, July 29th, Aug. 29th, Sept. 26th, Oct. 
25th, and Dec. 3rd, chiefly for cattle, pigs, and corn. 
It is a constabulary police station ; the Easter and 
October sessions for the county are held here, and petty 
sessions every alternate Monday. The court-house is a 
handsome stone building; and attached to it is a bridewell 
containingtliree cells, with separate day-rooms and airing- 
yards for male and female prisoners. Here is the parish 
church, which has been lately repaired by a grant of 
£106 from the Ecclesiastical Commissioners. A school- 
house has been built at an expense of £227, defrayed 
partly by the incumbent, partly by the proprietor of the 
Ballyconnell estate, and partly by Government. Bally- 
connell House, the residence of J. Enery, Esq., is beauti- 
fully situated in a fine demesne on the Woodford river, 
which winds through the extensive and well-wooded 
grounds in its course to Lake Annagh and Lough Erne; 
the house was erected in 1764, by the late G. Mont- 
gomery, Esq., on the site of the castle of Ballyconnell, 
which was entirely destroyed by an accidental fire. 
There is a chalybeate spring in the demesne. 

BALLYCONNICK, a parish, in the barony of Bargy, 
county of Wexford, and province of Leinster, 7§ 
miles (S. W.) from Wexford, on the road to Bannow ; 
containing 510 inhabitants. In a return to a royal visi- 
tation held in 1615, it was designated Ballycormick, and 
returned as a chapel to the prebend of Taghmon. The 
parish comprises 1445 statute acres, as applotted 
under the tithe act, and is chiefly in tillage. It is a 
rectory, in the diocese of Ferns, and is part of the union 
and corps of the prebend of Taghmon, in the cathedral of 
Ferns : the tithes amount to £95. 1.7* In the R. C. 
divisions it is included in the union or district of Rath- 
angan and Clarestown. A parochial school, in which are 
about 30 boys and 20 girls, is supported by subscrip- 
tion. 

BALLYCONREE, a hamlet, in the parish of Drom- 
crehy, barony of Burren, county of Clare, and pro- 
vince of Munster ; containing 9 houses and 60 inhabi- 
tants. 

BALLYCONRY, a parish, in the barony of Iraghti- 
connor, county of Kerry, and province of Munster 
3| miles (N. W. by W.) from Listowel : the population 


B A L 


B A L 


is returned with the parish of Lisseltin. This small 
parish, which is also called Ballyconry-derico, is situated 
on the road from Listowel to Ballybunnian ; and com- 
prises 1118 statute acres, of which 233f- are arable, 
540| are pasture, and 343f are bog. Some improve- 
ment has takeD place in agriculture by the introduction 
of sand and sea-weed as a manure, brought in large 
quantities from Ballybunnian hay. Ballyconry House 
is the seat of Eyre W. Stack, Esq. In ecclesiastical 
matters this is a distinct parish, but in civil affairs it is 
considered as forming part of the parish of Lisseltin. 
The living is a vicarage, in the diocese of Ardfert and 
Aghadoe, with the vicarage of Kilfeighny and one-fifth 
part of the rectory of Ardfert united, together constitut- 
ing the corps of the precentorship of Ardfert, in the 
patronage of the Bishop ; the rectory is impropriate in 
Anthony Stoughton, Esq. The tithes amount to £36, pay- 
able in moieties to the incumbent and the impropriator ; 
£2 per annum is payable to the curate of Lisseltin, who 
discharges the clerical duties : the tithes of the benefice 
payable to the incumbent are £179- IS. S. The glebe 
lands of the precentorship lie in Ardfert, and comprise 
115a. Or. Ip., statute measure, let on lease at an annual 
rent of £27. 13. 10. In the R. C. divisions it is in- 
cluded in the union or district of Lisseltin. 

BALLYCOOLANE, or CLOGHRAN-HIDART, a 
parish, in the barony of Castleknock, county of Dub- 
lin, and province of Leinster, 4 miles (N.) from 
Dublin ; containing 72 inhabitants. This place, which 
originally belonged to the priory of All Saints, passed, on 
the dissolution of that house, with its other possessions, 
to the mayor and corporation of Dublin. The gentle- 
men’s seats are Haighfield, the residence of J. Martin, 
Esq., and Yellow Walls, that of W. Finn, Esq., both 
commanding fine views of the Dublin and Wicklow 
mountains, with the country adjacent. Here is a con- 
stabulary police station. The living is an impropriate 
curacy, in the diocese of Dublin, held with the vicarage 
of Finglass, and in the patronage of the Archbishop ; 
the rectory is impropriate in the corporation of Dublin. 
There is no church, but the churchyard is still used as 
a burial-place. In the R. C. divisions the parish 
forms part of the union or district of Castleknock. 
There are two pay schools, in which are about 50 
children. 

BALLYCOR, a parish, in the barony of Upper 
Antrim, county of Antrim, and province of Ulster, 
1 mile (N. by E.) from Ballyclare : the population is re- 
turned with the parish of Ballyeaston. This parish, 
which is situated on the road from Broughshane to 
Larne, and is bounded on the north and east by the 
Six-mile-water, comprises 7330 statute acres, according 
to the Ordnance survey. It is a rectory, in the diocese 
of Connor, and is partly one of the five parishes which 
constitute the union and corps of the prebend of Carn- 
castle in the cathedral of Connor, and partly one of the 
two which form the perpetual curacy of Ballyeaston. 

BALLYCOTTON, a village and ploughland, in the 
parish of Cloyne, barony of Imokilly, county of Cork, 
and province of Munster, 4 miles (S. E.) from Cloyne ; 
containing 856 inhabitants. This is an isolated portion 
of the parish, situated on the shore of a bay of the same 
name in St. George’s channel, six miles from Poor 
Head, and consists of a scattered village comprising 
about 150 small houses: it is much frequented in the 
131 


summer for sea-bathing. At the entrance of the bay 
are two isles called the Ballycotton islands, situated five 
miles (W. by S.) from Capell or Cable Island, and about 
one mile from the main land. This is one of the five 
stations of the coast-guard that are comprised within 
the district of Youghal. Anew district church for the 
accommodation of the inhabitants of Ballycotton and 
Churchtown was built not far from the village, in 1835, 
at an expense of £330, raised by subscription. The 
living is a perpetual curacy, in the patronage of the 
Bishop ; and the curate’s stipend is paid partly by the 
dean and chapter and the vicars choral of the cathedral 
church of Cloyne, to whom the tithes of the parish be- 
long, and partly by the precentor, as rector of Church- 
town. The male and female parochial schools for 
Ballycotton, Churchtown, and Kilmahon are situated at 
Ballybraher. 

BALLYCROGUE, a parish, in the barony and 
county of Carlow, and province of Leinster, 3 miles 
(S. E. by E.) from Carlow ; containing 72 inhabitants. 
This small parish is situated on the river Burren, and 
consists of only one townland, comprising 385 statute 
acres. In civil matters it is considered as forming part 
of Ballinacarrig, and is one of the three parishes which 
constitute the union of Ballinacarrig or Staplestown, in 
the diocese of Leighlin : the tithes amount to £21. 2. 6. 
In the R. C. divisions it is in the district of Tullow- 
magrinagh. 

BALLYCROY, a district, in the parish of Kilcom- 
mon, barony of Erris, county of Mayo, and province 
of Connaught, 16 miles (S. E. E.) from Belmullet ; 
containing 2925 inhabitants. This place is situated 
on Blacksod bay, and is deeply indented by the bay of 
Tulloghane, which, stretching far into the land, receives 
the waters of the river Owenmore. It consists of a 
large tract of hog, enclosed by an extensive range of 
mountains on the south and east, but exposed to the 
western storms, by which the crops, chiefly potatoes, are 
frequently destroyed, and the cultivators, who depend 
chiefly on the produce of their land, are reduced to a 
state of famine. Fish is abundant in the bay, but the 
inhabitants derive little benefit from this circumstance, 
being too poor to provide themselves with nets, lines, and 
boats to carry on the fishing with any profit. This is one of 
the three R. C. districts into which the parish is divided : 
the chapel at Cross Hill is an old thatched house appro- 
priated to that purpose, the scanty means of the inha- 
bitants being insufficient for the erection of a better. — 
See Kilcommon. 

BALLYCULTER, a parish, in the barony of Le- 
cale, county of Down, and province of Ulster ; con- 
taining, with the post-town of Strangford, 2221 in- 
habitants. It is situated on Lough Strangford, and 
comprises, according to the Ordnance survey, (in- 
cluding islands and detached portions) 5177| statute 
acres, of which 1753 are applotted under the tithe act ; 
about four-fifths are arable and pasture, and the re- 
mainder, excepting about 70 acres of woodland and 40 
of water, is waste land and bog. The soil is very fertile, 
and the land is in a state of excellent cultivation ; a 
considerable quantity of corn is sent to Liverpool and 
Glasgow. At Tallyratty are some lead mines, which 
were worked in 1827, and found very productive ; the 
ore is considered to be of superior quality, but they are 
not now worked. Castle Ward, the splendid seat of 

S 2 


B A L 


B A L 


Lord Bangor ; Strangford House, the residence of the 
Hon. Harriet Ward ; and Strangford Lodge, that of 
J. Blackwood, Esq., are situated in the parish. The 
village is neatly built, and is one of the most pleasant 
in the county. A manor court is held at Strangford 
every three weeks by the seneschal of the lord of the 
manor, in whom are vested very extensive privileges ; 
its jurisdiction extends over the parish and the river of 
Strangford. The living is a rectory, in the diocese of 
Down, and was formerly annexed to the deanery of 
Down, from which it was separated in 1834, and made 
a distinct rectory, in the patronage of the Crown ; the 
tithes amount to £387. 15. 7. The church, a spacious 
and handsome structure, was erected in 1723, and 
a tower and spire were added to it in 1770 : the 
Ecclesiastical Commissioners have lately granted £295 
for its repair. There is a chapel at Strangford, the 
private property of Lord De Roos, of which the rector 
is chaplain. The glebe-house was built by aid of a 
gift of £450 and a loan of £50 from the late Board 
of First Fruits, in 1817 : there is a glebe at Strangford, 
comprising 6a. 2 r. 37 p. Lord Bangor is about to build 
a glebe-house in or near the village for the residence of 
the rector. In the R. C. divisions the parish forms 
part of the union or district of Bailee ; there are two 
chapels, one at Strangford and the other at Cargagh ; 
and there are two places of worship for Wesleyan 
Methodists. In the village is a handsome school- 
house, with residences for a master and mistress, built 
in 1824, and supported by an annual donation of £50 
from Lord Bangor, and a small donation from the 
rector. An infants’ school is supported entirely by the 
Hon. Harriet Ward. These schools afford instruction 
to about 94 boys and 84 girls ; and there are also two 
pay schools, in which are about 82 boys and 48 girls, 
and four Sunday schools. Near the church are four 
handsome alms-houses, built in 1832 at the expense of 
Lady Sophia Ward, who endowed them with £40 per 
annum, payable out of the estate of Lord Bangor for 
ever ; the management is vested in three trustees, of 
whom the rector for the time being is one. Within the 
parish are three castles erected by De Courcy and his 
followers after the conquest of Ulster ; one is situated 
close to the quay at Strangford, one on the creek below 
Castle Ward, and the third is Audley Castle on a rock 
opposite to Portaferry. 

BALLYCUMBER, a hamlet, in the parish of Le- 
managhan, barony of Garrycastle, King’s county 
and province of Leinster, 3 miles (W. S. w.) from 
Clara : the population is returned with the parish. This 
is a neat village, comprising 13 houses, pleasantly situ- 
ated on the river Brosna, over which there is a good 
stone bridge, and on the road from Clara to Ferbane : it 
has a penny post from Clara. Ballycumber House is the 
handsome residence of J. Warnford Armstrong, Esq. ; 
and about two miles distant is Castle Armstrong. Fairs 
for black cattle, sheep, and pigs are held on May 2nd 
and Dec. 1st. 

BALLYCUSLANE.— See BALLINCUSLANE. 

BALLYDAIGH.— See BALTEAGH. 

BALLYDEHOB, a village, in the parish of Skull, 
Western Division of the barony of West Carbery, 
county of Cork, and province of Munster, 8 miles 
(W. S . W.) from Skibbereen ; containing 601 inhabi- 
tants The village is situated on a new line of road 
132 


formed by the Board of Works from Skibbereen to 
Rock island ; and derives its name from its position at 
the confluence of three streams, whose united waters 
are crossed by a handsome stone bridge, below which 
they expand into a small but secure haven, near the ter- 
mination of Roaring Water bay. It consists of a long 
and irregular street containing about 100 houses, some 
of which are large and well built ; and is rapidly in- 
creasing in size and importance, particularly since the 
formation of the new road, which has made it a consi- 
derable thoroughfare, aided by its propinquity to the 
copper mines of Cappach and the slate quarries of Aud- 
ley’s Cove and Filemuck, which renders it well adapted 
for business. Fairs for horses, cattle, sheep, pigs, and 
pedlery are held on Jan. 1st, Feb. 2nd, March 12th, Easter 
Tuesday, Whit-Tuesday, June 29th, July 15th, Aug. 
15tli, Sept. 8th, Oct. 10th, Nov. 1st, and Dec. 8th. A 
penny post to Skibbereen has been recently established j 
and here is a station of the constabulary police. A 
chapel of ease was built in 1829 by the late Board of 
First Fruits, at an expense of £600 ; it is a small hand- 
some edifice, in the early English style of architecture, 
without a tower. A large and handsome R. C. chapel 
was also erected in 1826 ; and there is a place of wor- 
ship for Wesleyan Methodists. A school, in connection 
with the Kildare-Place Society, and another at Liskeen- 
creagh, are supported by the Cork Diocesan Associ- 
ation ; and adjoining the R. C. chapel is a large school 
for boys and girls, built in 1835 by the Rev. J. Barry. 
Here is a dispensary, a branch to that at Skull, 
which see. 

BALLYDELOHER, or BALLYLOOHERA, a pa- 
rish, in the barony of Barrymore, county of Cork, 
and province of Munster, 5 miles (N. E. by E.) from 
Cork; containing 1145 inhabitants. This parish, which 
is sometimes called Kilroan, but is more generally 
known by the name of Brooklodge, is situated on the 
road from Cork to Tallow. The hilly portions of this 
district, like most others in its vicinity, are shallow and 
stony, but are tolerably well cultivated, particularly near 
that branch of the Glanmire river which separates this 
parish from that of Caherlog. At Butlerstown are 
some very extensive paper-mills ; there are also a 
spade and shovel manufactory and a small tuck-mill. 
Riverstown House, the beautiful residence of J. Browne, 
Esq., and formerly of Dr. Peter Browne, the celebrated 
Bishop of Cork and Ross in the early part of the last 
century, and also of Dr. Jemmett Browne, Bishop of 
Cloyne, is in this parish. It is a rectory, in the diocese 
of Cork, and forms part of the union and corps of the 
prebend of Killaspigmullane in the cathedral of St. Fin- 
barr, Cork : the tithes amount to £177- 10. The church 
of the union was formerly at Ballyvinny, but was suf- 
fered to fall to decay on the erection of a new church in 
this parish, a neat small edifice, built in 1829, in aid of 
which £625 was granted by the late Board of First 
Fruits. It is also in contemplation to erect another 
church or chapel near Watergrass hill. There is no 
glebe-house ; but the entire glebe of the union, con- 
sisting of ten acres, is in this parish. In the R. C. 
divisions the parish is included in the union or dis- 
trict of Glauntane or New Glanmore. The parochial 
school is situated at Riverstown, half a mile from 
the church, and is principally supported by local sub- 
scriptions. 


B AL 


B A L 


BALLYDELOUGHY, or BALLYLOUGH, a parish, 
in the barony of Fermoy, county of Cork, and pro- 
vince of Munster, l| mile (E. by N.) from Doneraile 5 
containing 718 inhabitants. This parish, which is situ- 
ated near the river Funcheon, and on the south of the 
road from Doneraile to Mitchelstown, comprises 1200 
statute acres, as applotted under the tithe act, and 
valued at £1891 perann.: the soil is good, and limestone 
exists in abundance. It is a vicarage, in the diocese of 
Cloyne, and forms part of the union and corps of the 
prebend of Glanworth in the cathedral of Cloyne ; the 
rectory is impropriate in the Earl of Donoughmore. 
The tithes amount to £159- 16. 0|. of which £69- 19- 5§. 
is payable to the impropriator, and the remainder to the 
vicar. The ruins of the church still remain in the burial- 
ground. In the R. C. divisions also it is included in the 
union or district of Glanworth : the chapel is at Ballyn- 
dangan. About 50 children are educated in a private 
school. The late Rev. John Kelleher, P. P. of Glan- 
worth, bequeathed £50 towards the erection of a school- 
house at Ballyndangan, in aid of which an application 
will be made to the National Board. About a quarter 
of a mile to the north of the ruins of the church are 
those of the ancient castle of Ballylough. Ballyndangan 
the ancient seat of the family of Terry, is now occupied 
as a farm-house. 

BALLYDONNELL, a parish, in. the barony of Ark- 
low, county of Wicklow, and province of Leinster, 
4| miles (S. E.) from Rathdrum ; containing 645 inha- 
bitants. This parish, which is situated on the lower road 
from Arklow to Wicklow, comprises 2S03 statute acres. 
It is a rectory and vicarage, in the diocese of Dublin 
and Glendalough, and forms part of the union of Cas- 
tlemacadam : the ecclesiastical duties were separated 
from that union by act of council in 1830, by which 
Ballydonnell was included in the newly erected district 
parish of Redcross, the church of which is situated in 
that village. 

BALLYDRASHANE. — See BALLYRASHANE. 

BALLYDUFF, county of Kerry.— See BENMORE. 

BALLYDUFF, a parish, in the barony of Corkagui- 
ney, county of Kerry, and province of Munster, 7 \ 
miles (N. E.) from Dingle ; containing 420 inhabitants, 
of which number, 92 are in the village. This parish, 
which is situated near the road from Dingle to Tralee, 
comprises 9825 statute acres, as applotted under the 
tithe act. Nearly one-half is mountain and bog, partly 
reclaimable; that portion of the land which is under 
tillage is of good quality. The only seat is Liscarney, 
the property of T. B. Hussey, Esq. The village contains 
15 houses, and is a constabulary police station. The 
living is an impropriate curacy, in the diocese of Ard- 
fert and Aghadoe, the rectory being wholly impropriate 
in the Earl of Cork ; the tithes amount to £55, payable 
to the impropriator, out of which £10 per annum is 
allowed for the discharge of the clerical duties. There 
are some ruins of the church in the ancient burial-ground, 
near which is a small glebe. In the R. C. divisions this 
parish is included in the union or district of Castlegre- 
gory. On the border of the parish is a romantic glen, 
called Maharabo, where it is said the last wolf in this 
part of the country was killed ; the particular spot is 
still called Wolf Step. 

BALLYEASTON, a district parish, in the barony of 
Upper Antrim, county of Antrim, and province of Ul- 
133 


ster.. on the road from Ballyclare to Larne ; containing 
with the post-town of Ballyclare and the grange of Doagh, 
5892 inhabitants. It consists of the ancient parishes of 
Ballycor and Rashee, comprising, according to the Ord- 
nance survey, 13,790| statute acres ; about one-half of 
which are arable. The village, which is l| Irish mile (N.) 
from Ballyclare, is situated at the junction of several 
roads, near the Six-mile- water, and in 1831 contained 6l 
houses. The living is a perpetual curacy, in the diocese 
of Connor, and in the patronage of the Prebendary of 
Carncastle : the income of the curate is £103. 1. 6 §. per 
ann., of which £69. 4. 7 \. arises from tithe, £13. 6. 11. 
is added by the prebendary, and £20 from Primate Boul- 
ter’s fund. The church was erected in 17 S 6 . There is 
neither glebe-house nor glebe. In the R. C. divisions 
it forms part of the union or district of Carrickfergus 
and Larne. There are four places of worship for Pres- 
byterians ; one in connection with the Synod of Ulster, 
of the first class ; one with the Presbytery of Antrim, of 
the second class ; one with the Seceding Synod, also 
of the second class ; and one for Covenanters, which is 
open every alternate Sunday. There are four schools, 
in which are about 140 boys and 90 girls ; also nine pay 
schools, in which are about 160 boys and 110 girls. 
— See Ballyclare and Doagh. 

BALLYEGRAN, a village, in the parish of Castle- 
town-Conyers, barony of Upper Connello East, 
county of Limerick, and province of Munster, 5 miles 
(N. W.) from Charleville ; containing 172 inhabitants. 
This small village, consisting only of a few thatched 
cabins, is situated on the road from Charleville to Bal- 
lingarry, and gives name to the R. C. union or district, 
comprising the parishes of Castletown- Conyers, Kil- 
meedy and Drumcollogher ■, the chapel is a small build- 
ing. Not far distant are the remains of a heathen 
temple. — See Castletown-Conyers. 

BALLYELLIN, a parish, partly in the barony of 
St. Mullin’s, but chiefly in that of Idrone East, 
county of Carlow, and province of Leinster, adjacent 
to Graigue and Goresbridge ; containing 1760 inhabit- 
ants. This parish consists of two detached portions 
separated by the parish of Slyguff, one of which contains 
five townlands, and the other, two : it is bounded on 
the north by the river Barrow, which separates it from 
the county of Kilkenny, and over which there is a bridge 
at Goresbridge ; and comprises 5266 statute acres, of 
which 4754 are applotted under the tithe act and valued 
at £4052 per annum. Here is a quarry of black marble, 
used for tombstones and chimney-pieces. Ballyellin 
House is the residence of Walter Blackney, Esq. It is 
a rectory, in the diocese of Leighlin, and forms part of 
the union of Lorum : the tithes amount to £413. 1. 6^. 
The ruins of the church are situated within a burial- 
ground near the road from Borris to Goresbridge. In 
the R. C. divisions it is in the union or district of Bag- 
nalstown or Dunleckney. On the lands of Clowater are 
the ruins of a castle. 

BALLYFARNON, a village, in the parish of Kil- 
ronan, barony of Boyle, county of Roscommon, and 
province of Connaught, 3 miles (N. W.) from Keadue ■, 
containing 150 inhabitants. This is an improving place, 
and promises to increase in importance from the con- 
templated new mail coach road from Carrick-on-Shannon 
to Sligo, which is intended to pass through the village. 
A customary weekly market has been established $ and 


BAL 


BAL 


fairs are held on Feb. 9th, April 16th, May 19th, July 6th, 
Aug. 20th, Sept. 21st, Oct. 21st, and Dec. 17th. A con- 
stabulary police force and a revenue station have been 
established here ; and there is a school of about 90 boys 
and 40 girls. — See Kilronan. 

BALLYFEARD, a parish, in the barony of Kinna- 
lea, county of Cork, and province of Munster, 
miles (N. E. by E.) from Kinsale 5 containing 1337 in- 
habitants. This parish comprises 4500 statute acres, 
of which 3576 are applotted under the tithe act and 
valued at. £2460 per annum : about 3500 acres are 
arable and pasture, and 1000 waste and bog. The land 
is in general very good and principally under tillage ; 
but agriculture, as a system, is comparatively unknown ; 
the chief manure is sea-sand, which is brought from 
Menane Bridge, three British miles distant. It has been 
proposed to cut a canal from Belgooley to the river 
Menane, and application has been made to Government 
for that purpose, but nothing has been yet decided. 
The village contains 24 houses indifferently built j it is a 
constabulary police station, and petty sessions are held 
every alternate Wednesday. The living is a vicarage, 
in the diocese of Cork, and in the patronage of the 
Bishop ; the rectory is impropriate in the Earl of Shan- 
non ; the tithes amount to £260, of which one-half is 
payable to the impropriator, and the other to the vicar. 
There is no church, but divine service is regularly per- 
formed in the parochial school-house, which is licensed 
for that purpose. The glebe comprises five acres, but 
there is no glebe-house. In the R. C. divisions this is 
one of the three parishes that constitute the union or 
district of Clontead 3 the chapel at Ballingarry is a plain 
thatched building. The parochial school and a Sunday 
school are under the superintendence of the vicar : there 
are also two pay schools in the parish. 

BALLYFERMOT, a parish, in the barony of New- 
castle, county of Dublin, and province of Leinster, 
3 miles (W. by S.) from Dublin 3 containing 402 inha- 
bitants. It is intersected on the south side by the Grand 
Canal, and comprises 1178 statute acres, as applotted 
under the tithe act, and valued at £3214 per annum. 
Ballyfermot Castle, an ancient building, is now the resi- 
dence of Capt. Lamplin ; the other seats are Johnstown, 
the residence of T, Daly, Esq., and Johnstown Lodge, 
of — Place, Esq. An extensive paper-manufactory, be- 
longing to Messrs M c Donnel and Sons, in which from 
70 to 80 persons are generally employed, is carried 
on at Killeen : the principal kinds made are bank-note 
paper for the Bank of Ireland, and printing paper for 
the Dublin newspapers. Within the enclosure of this 
establishment, which resembles a small town, are dwell- 
ing-houses for the workmen and their families : the house 
of the proprietor is pleasantly situated in some taste- 
fully ornamented grounds. There is also in the parish 
a small manufacture of glue and parchment. It is a 
rectory, in the diocese of Dublin, and is part of the 
union of Chapelizod : the tithes amount to £130. The 
church is in rains. In the R. C. divisions it is included in 
the union or district of Lucan, Palmerstown, and Clon- 
dalkin. 

BALLYFOIL, a parish, in the barony of Kinna- 
lea, county of Cork, and province of Munster, 10 
miles (E. by N.) from Kinsale ; containing 1291 inhabi- 
tants. This parish, which is called also Bealfoyl and 
Poliplicke, was formerly part of the possessions of 
134 


Tracton Abbey, and from time immemorial was reputed 
free from tithes, till brought within the operation of the 
tithe composition act. It is situated on the southern 
coast, and comprises 1304 statute acres, as applotted 
under the tithe act: The soil is fertile, and about one- 
half of the land is under tillage 5 the remainder is in 
dairy farms. The system of agriculture is improved 3 
the only manure is sea-sand, which is brought into 
Rocky bay and Roberts’ Cove, two small coves in the 
parish, in large boats, of which several are employed in 
this trade. At Roberts’ Cove is a valuable slate quarry, 
belonging to Sir Thomas Roberts, Bart., but it is not 
worked to any considerable extent. Britfieldstown, the 
seat of Sir Thomas Roberts, Bart., is pleasantly situated 
in a secluded spot above Roberts’ Cove. On the same 
estate is Fort Richard, the residence of J. Galwey, Esq. 
The Cove affords a commodious shelter for vessels of 
200 tons’ burden, which occasionally arrive laden with 
coal, and return